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45

The Latin language is named after the area it was spoken in — or the people that spoke it. (It is impossible to distinguish the two.) Latin, by name, is the language of Latium (Lazio in today's Italian), not the language of Rome. Alternatively, you can see it as the language of the tribe of Latins. Latinus is the Latin adjective meaning "related to ...


38

I believe there are no exceptions to this rule. That's what I have always read, and I have never encountered any, neither in Greek nor in Latin, nor even in German. There is an hypothesis about the cause of this phenomenon. Neuter words were historically limited to inanimate objects or things that cannot act. In a basic sentence, it was rarely or never the ...


27

The different declensions started in Proto-Indo-European. Latin regularized and simplified them, giving the five somewhat-regular patterns you're familiar with. PIE nouns came in a few different types: Stems ending in *-eh₂ *h₂ was a "laryngeal" sound, so-called because we don't have a better name for it. Scholars can't agree on what its actual sound was; ...


24

It sounds like you're talking about this incident involving the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund at the Council of Constance in 1414: …A similar anecdote is told of the German Emperor Sigismund. When presiding at the Council of Constance, he addressed the assembly in a Latin speech, exhorting them to eradicate the schism of the Hussites. 'Videte Patres,' he ...


22

The word latin comes from latinus, "of Latium," a region in central Italy. In this territory, around the turn of the first millennium BC, lived a tribe known as the Latins, and their language was the immediate predecessor of Old Latin. Not coincidentally, Rome was founded in this region around the 8th century BC. Other peoples were involved as well, such ...


19

Yes. We know that Caesar was famous for using a cipher, which is still named for him: Some letters of his to the senate are also preserved, and he seems to have been the first to reduce such documents to pages and the form of a note-book, whereas previously consuls and generals sent their reports written right across the sheet. There are also letters of ...


18

This answer has been percolating in my head for a couple of months now. Given that there haven't been any other attempts to answer it, I've posted it but realise its limitations in providing a clear answer to your question. It also does not speak at all to the question of Jansenism. This is a great question but one that, unfortunately, has no simple (or ...


18

Titus Livius, an excellent scholar even by modern standards, was very conscious of the problem of source reliability. Consider the beginning of Liv. 26 49: tum obsides ciuitatium Hispaniae uocari iussit; quorum quantus numerus fuerit piget scribere, quippe ubi alibi trecentos ferme, alibi tria milia septingentos uiginti quattuor fuisse inueniam.—aeque et ...


16

According to the Handbook of Medieval Culture (Albrecht Classen, vol. 2): The first written evidence considered to be Italian rather than Latin is known as the Placiti Cassinesi, which are four legal documents containing vernacular testimonies in an Upper Southern dialect dated to 960–963. The text of the four placiti has been published in Storia ...


15

This is a fascinating question which taught me several new things about Roman culture! The extent to which we can answer this question affirmatively depends heavily on how we define "sign language." I will divide my answer into three levels. I will exclude, as an obvious first level, the universal human ability to communicate via bodily attitudes, such as ...


14

English once did not have words for "yes" and "no" as they are precisely used today. Yes, for example, comes from ge (whence "yea") + sie, a subjunctive form of to be (beon). It literally meant "It is so." No in fact meant "not ever". From Etymonline: "negative reply," early 13c., from Old English na (adv.) "no, never, not at all," from ne "not, no" + ...


13

Old Latin bears the same kind of relationship to Classical Latin as English of, a few centuries ago does to modern English. The oldest Old Latin texts we have, unless I'm remembering incorrectly, are from the 3rd century BC, so there wasn't a whole lot of time for the language to change between then and 75 B.C. Old Latin has one more case than Classical ...


13

In classical times the seven-day week was unknown; obviously, there could be no named days of the week to use as reference points. Months at least were of specified lengths, but the actual date was described by a clumsy method which depended on three datum points within the month itself. These points were the Kalends, Nones and Ides, which occurred in that ...


13

This quote is from the Historia Ierusalem Baldrici Dolensis Archiepiscopi, Book 2 (pg. 1092 of Migne, Patrologia Latina, CLXVI). Your quote is only a fragment of the relevant sentence, which is likely why you are not able to make any sense of it. Here is the full sentence: Iter enim aggressi, gradiebantur rependo per montana, nimis aspera et scopulosa, ...


