16

It isn't imperative. It's the ablative singular of occiput, occipitis, 'the back of the head.' So occipite gradus pulsante is ablative absolute: 'the back of his head striking the stairs'


15

Your match of mihi with "to" is correct, but that's the dative case, not the genitive. The genitive is mei. Neither case is appropriate here, though. Audio more or less contains the idea of "to" in itself—it means "hear" or "listen to". Thus Listen to me! becomes (Listen to) (me)! becomes Audi me! Another way of ...


11

Plautus' havo reflects the likely Punic plural *ḥawū, but that's in the mouth of Punic-speaking characters. If that plural made it into Latin proper, it doesn't seem to show up in the literary record. The folk-etymological plural (h)avete is mentioned by grammarians and shows up in the wild in, as far as I can tell, exactly two places: Apuleius' ...


10

I don't know of a good way to distinguish patere from patēre in a corpus search, so I think you have three choices: Look through the results. Come up with another search that captures what you are looking for. Try to think of a contextual word that would remove (most) false positives. As it happens, all three methods worked for me! The second result in ...


10

Unlike some other Indo-European languages, Latin has no first-person imperatives! And it only barely has third-person ones: it has third-person "second" (or "future") imperatives, but no third-person "first" (or "present") imperatives. Instead, the first-person plural subjunctive can be used as a "hortatory" ("let's ___!"), which is probably what you want. ...


10

In Allen & Greenough p.284; section 449 (Imperative Mood): "Phyllida mitte mihi, meus est natalis, Iolla; cum faciam vitula pro frugibus, ipse venito" (Ecl. 3.76); "Send Phyllis to me, it is my birthday, Iollas; when I [shall] sacrifice a heifer for the harvest, come yourself." Therefore, "mitte" for the present tense ...


9

There are a handful of verbs that take -ς in the 2sg. aorist imperative: the others are δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵημι (δός, θές, ἕς). The origin of this -ς is a mystery.


9

Negative future imperatives do indeed exist. A great many can be found in the laws of twelve tables. Example: Hominem mortuum in urbe ne sepelito Do not bury a dead person in the city Judging by these examples, the syntax is simply ne + future imperative. I am not sure if memento should be semantically treated as a future imperative. It is a future ...


9

You are right to note that a form is missing. It should be there, as there is no obvious reason why the passive voice (or, more importantly, deponent verbs) should not have it. But according the best current philological understanding, no such form ever existed or, if it did, no ancient Roman ever put it in writing. I say the best current understanding, ...


8

I have not been able to find any attested forms of an imperative for velle (see linked question) or cupio (cupi, cupite, cupito, cupitote). Expanding to other synonyms, though, you quickly find alternatives that preserve the structure (and perhaps strangeness) of your example sentence. desiderare Quid ergo est? Vide quomodo quisque illorum tulerit et, si ...


8

I'd suggest a very slightly less literal translation using the verb caveo "beware", with ne and subjunctive: Cave ne capiaris! Literally this means "watch out you don't get caught!". But this construction is often used as basically equivalent to a negative imperative, in contexts where you're warning someone against doing something. ...


8

Generally, imperatives go first, even though verbs usually go last of all in sentences or clauses. It's correct either way, but the imperative is an important part of a sentence so it gets precedence. Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar says: The verb may come first, or have a prominent position, either (1) because the idea in it is emphatic; or (2) because ...


7

As has been noted here: The Latin word “Have” rather than “Ave” as a translation of the Greek word Χαῖρε? Plautus uses the plural havo three times in his Poenulus.


6

It was vel. From the LSJ: old imperative of volo properly, "will, choose, take your choice;" "hence." You cannot use it for your purpose, of course. This is merely its origin, but not its function.* In years of reading everything from Andronicus to Augustine, I've yet to see a real imperative of velle, and no grammar mentions one, either. *See comments ...


6

Hmm. My understanding is that the bare subjunctive as a positive request/command is actually rather rare in classical Latin. Woodcock's New Latin Syntax, p. 97, after a discussion of noli, nolite + infinitive as more polite than ne + perfect subjunctive, tells us: Besides noli, nolite with the infinitive, the following periphrases also are frequently ...


