I cannot provide a complete answer either, but perhaps a few points one the subject of kissing, and the semantics of the words for it. I cannot, unfortunately, provide immediate literature references for these,
The elder word for the kiss is osculum, attested in the earliest writing, and with a very transparent meaning (“little mouth”). Romans had a ...
Another partial answer.
Tl;dr: kissing had a social role in Judaism that was inherited into Christianity (as osculum in the Vulgate), where it even had/acquired a ceremonial role (not sure if this one existed among Jews). Maybe—and this is pure speculation—this ceremonial role was what later made the word osculum a matter of respect and created ...
Here's counter-evidence for you, from Ovid Amores (2,5).
inproba tum vero iungentes oscula vidi—
illa mihi lingua nexa fuisse liquet—
qualia non fratri tulerit germana severo,
sed tulerit cupido mollis amica viro;
qualia credibile est non Phoebo ferre Dianam,
sed Venerem Marti saepe tulisse suo.
or here's an excerpt from Platus Mercator (744-...
Smith's Copious & Critical English-Latin Dictionary (p. 430) in longish articles is good on this, giving suavium as the "most suitable word for ordinary use", osculor as "the term most suitable for the highest composition" (cf. the original question) and so on.
In his arch, Victorian way, Smith cites basium as "esp. an amorous or lewd kiss" and, in fact,...
From an entry (which includes references here omitted) in Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes:
Citus; Celer; Velox; Pernix; Properus; Festinus. 1. Citus and celer
denote swiftness, merely as quick motion, in opp. to tardus, ... velox
and pernix, nimbleness, as bodily strength and activity, in opp. to
lentus; properus and festinus, haste, as the ...
I think Google Translate has messed up here (as it often does).
"conlis" doesn't seem to exist
I'm by no means a Latin expert, so there may be some entirely legitimate but obscure word conlis that I just haven't heard of, but to me it just looks like a misspelling of collis, possibly based on analogy with the variation between conl- and coll- that ...
Neither is good Latin. The first one:
Sumus semper in excretum, sed alta variat
... translates as:
We are always in [excretum], but [alta] changes.
Excretum is the accusative of the supine of excerno 'to separate'; presumably excrementum is meant, but it should at least be in the ablative—excremento. (The English verb excrete does derive from excretum, ...
Collis is a masculine noun meaning hill and also high ground. It is used in plural, as well, to mean a chain of hills.
Conlis, in turn, does not show up in L&S, which is a good dictionary, nor in the main Classic works presently known (here I leave a link to a disappointing search with no results). Therefore I'd advise against using it.
I think Google ...
With is such a versatile word in English that how's it actually being used is sometimes obscured. Consider the following:
I am going to the store with my friends.
I am making a house with the best tools.
With is used in these sentences, but they're using it very differently. The first expresses accompaniment: the friend are coming along. The second ...
I've already commented on this, but I'll add this as (another) partial answer: ósculo is a learned borrowing from Latin from osculum, rather than having been descended from its Latin origin in popular speech, unlike the case of Sp. beso < L. basium, so it's natural that it started out (in Spanish) with a more literary feel to it than the common beso.
This is an answer to your bonus question.
Yes, there are a number of kissing words in Latin.
Based on basium there are basiolum ("little kiss") and basiatio ("the act of kissing", also "kiss" by metonymy).
AS you recalled suavium is used, and so is the diminutive suaviolum.
In addition to osculum and words related to the ones you mentioned, there are ...
Dexter and rectus
"Dexter" is the term for "right" as in one's right hand. "Rectus" never means "right" in this sense; it means straight, upright, direct, or correct, but it doesn't mean right as the opposite of left.
Sinister, laevus, scaevus
"Sinister" has a much longer entry than the other two in the ...
Like all good questions, this one has no simple answer. The big dictionaries devote many columns to it. Kennedy 286 gives a crisp & useful summary. A couple of firm examples:
Travelling from a place... is ab.
I am of or from the family X... is de.
Nearly always, ab is elided to a before a consonant. See the Oxford Latin Dictionary for exceptions.
The difference is not big.
I would argue that the semantic difference between philosophia naturalis and philosophia naturae in Latin is the same as between "natural philosophy" and "philosophy of nature" in English.
I find the exact difference between the two to be a matter of taste, at least to an extent.
The genitive in philosophia ...
A place-holder, until someone writes the perfect answer. Rule of thumb rules:
Avoid an elision or a hiatus by choosing 'ab,' 'abs', in preference to 'a' or 'de.'
Where 'from' can be replaced by 'down from', pick 'de'
de montibus cucurrit. de turris autem versus concino.
From what I understand in the comments, where you say 'amabo' is futurum simplex and 'amavero' is futurum exactum, what you are actually asking about is the difference between what most Latin scholars would call the future tense and the future perfect tense. The future tense (amabo, your 'futurum simplex) is simple a verb tense referring to an action that ...
Futurum Simplex (simple future, future imperfect)
The simple future, amābō, is the most common future tense. It refers to something which is going to happen in the future: "I will love". In general, "will" is the best way to translate this into English.
You form the simple future in two different ways:
In the first (amāre) and second (...
In my beginner-Latin courses, my instructors were fairly explicit with the differences; In classical Latin, hic was a pronoun that indicated closeness to a person either in proximity or friendship. Ille was often used for proximity as well, but it could also be a more diplomatic word for somebody you disagreed with. Iste, a common ...
As you mention, Lewis and Short say that immergō was "mostly poet[ic] and in post-Aug[ustan] prose". Whitaker marks its frequency with a C, which means between 5 and 20 citations were found in his corpus.
On the other hand, L&S say that submergō was "class[ical]; most freq[uently] pass[ive]". Whitaker marks both submergō and summergō with a C, giving ...
Both verbs do exist in Catalan: immergir and submergir (vid. https://dlc.iec.cat/). Immergir: "ficar dins un líquid" ('to introduce into a liquid') / Submergir: "Posar sota l’aigua o altre líquid" ('to put under the water or other liquid").
As for Spanish, I've seen that inmergir is found in authors like Ramón y Cajal o Pérez Galdós. Vid. https://twitter....