66

While I'm sure a better-research answer might be able to give you more insight, perhaps a simple response will be a good place to start. As you found, "history" comes from Greek ἱστορία (historia) via Latin historia. A "ἱστορία" generically means an "inquiry," and that is the sense that Herodotus intends in the famous opening lines of his Histories: ...


36

"Herstory" is completely unrelated to the etymology of "history" As others have mentioned, there is no etymological connection between the first part of "history" and the English masculine pronoun "his". Nor does there need to be for "herstory" to make sense as a coinage in English. People frequently form new words in un-etymological ways: e.g., by ...


26

As you mention, Latin hippopotamus, -i comes from Greek ἱπποπόταμος, which is a compound of ἵππος (hippos = horse) and ποταμός (potamos = river). In Latin, Lewis and Short cites instances in Pomponius Mela (AD 45), Pliny (AD 79), and Ammianus Marcellinus (AD 400). In Greek, the LSJ includes references from Dioscorides (AD 90), Galen (AD c. 200), and ...


25

No, the similarity is almost certainly accidental. This kind of coincidental similarity is pretty common, especially in short words like ad. Latin ad "to, near, at" has cognates in several other branches of Indo-European, including Celtic (Old Irish ad-), Phrygian (αδ-), and Germanic -- English at is among the latter. It appears to go back to a Proto-Indo-...


20

I believe there's no straightforward answer as to „why different usage contexts correlate to different grammatical gender“, but the etymological origin gives some insights to the gender. Diēs comes from Proto-Indo-European *d(i)jéus „daytime sky, Sky-god“ and is cognate to Iūp-piter (≈ Diespiter, „dies pater“), so originally it should have been masculine, ...


20

The similarity is a coincidence; these words are unrelated. Etymological dictionaries such as De Vaan's give the following account of the two words: The earlier form of the conjunction cum is quom; this is attested in early Latin, and also in the word quoniam (< quom iam). It is descended from Proto-Indo-European *kʷom "when" and has cognates in other IE ...


19

These words are unrelated: they developed independently from different Proto-Indo-European roots, according to Michiel de Vaan's Etymological Dictionary (337–38). First, liber or librī, meaning "book," is thought to come from a PIE word meaning "leaf, rind": *lubʰ-ro-. De Vaan cites several Indo-European languages that have attested cognates and summarizes:...


18

It's possible that the identity is a coincidence and that the adjective and the noun are unrelated homophones. De Vaan's etymological dictionary lists the two words as separate entries and does not draw any connection between them. That said, it seems plausible that there is a relationship, namely that the "world" sense is based on a calque of the Greek ...


18

di- is Greek and bi- is Latin The Proto-Indo-European root for "two" is reconstructed as *dw-. The remnants of this w can be seen in English "two", Russian dva, Ancient Greek δύο, and many other languages, as well as Latin duo, "two". Old Latin had many words starting with dv- (where v was pronounced as English "w"). But at some point before Classical ...


17

I believe this is one of many examples of Latin vowel reduction in word-internal syllables. The basic pattern is that short vowels in word-internal syllables were reduced: the resulting vowel in Classical Latin varies depending on the phonological context, and sometimes on the vowel. In inermis, the vowel is in a closed syllable, which is a context where a ...


16

While it's true that it's "standard" for the adjective to follow the noun, Latin word order is VERY flexible, and a noun following an adjective is not at all unusual. A quick search of the corpus at http://latin.packhum.org/search reveals that both appear more or less equally.


14

That "U" is probably a "D": rem ordine pando. This is a quote from Vergil's Aeneid 3.179 and means "I explained the whole thing [i.e. the whole story] in order."


13

I can only partially answer your question. In medieval documents dies is sometimes feminine where based on classical usage we would expect it to be masculine. Examples: Liber Pontificalis1 (~10th century) 371, in reference to Charlemagne's arrival in Rome (but note that this text contains frequent grammatical irregularities): Et alia die, secundum ...


13

As you say, “ly” is an early form of the Romance article; you can compare the Old French article for nom. sing. masc. "li". Aquinas uses it in his commentary on the Gospel of John 1,1 explicitly as the equivalent of the Greek article in its specifying sense: Ut ergo Evangelista hanc supereminentiam divini verbi significaret, ipsum verbum absque ulla ...


13

The gist of Au101's answer is confirmed by de Vaan's Etymological Dictionary. First, regarding sex, in Proto-Italic and Proto-Indo-European, he gives: PIt. *seks 'six', *seks-to- 'sixth' PIE *(s)ueks 'six', *uks-ó- 'sixth'. He notes: The PIt. form *seks has analogically dropped *-w- from *sweks by analogy with *septm '...


13

According to Miller (2006: 76, 78), the endings -men and -mentum form a deverbal (with one exception) noun with the semantics of means, instrument or result of action of the verb. Relevant quotations are §3.4 -men [...] ‘means, instrument, result’ While -men is formally and functionally related to -mentum (LG i.§326), the latter will be treated ...