6

Es and este are the present imperative, esto and estote are the future imperative. As far as I know, the difference between present and future imperatives is the same for all verbs, and esse is not different. I think the general differences between present and future imperatives should be asked in a separate question — if not asked already. It is not simply ...


6

Welcome to the site! I can only think of an emphatic demonstrative pronoun: Carpe hunce diem! The emphasis expressed by the long form of the pronoun could be interpreted as enthouasism, although other interpretation would be possible. In context, though, I think the emphatic pronoun, the exclamation mark, and the meaning of the saying together will ...


5

Ave meaning 'hail' is the imperative of aveo, as you mention; when you hail someone you are instructing them to fare well (normally we would say you are wishing them to fare well), in much the same way that in English we can use 'farewell' to say goodbye. 'Hail' works the same way, except that the meaning 'be healthy' is very outdated now. Consequently, if ...


5

Orders in second person are typically expressed with imperative, but orders in third person with conjunctive (=subjunctive). Second and third person orders look different in English, too. Compare "jump!" and "may he jump!" or other similar constructions. There is no "direct third person imperative" in English, but you have to find a circumlocution. Therefore ...


5

To answer your question, one could choose to interpret it to have an unspoken clause, as per the comments to the first answer. There are indeed ways to express this in Latin: nē (…) quidem [–––] nōn mōdō expresses ‘not even [–––] much less’ or the likes. Examples: nē suēs quidem id velint, nōn mōdō ipse: not even swine would like that, no less he. This ...


5

To supplement Tom Cotton's answer— There's one other verb which similarly shortens its imperative: ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, imperative fer, ferte. Compounds always use the shortened/apocopated form (adfer/adferte, offer/offerte etc), with *adfere / *adferete, *offere / *offerete etc entirely absent from the PHI corpus. So these two seem relatively certain:...


5

Generally, verbs of mixed 3rd/4th conjugation and their compounds (inf. -ere, 1st. pres. sing. in -io) all follow the same pattern, which includes compounds of facio, but not facio itself — which means that effice, etc. are the correct forms. Fac is a peculiarity. Unlike those of facio, the compounds of dico and duco mainly follow the pattern of the simple ...


5

The perfect imperative is effectively extinct in Latin. I have never seen it with a perfect meaning, and in fact did not realize that mementō was based on a perfect stem until fdb pointed it out (though in retrospect the reduplication and perfect endings are a pretty good clue). The best place to look for evidence would be defective verbs, which might not ...


5

mementō is formed from the reduplicated perfect stem (IE *me-mn-), not from the present stem (IE *men-). Thus, morphologically it is a perfect imperative, not a future imperative; the latter is always formed from the present stem. The IE imperative ending *-tōd has various different usages in the daughter languages: Greek -τω forms the 3rd sing. present ...


5

The following is found in the writings of Bernardino Stefonio: abi: requirito hominem ubi ubi est.


4

That case is weird. If you want to build a welfare state, you do not need to want to share, but only to share. Depending on the author, you'd see either an indirect command or hortatory subjunctive urging them to share, or even an if-clause: If you want to build a welfare state, it is necessary to share. If you absolutely needed an imperative here, there ...


4

As Weiss 2009/2011 mentions, word-final –e is “normally retained” (p. 147; emphasis mine – Alex B.). That being said, there are some few cases when word-final –e was lost (or apocopated). In your question, you ask us specifically about imperatives from compound verbs of dico, duco, and facio. In my answer below I will address this issue only. If you are ...


4

This has to do with the verbal conjugation system of Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor language of Latin. The Latin third conjugation is largely descended from so-called "thematic" PIE verbs. Thematic verbs are those which have a vowel, either e or o, between the verb root and the ending; this is known as the "thematic vowel". In this case, the vowel ...


4

Both are the same when translated literally, but from my experience, Imperative verbs go before. Then again, different people have different writing styles, so that needs to be taken into account.


3

I have not seen the movie, so I am not sure that I fully understand the question, but it seems obvious that this is a variation on a phrase in the requiem liturgy: "Libera me, domine, de morte aeterna". Only with the difference that it is asking not God, but you yourself, to save you. "Libera te tutemet" is acceptable, but neither "de" nor "ex" sounds like ...


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