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At a level of analysis one up from grammar/syntax: this word points to the condition of transcending considerations and categories relating to time. Needs-must using the then available commonly understood means: specifically the language and concepts available then, words relating to the cycle of birth and death. Looming death being the one most easily ...


"Immortal" is the most precise english translation of the Greek word "Αθάνατος" I could come up. Mortal (Θνητός) is not dead, it is the one that can die. The word expresses a capacity or ability, not a state. A mortal can be alive at a particular time and dead at another. Similarly, Immortal (Αθάνατος) is the one that cannot die. (Even if he wanted to.) ...


Not quite true about absence of digamma in texts of Sappho (and other lyric poets): for the digamma in Alcman, see Page (1951:104–10) and Hinge (1997); for Sappho and Alcaeus, Bowie (1981:69–87); for Corinna, Page (1963:46–9) and West (1996:22), who could hardly contain his excitement: ‘it is a delightful thing to read a neatly-written papyrus containing ...


Short answer: no, athanatos means "immortal", not just "living". Longer answer: compare the English word "immortal". It comes from the Latin in- ("not") + mort- ("death"). So you could argue etymologically that "immortal" should mean "alive" ("not dead"). However, that's not what it means; "immortal" means not just "not dead", but "unable to die". The same ...


"Living" is an undertranslation of "ἀθάνατος." "Living" has a straightforward translation from "ζῆν" (to live): the participle "ζῶν"; "ἀθάνατος," however, means "not mortal," as opposed to "not dead." If it simply meant "not dead," then your appeal to the law of excluded middle would be justified. God is living (ζῶν) and immortal (ἀθάνατος). A dog is ...


ἀθάνατος means the privative ἀ- (from ἀν- = "not") and θάνατος (death), so strictly etymologically, ἀθάνατος means immortal.


To give a partial answer: In researching the Trisagion, I came across 14th century commentary by Nicolas Cabasilas, 'A Commentary on the Divine Liturgy'. In this book, he goes as far as to state, "[...] the words 'Strong and immortal God' are those of blessed David, who exclaims 'My soul thirsts for the strong and living God' [...]" (pg. 59, St. Vladimir'...


There are a handful of verbs that take -ς in the 2sg. aorist imperative: the others are δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵημι (δός, θές, ἕς). The origin of this -ς is a mystery.


Priscian would probably have called it genus promiscuum or genus epicoenum: Diomedes adds: “Latini promiscuum vel subcommune vocant”


The oldest Greek transcription I've found is from Diodorus of Sicily (The Library of History I.94.2): παρὰ δὲ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις Μωυσῆν τὸν Ἰαὼ ἐπικαλούμενον θεόν Among the Jews, Moses [attributed his laws to] the god called "Iaō". The oldest Latin one I've found is Pseudo-Jerome (Breviary on the Psalms 8: in this manuscript, it's on 12v-13r): Prius ...


The Wikipedia article on Tetragrammaton gives a long list of examples from Greek and Latin in early manuscripts and patristic writing. The overwhelming majority use "Lord", but a few use proper transliterations, such as Ἰαῶ in Greek and "Jaho" in Latin.

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