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15

As an adjective, indeed, medius, -a, -um does not take a genitive. However, there is a noun, the substantive medium, -i, which also means "middle" or "midst." Referring to a physical space, it's fairly common during the Augustan era and later, and, yes, it can take a genitive. Compare this passage of Livy 37.13.10: insidiis medio ferme viae positis ...


13

Based on the Latin text provided, Sicilia (“Sicily”) would be in apposition with insula (“island”), and both would be declined in the same case—in this case, nominative. Clara (“famous”) would be the predicate adjective (or subject complement) of the subject insula. The translation would be, “The island Sicily is famous.” This idea could also be expressed ...


13

A genitive would indicate a relationship of dependency or subordination between the genitive noun and the other noun. But the island is Sicily. There's no dependency; the two nouns are just different terms for the same thing. Latin doesn't typically use a genitive for expressions such as 'the island of Sicily' or 'the city of Rome.' Instead, it tends to ...


10

All forms of se, including suus, normally refer to the subject of the main clause of the sentence. Eius, however, normally does not refer to this subject, but to someone else. So the two words have different meanings. Sextus Tarquinius crudelis est. Lucretia praevidet mortem suam. "S.T. is cruel. Lucretia foresees her own death." Sextus Tarquinius ...


9

Your syntax is correct. You can combine as many genitives as you wish in a similar fashion. For choosing between et and -que, see the question about that choice. I think et is more appropriate here. To improve your translation, I would put est all the way at the end: Minerva dea sapientiae et lanae est. Besides being more natural word order in Latin, it ...


9

First, this is not specific to ecclesiastical Latin. The same genitive is there in classical Latin as well. The verb miserere is used impersonally. It means roughly "to distress" or "to excite pity". For example, me miseret means "I am distressed". The reason of distress or the target of pity is indicated by genitive: me miseret Marci means "I pity Marcus". ...


9

As a general rule, groups containing both men and women take the masculine in Latin. For example, a male friend is an amīcus (masculine), and a female friend is an amīca (feminine). But a group of friends of mixed genders will always be amīcī, masculine plural. However, family names were a bit different in Roman times: they didn't quite have equivalents for ...


8

Roundly, the ablative is used for price and the genitive for value. The ablative of price occurs with verbs of acquiring, buying, selling etc., as in mensam quadraginta sestertiis emit. As well as specific forms there are, of course, general ablatives of price such as magno, parvo, vili. The genitive of value (quanti, tanti, plurimi, nihili etc.), as you ...


8

Here’s a summary of what most authoritative Latin grammars say on the genitive singular ending of –io stems (Weiss 2009/2011: 222-223; Leumann 1977: 424-425; Sihler ). For the sake of simplicity and consistency, in my answer I use the periodization of Latin as used in Weiss (which is different from, for instance, Clackson and Horrocks or Meiser). Weiss has ...


8

You are confusing gĕnu, -ūs ("knee") and gĕnus, -ĕris ("origin, lineage, stock"). The latter is a 3rd declension neuter noun, so the accusative singular is the same as the nominative singular. Hence, to fill in the blank: Augustus affirmed that his lineage had arisen from Jupiter.


8

Leumann (p. 421) mentions two cases: spoken gen.pl. drachmum and amphorum; in dactylic poetry, four-syllable masculine nouns, besides the regular forms, could also have gen.pl. in -um, mostly compounds with -cola and -gena (e.g. agricolum in Lucr. 4.586 or caelicolum; Troiugenum), and some Greek proper nouns (Gangaridum, Aeneadum, Phaselitum). The ...


8

Another use of the genitive that you've left out is subjective genitive, which is what this is. These are discussed in, e.g., Gildersleeve and Lodge, Latin grammar §363. Allen and Greenough, New Latin grammar §243, Note 1 treats them, not unreasonably, as a species of possessive genitive (where what is 'owned' is an action or state of being). Death implies ...


7

You are correct. In this case, the "of" is simply an English idiom. "The island of Sicily" and "the island Sicily" and even "Sicily the island" are all different ways to get the same meaning; the first just sounds more natural. Of can have quite a few different meanings in English, some of which don't align well with the Latin genitive. One good test is to ...


7

Edgar H. Sturtevant's dissertation "Contraction in the case forms of the Latin io- and ia stems, and of deus, is, and idem" (1902) seems to have some relevant info, although I don't know if more has been discovered since then. Contraction in the genitive singular Sturtevant starts out by summarizing the genitive singular forms: he says that in early Latin, ...


7

Singular genitive and dative forms of vis exist but are very rare, according to the Gaffiot, which provides some examples: Or in Calonghi: So it may be possible to use those forms when needed (vis and vi).