13

This may be useful: Eleanor Dickey (https://www.academia.edu/8113495/Latin_loanwords_in_Greek_A_preliminary_analysis_2012_, footnote 36, page 67) distinguishes between Latin words as foreign words, and Latin words as integrated loanwords. Her corpus of these Latin loanwords integrated into Greek is 'not yet finalized' but she claims there are 52 first ...


13

You're absolutely right that PIE *a gives Old Latin /a/. But somewhere between Old Latin and Classical Latin, vowel reduction happened. Basically, Old Latin stress was always on the first syllable. So short vowels in other (non-stressed) syllables tended to get reduced, sort of like how English keeps the i in "combine" but reduces it in "combination". In ...


13

'Herstory' is not much more than a nonce-word. It's the sort of thing that used to be quoted by feminists in order to demonstrate how wrongfully the world, even the English language, had been arranged to ensure that men would rule it. As @brianpck suggests, it's quite wrong to look for any other etymological explanation. Over the years, other words have ...


12

Lewis & Short say it came to refer to various things shaped like a thorn or prickle in its transferred senses, under which they group "backbone". Our backbone is a long, thin object, after all. Perhaps their sense number 2 elucidates the etymological path for you: a fish-bone. Those are pointed and can prick into your flesh, and they resemble backbones ...


12

Greek is a language of many respectable dialects. In more than a few dialects, there is no iota in ποιέω /poieô/ "do, make", the word from which the word ποιητής /poiêtês/ "poet" is derived in Greek. And Greek spelling was not always the same as in the classical age. That is most probably why the borrowed form in Latin does not contain an i. The word was ...


12

None, and here's why. Meaning If you look at -que cognates (Hittite -kku 'now, even, and'; Sanskrit -ca 'and'; Greek Gr. -τε 'and' etc.), you will see that the meaning is virtually the same (and). There is no evidence to suggest that -que was an enclitic in five. What would it mean, "five.and", anyway??? And there are no other numerals of the type "X.and."...


12

From the etymology of Noel (Ortolang): Étymol. et Hist. A. Subst. masc. 1. début xiies. «fête de la nativité de Jésus-Christ» al Naël Deu (Saint Brendan, 620, éd. E. G. R. Waters); 1119 Noel (Philippe de Thaon, Comput, 53, éd. E. Mall); 1694 busche de Noel «grosse bûche que l'on mettait dans l'âtre pour toute la nuit de Noël» (Ac.); 1845 arbre de Noël (...


12

Your are confused; bi- is Latin and di- is Greek. There is no real difference in meaning between them, but in usage bi- is used with Latin constructions like bisexual and di- with Greek constructions like diglossia. bi- is not a Greek prefix. (As an aside, I should mention that both Latin bi- and Greek δι‐ have a common origin in a reconstructed ancestor *...


12

Well, this may obviously be outdated, but G.M. Messing banged out a 3-page treatment of "The Etymology of Lat. Mentula" for the Oct. 1956 Classical Philology (Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 247–249). His review of the scholarship to that point was Lat. mentula 'membrum virile' has never been satisfactorily etymologized. Of the various suggestions made in the ...


11

Despite the apparent naturalness for deriving pontifex from pons, pontis, we're not so sure that's the right etymology. Over the years some have made the case for this derivation, including Judy Hallet back in 1970. As early as the first century BCE, though, this derivation has been contended. I'll skip over the ancient evidence since Joonas Ilmavirta ...


11

The OLD writes that dies is "fem. frequently or usually in senses 1b, 5, 7, 10, occasionally elsewhere," with the following definitions listed: 1b: [the period from sunrise to sunset] as a diety 5: A specific day, the date of a letter 7: A day appointed for business 10: The lapse or passing of time You might want to scope out the OLD for more about those ...


11

No, I don't think so, and for this I can actually rely on etymonline which is a fine resource, even if linguistics students are discouraged from using it for their homework. The entry for the English word 'six' is complete enough: Old English siex, six, sex, from Proto-Germanic *sekhs (source also of Old Saxon and Danish seks, Old Norse, Swedish, and Old ...


11

Maybe. There is a verb fatīscō, fatīscere, —, ???, meaning to fall apart or collapse. (Sometimes it also acts like a deponent verb, fatīscor, fatīscī, with the same meaning.) But it's practically nonexistent in the past tense, and doesn't have a proper perfect system. Fessus could be considered a perfect participle for fatīscō, with the inchoative -isc- ...


11

I generally trust Etymonline more than Wiktionary: musical direction, "moderately slow," 1742, from Italian andante, literally "walking," present participle of andare "to go," from Vulgar Latin ambitare (source of Spanish andar "to go"), from Latin ambitus, past participle of ambire "to go round, go about," from amb- "around" (see ambi-) + ire "go" (see ...


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