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13

It is generally accepted that liberi “children” is the same word as liber “free, not slave”. So, etymologically liberi are “free-born offspring of either sex”. But it is an error to assume that the semantic scope of any given word is fully determined by its etymology. Roman authors use liberi to mean “children” without necessarily commenting on their legal ...


10

Each new paragraph shows a new generation (g means 'great'). Enclosures within (brackets) indicate the maternal side : tritavus = tritavia g.g.g.g.grandfather, mother atavus=atavia g.g.g.grandfather, mother patruus maximus g.grand uncle — amita maxima aunt — abavus *grandfather(=abavia — avunculus maximus g.grand uncle — matertera maxima aunt) patruus ...


9

Erasmus has a complete list of vocabula affinitatum ("words for in-laws") in his Colloquia. This is post-classical, but Erasmus's Latin rivals that of Cicero. This definitely has some overlap with the previous answer: Maritus: husband Uxor: wife Socer: father-in-law (wife's father) Socrus: mother-in-law (wife's mother) Gener: son-in-law (daughter'...


7

The OLD says: liberi "sons and daughters, children (in connection with their parents)." First of all, it is important to remember that, as Osgood 2011 puts it, "... it was of great concern to determine the legal status of any children born: Romans guarded citizenship rights jealously" (p. 76; emphasis mine - Alex B.). I'm no expert in Roman law but it ...


6

Yes, you can be 100% sure. Just watch out, though; "His mother's son" will be Filius matris suae, because suae agrees in gender number and case with (genitive, feminine, singular) matris. "Her Mother's son" is also Filius Matris suae: Think of it as modern 'their Mother's son' even when 'their' means only one person. (But it is ambiguous)


4

An interesting question to which I don't actually know a definitive answer, but I'll try to shed what light I can. I glanced at the source you link and couldn't find tritavus, but it seems an obvious possibility that the prefix "tri" could refer to the number 3, in which case one could imagine going back further with quartavus, quintavus, septavus, and so ...


4

I drew a family tree based on Tom Cotton's answer: Some of the tree is hidden and the quality of the picture is not great. To explore more, see the dynamical family tree online. If anyone knows a tool for making the whole tree visible at the same time (or wants to draw the tree), I would be happy to know.


4

And here's a visual representation of a Roman family. You can see the words PATER, VXOR, and F (filius).


2

Yes, liberi means free children. Pueri is the generic word. Gaffiot quotes namely Cicero: liber, qui de matre libera, liber est. The same Gaffiot, under liberi gives an even more restrictive definition of free boys (not girls).


2

Some quotes from Amoris Laetitia (by Pope Francis) might give some hints (English here, Latin here): Point 49: English: For example, if a single mother has to raise a child by herself ... Latin: Exempli gratia, si mulier quaedam sola suum filium alere debet ... Point 197: English: This larger family should provide love and support to teenage ...


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