7

I believe it is also used in prose with certain words, like deum and virum, although it is indeed less common. Livius, Ab Urbe Condita V 14.4: ... pestilentiam agris urbique [esse] inlatam haud dubia ira deum, quos pestis eius arcendae causa placandos esse in libris fatalibus inuentum sit; ... "...by/through the undoubted ire of the gods, whom in order ...


7

Grammatically it should be the first—homo and intraturus enclose mundi, and therefore the genitive belongs to them. This is a very common way of showing relationships between dependent words. However, if it is true that Linnaeus meant the latter, then I'd offer that this isn't the best Latin. The A1B2A2B1 structure doesn't feel like proper Latin. This sort ...


7

The second translation is indeed superior. This is mostly based on context: theatrum mundi makes more sense than homo mundi. Judging by word order alone suggests that mundi modifies homo, so word order is not enough to convey the difference between your two interpretations. Grammar allows both interpretations, and grammar alone is not enough to decide which ...


7

Since you mention "curriculum vitae", I assume you're focusing on metaphorical rather than physical uses, and on a name for something (rather than using it in a sentence)? When talking about ideas rather than physical objects, it's not uncommon to put the possession in the singular and the possessor in the plural. Consider: Suetonius' De Vitā Caesārum "on ...


7

Bennett gives gen. alterius, dat. aliī. Allen and Greenough list alius among the adjectives that "have the Genitive Singular in -īus and the Dative in -ī in all genders", implying alīus, aliī, but add in notes that "Instead of alīus, alterīus is commonly used" and that "The regular genitive and dative forms (as in bonus) are sometimes found in some of these ...


6

Eugene McCartney has an article in Classical Philology (XIV 3 July 1919) entitled "Greek and Latin Constructions in Implied Agreement" that mentions these constructions in its opening notes. While talking about the "closeness of the relationship between the genitive of possession and the possessive adjective," he cites the coordination of the two in the ...


6

Different languages (even closely related ones) have different ways of saying “the town/island/country by the name of NN.” Some use a straightforward apposition between the two nouns (“urbs Roma”, “die Stadt Berlin”); some use a quasi-possessive phrase (“the city of London”, “la ville de Paris”); some actually put the place name in the genitive case (Arabic “...


6

Writing a letter to someone does fit the description you mentioned. It has to travel physically to the recipient. Famous collections of letters usually use ad in their titles. We might understand this as implying "sent to" or "to be sent to." Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, ad Atticum Seneca, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium On the other hand, within the ...


6

I actually think you are spot on! For this usage of the genitive, there is little need to match the genders of the nouns. Both Aurora and votum are their own, separate entities, so they do not need to match. Votum Aurorae is therefore a good translation. Now, I can't really make too much of a comment on how poetic it is. I, personally, think it is fine. But ...


5

A full table of "standard" (post-Augustan) -ius/-ium endings would be: M SG M PL N SG N PL NOM -ius -iī -ium -ia GEN -iī -iōrum -iī -iōrum DAT -iō -iīs -iō -iīs ACC -ium -iōs -ium -ia ABL -iō -iīs -iō -iīs VOC -ī -iī -ium -ia (O tempora! O mores! Why must upstanding citizens be ...


5

The general word for "his" (or "hers", or "its", or "theirs") in Latin is eius. This is the genitive singular of is/ea/id, "he/she/it". Those are three separate words, but conveniently they all share a genitive singular form. However, I wouldn't use eius in this case, when the farmer has already been mentioned in the sentence. Because Latin uses reflexive ...


5

Gildersleeve and Lodge, §76.r1: The Gen. alīus is very rare, and as a possessive its place is usually taken by alienus. §76.r2: …usually make the Dat. Sing. in -ī … Alī is found in early Latin for aliī.


5

@Cerberus is right that it does appear in prose in limited circumstances. In addition to deum and virum, genitive plurals of second declension nouns denoting money or measure often end in -um: Nam cum fere constaret, curriculum stadii quod est Pisis apud Jovem Olympium Herculem pedibus suis metatum [esse] idque fecisse longum pedes sescentos, cetera ...


5

Ad 1: I would not be surprised if it were a genitive: Tempe as a grove of Thessaly sound unremarkable enough. However, there are two other options. The first is a locative: there is a grove in Thessaly. That would be semantically good, but the locative is not normally used with regions in prose (rather than with cities and small islands). Lastly, it could be ...


5

I don't see any reference to such an ending in either Allen and Greenough or Gildersleeve and Lodge, so I strongly suspect the answer is no. That said, in another, historical sense the -ī ending was used as a first-declension gen. sg. ending, and not just for masculines. The ending -ae is historically formed from -a-ī: the -a- of the first-declension stem ...


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