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19

To elaborate unnecessarily, frāter can securely be traced back to PIE *bʰréh₂tēr, which is a combination of the root *bʰréh₂ + a suffix *-ter (+ the nominative singular ending *-s, which is lost with compensatory lengthening of the *-e- in the suffix, as per Szemerényi's law). That suffix, or at the very least one that looks exactly like it, is also seen in ...


13

Here's Cicero, congratulating his friend Atticus on the birth of the latter's daughter (Ad Atticum 5.19): Filiolam tuam tibi iam Romae iucundam esse gaudeo, eamque quam numquam vidi tamen et amo et amabilem esse certo scio. Etiam atque etiam vale. I am glad that you now delight in your little daughter in Rome, and though I have never seen her, I still love ...


13

It is generally accepted that liberi “children” is the same word as liber “free, not slave”. So, etymologically liberi are “free-born offspring of either sex”. But it is an error to assume that the semantic scope of any given word is fully determined by its etymology. Roman authors use liberi to mean “children” without necessarily commenting on their legal ...


11

Each new paragraph shows a new generation (g means 'great'). Enclosures within (brackets) indicate the maternal side : tritavus = tritavia g.g.g.g.grandfather, mother atavus=atavia g.g.g.grandfather, mother patruus maximus g.grand uncle — amita maxima aunt — abavus *grandfather(=abavia — avunculus maximus g.grand uncle — matertera maxima aunt) patruus ...


10

Erasmus has a complete list of vocabula affinitatum ("words for in-laws") in his Colloquia. This is post-classical, but Erasmus's Latin rivals that of Cicero. This definitely has some overlap with the previous answer: Maritus: husband Uxor: wife Socer: father-in-law (wife's father) Socrus: mother-in-law (wife's mother) Gener: son-in-law (daughter'...


7

An interesting question to which I don't actually know a definitive answer, but I'll try to shed what light I can. I glanced at the source you link and couldn't find tritavus, but it seems an obvious possibility that the prefix "tri" could refer to the number 3, in which case one could imagine going back further with quartavus, quintavus, septavus, and so ...


7

You'll have to be careful with the phrase "expected to." On the one hand, it can give connotations of desire. "I expect you to do well in this position" can mean "I want you to do well" or even "I demand that you do well." You can see a boss telling his subordinate such a thing. On the other hand, it can also mean ...


7

The OLD says: liberi "sons and daughters, children (in connection with their parents)." First of all, it is important to remember that, as Osgood 2011 puts it, "... it was of great concern to determine the legal status of any children born: Romans guarded citizenship rights jealously" (p. 76; emphasis mine - Alex B.). I'm no expert in ...


6

Yes, you can be 100% sure. Just watch out, though; "His mother's son" will be Filius matris suae, because suae agrees in gender number and case with (genitive, feminine, singular) matris. "Her Mother's son" is also Filius Matris suae: Think of it as modern 'their Mother's son' even when 'their' means only one person. (But it is ambiguous)


6

I drew a family tree based on Tom Cotton's answer: Some of the tree is hidden and the quality of the picture is not great. To explore more, see the dynamical family tree online. If anyone knows a tool for making the whole tree visible at the same time (or wants to draw the tree), I would be happy to know.


4

Reduction of the problem It is good to preprocess the data and reduce the words into simpler constituents within Latin. We can reason as follows: pater parens < parere parturitio < parturire < parere partitio < partire < pars This reveals that parens and parturitio are already well linked within Latin, both coming from parere. Now it remains ...


4

And here's a visual representation of a Roman family. You can see the words PATER, VXOR, and F (filius). cf. another very famous inscription - the Epitaph of Agrippina the Elder (i.e. Caligula's mother), CIL 6.886:


4

I believe that there may be no special word for those terms. Here are some things I found: In the Nova Vulgata, Leviticus 20:20 reads: Qui coierit cum uxore patrui vel avunculi sui... "Whoever has intercourse with their own (paternal or maternal) uncle's wife..." Here we have patrui vel avunculi referring to both maternal and paternal uncles. It'...


3

No. Isidore's etymologies are often folk etymologies. Frater is actually from the Proto-Indo-European bhrater-, whence brother in English, phratér in Greek, and so on.


3

Attention, all my sources are post-Classical. Thus they do not entirely fit the question but I think they are very useful for the concept itself. This is what I attested so far skimming these books: https://books.google.com.br/books?id=BtlDAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA80 - I found here up to produovicatavus, but there could be more. https://books.google.com.br/...


2

Yes, liberi means free children. Pueri is the generic word. Gaffiot quotes namely Cicero: liber, qui de matre libera, liber est. The same Gaffiot, under liberi gives an even more restrictive definition of free boys (not girls).


2

Some quotes from Amoris Laetitia (by Pope Francis) might give some hints (English here, Latin here): Point 49: English: For example, if a single mother has to raise a child by herself ... Latin: Exempli gratia, si mulier quaedam sola suum filium alere debet ... Point 197: English: This larger family should provide love and support to teenage ...


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