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39

As you note, the answers to this question will depend on the specific period of Roman civilization. Roughly, Latin fluency would be more common among higher social classes, more common in the West, and more common in earlier periods of the Empire. Latin was the language of command, and therefore normal soldiers would be able to understand it to that level, ...


9

One very important work seems to be never translated: The glossa ordinaria on the Corpus iuris civilis. This is the result of more than a century of work of law professors (esp. in Bolonga; caled glossators) commenting in glosses on the text of the (later so called) Corpus iuris civilis bundled by Accursius (d. 1263). The glossa ordinaria became soon the the ...


8

Surely you can go no further back than the New Testament. After learning the news that she is to be the mother of Jesus, Mary goes to minister to her cousin Elizabeth, who is expecting John the Baptist. Here are the words of Elizabeth's greeting to Mary from Luke 1:42-43: Εὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξίν, καὶ εὐλογημένος ὁ καρπὸς τῆς κοιλίας σου. καὶ πόθεν μοι ...


6

According to the Languages of the Roman Empire Wikipedia article, Latin was the official language of the Roman army until the mid-6th century, and remained the most common language for military use even in the Eastern empire until the 630s. [31] This doesn't answer the question of what other languages were used and by whom, but it does suggest that ...


4

Attic was the prestige language, especially for the literati. Homeric was an obligatory part of a proper education, to the point of memorization. Contemporary Greek dialects, including the Koine, were necessary for anyone working or travelling in the eastern half of the empire. (I don't know if any classical authors refer to their studies in Greek dialects.) ...


4

Pronunciation of Latin in 17th century Europe Although Erasmus a century earlier made an early attempt at reconstructing Classical pronunciation, it didn't catch on. Different national pronunciations were used in each country in the 17th century. This also applied to Catholic countries, and the Catholic Church in France for example, which used their own ...


3

Another option would be nedum. According to L&S it means "by no means, much less, still less, not to speak of (class.)", and more particularly for our context: "used to indicate that whereas a certain thing is not, another thing can still less be". Interestingly, my mind has hard time settling whether nedum, which might be well ...


3

Feels a little cheap as an answer here, but the auto-generated Related Links suggests to me the excellent Was “Pascha” ever used as a neuter first-declension noun? which provides a possible example of an exception here. Absolutely none of this answer is original research, I am merely reporting what I see in that question and its answers. Notably, the ...


1

From a source-less stance, Roman foot soldiers must have spoken their dialect fluently and understood enough Latin to carry out certain group determined tasks (build bridges, forts, roads,...). Likewise for any foreign person involved in Roman military affairs. I primarily articulate in English, but I also understand I do not know what is English; apart from ...


1

ferre et agere is used to mean: to carry off (whatever you can take) depopulari means directly to "plunder" as does despoliare, diripere, expilare, expugnare, exspoliare as well as a few other words. So using the imperative of any of these would work fine. Though I'd imagine they'd never have the soldiers lined up in formation after battle and say &...


1

Literary evidence would do little to "debunk the myth of a white antiquity", because such evidence would only refer to a subset of statues. Diehard whiteys could claim that other statues were unpainted. Fortunately, the scientific evidence is overwhelming, e.g. https://hyperallergic.com/383776/why-we-need-to-start-seeing-the-classical-world-in-...


1

| ------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | Dictionary | Reported number of headwords or entries | Period covered | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | Oxford Latin | 40,000 | Classical | | -----------------------------------------------...


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