12

To answer your second question, this rule is completely exceptionless, not only in Latin but in all Indo-European languages (that is, those that have a neuter gender at all). neuter gender always had identical nominative, accusative and vocative forms in all three numbers Wiki link Archaic Syntax in Indo-European


12

From Keith Houston, Shady characters: the secret life of punctuation, symbols & other typographical marks (Norton, 2013), 64–5: If the Tironian et was Tiro's brainchild, the ampersand was an orphan: its creator is not known, and the closest it comes to a parent is the anonymous first-century graffiti artist who scrawled it hastily across a Pompeian ...


11

The Latin language has been founded by a nation called the Latins. Check the information below as quoted from Wikipedia: The Latins referred originally to an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy. They were living between 1200 BC and 1000 BC. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium (Latium Vetus), that ...


11

The following is based mostly on Clackson and Horrocks 2007/2011, Leumann 1977, and Wallace 2011. First of all, something to keep in mind, as Weiss 2009/2011 puts it, is that "Long vowels were generally not distinguished in Latin orthography" (p. 29; emphasis mine - Alex B.). That being said, there were four exceptions. Geminatio vocalium (the double ...


10

19th Century Scientific Latin An example: Gauss From G. Waldo Dunnington's 2004 biography of Gauss, Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science, p. 37-8: … Of unusual interest is the part which Meyerhoff⁶ took in this book [sc. Gauss's most important mathematical work: the Disquisitiones arithmeticæ]—the correction of the Latin. ⁶Johann Heinrich Jakob ...


10

As you say, “ly” is an early form of the Romance article; you can compare the Old French article for nom. sing. masc. "li". Aquinas uses it in his commentary on the Gospel of John 1,1 explicitly as the equivalent of the Greek article in its specifying sense: Ut ergo Evangelista hanc supereminentiam divini verbi significaret, ipsum verbum absque ulla ...


10

The declensions are historical and developed from Proto-Indo-European. Per Sihler's New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin: See also Quiles/Lopez-Menchero's Grammar of Modern Indo-European:


10

It seems that corollarium was used in this sense. Lewis and Short describe the original meaning as "money paid for a garland of flowers", but elsewhere it is described more like money put in a garland "and so a free gift" (editor's note on Lucilius, Satires, 12.464). However, here Seneca uses it in the sense of tipping for services rendered: ...


10

Fascinating question! I've found some editions of the Aeneid with these extra lines included, and some (most) without. It seems that they aren't found in any of the oldest manuscripts of the Aeneid (except where one commentator scribbled them in the margin much later). Instead, they're first mentioned by the grammarian Aelius Donatus, who wrote in his Vita ...


9

Professor Wilifried Stroh's lectures on the history of Latin literature and on other subjects are incredibly entertaining, learned, and eloquent. I don't know when he made them, but since he was born in 1950 I doubt it was before 1960, unfortunately. Still, they're very worth listening to.


9

I would translate the phrase "all the more" using eo magis. Note that this phrase is much more common when "balanced" with an introductory phrase that introduces the comparison, usually with a comparative adverb. Here are a few examples of usage: (hasty translations mine) ita, quo minus petebat gloriam, eo magis illum sequebatur. (Sallust, The ...


9

Ostler (see my comment on Luc's answer) remarks, in relation to the appearance of a language that is recognisably Italian: " . . . touchingly, the first surviving example of imperfect written Latin — if not yet conscious Italian — is an elegant riddle apparently used when trying out a new pen: 'se pareba boues / alba pratalia araba / & alba versorio ...


9

Lucian of Samosata, a satirist writing in the second century CE, never had much regard for historians. His most famous work, the Alēthē Diēgēmata ("True Histories"), specifically mocks the sort of ridiculous stories that historians liked to recount as true. Here's how he puts it in the introduction: …τῶν ἱστορουμένων ἕκαστον οὐκ ἀκωμῳδήτως ᾔνικται πρός ...


8

Some of the reasons after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, contact between various regions slowed down and lost a lot of its importance; thus the strongest reason to maintain the unity of the language ceased to work also, at the same time Roman bureaucracy ceased to require correct Latin when there are no strong reasons to keep a language united, ...


8

The Via dei Fori Imperiali was built at the initiative of Mussolini. At the time it caused some controversy about the care for archaeological and sacred Catholic sites, as well as the displacement of residents on "one of the most densely populated areas" of the Urbs. Among the ancient sites affected, there were the four fora that give the via its modern ...


8

Francis Bacon is referencing previous "remembrances" The beginning of the epilogue to The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology, by Ernst Kantorowicz, references this quotation from Bacon and includes an explanation of their probable sources: Bacon's first "remembrance" should not be mistaken for the famous Camaldolite motto Memento ...


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