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18

Titus Livius, an excellent scholar even by modern standards, was very conscious of the problem of source reliability. Consider the beginning of Liv. 26 49: tum obsides ciuitatium Hispaniae uocari iussit; quorum quantus numerus fuerit piget scribere, quippe ubi alibi trecentos ferme, alibi tria milia septingentos uiginti quattuor fuisse inueniam.—aeque et ...


11

In the beginning, there was…well, we're not really sure. The origins of language are lost to time. But at some point, there was Proto-Indo-European, the hypothetical reconstructed ancestor of all the later Indo-European languages. As the Indo-European people spread across the continent, the dialects they spoke started to diverge; one of these dialects (...


10

Fascinating question! I've found some editions of the Aeneid with these extra lines included, and some (most) without. It seems that they aren't found in any of the oldest manuscripts of the Aeneid (except where one commentator scribbled them in the margin much later). Instead, they're first mentioned by the grammarian Aelius Donatus, who wrote in his Vita ...


9

Lucian of Samosata, a satirist writing in the second century CE, never had much regard for historians. His most famous work, the Alēthē Diēgēmata ("True Histories"), specifically mocks the sort of ridiculous stories that historians liked to recount as true. Here's how he puts it in the introduction: …τῶν ἱστορουμένων ἕκαστον οὐκ ἀκωμῳδήτως ᾔνικται πρός ...


6

The question might be better suited for Linguistics.SE. However, the general information on the history of Latin is outlined in the Wikipedia article of the same name: "It is believed that the earliest surviving inscription is a seventh-century B.C. pin known as the Praenestine fibula, which reads Manios med fhefhaked Numasioi "Manius made me for Numerius"."...


6

This is a rather wordy response to your comment 'If there are reasons to believe that the question is unanswerable, explaining those reasons would make a good answer. It is certainly not what I expected, but it might well be the correct answer. It's useful to be aware of the things we simply don't know!' I'm not surprised that searching Packhum gave you ...


6

According to this XIX century book (a period when ambulances were still driven by horses): So it might be related to the fact that ambulances were going around by walking (of horses). It seems, however, that the word enter into English from French (which itself comes from Latin) in the XIX century. At least that's what the Concise Oxford Dictionary of ...


6

There is reference in Plutarch's Moralia: the Genius of Socrates to the deliberate opening of a tomb. Therein they discovered: "a bronze bracelet of no great size and two pottery urns containing earth which had by then, through the passage of time, become a petrified and solid mass" and a bronze tablet "with a long inscription of such amazing antiquity ...


5

pŏpīna is the one, borrowed from Oscan or Umbrian, and cognate with (native Latin) coquina. Indeed, a Packhum search gives no results for thermopolium and 54 results (59 matches) for popina - note that, still, thermopolium can be found e.g. in Plautus and Petronius. Note that caupona and taberna were also common, but while L&S lists them as synonyms, ...


4

There are two significant references to Christ's death from non-Christian Roman sources. 1. Flavius Josephus The Romano-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (AD 37-100), who wrote in Greek, mentions Christ twice and John the Baptist once. The most famous reference to Jesus is in the so-called "Testimonium Flavianum". Although many scholars believe it is ...


3

By the third century BCE… …probably. We're not quite sure when. In a question about Old Latin meters, an anonymous user brought up Mercado's convincing argument that the Saturnian was based on accent. The idea isn't new, but Mercado backs it up with some nice information-theoretical analysis: basically, the accent theory passes some statistical tests that ...


2

Plutarch wrote a famous treatise on "the malice of Herodotus" (Περὶ τῆς Ἡροδότου κακοηθείας) in which he accused the Father of History of having spread malicious lies.


2

The WP article on the Roman Calendar, section Republican Calendar, apparently synthesizes all what is known. Unfortunately, the strongest evidence for a 10-month calendar seems to be what you have excluded, i.e., the names of the months Quntilis (July) through December. The first known attestation that there was a 10-month calendar prior to the Republican ...


2

There is, as far as I know, just one serious work on Roman women, 'Roman Women: Their History and Habits', by J.P.V.D Balsdon, a Cambridge history don who also wrote interesting and useful accounts of Roman life at large. It was published by Cambridge University Press, and was intended, by including as much information as possible about the subject from ...


2

Your translation is fine, but a Roman may have preferred to express the shared prepositional phrase only once, perhaps like this: Ex nihilo igitur fiunt et aliquid et nihil.


2

Liber de coquina describes the making of a pastillus by forming a small, circular dough, placing chaff on top, sealing this with more dough, baking under a terra cotta cover, then making a small hole on the bottom of the roll so formed to extract the chaff, thus forming a cavity into which various savory bits could be inserted. A general meaning might be ...


1

This rule applies to Russian, Germanic languages, Latin and ancient Greek as far as I know. So I suspect that it's a feature of the proto-IE language.


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