The second form is the genitive singular.
The above answers address the substance of your question, but I wanted to add as a supplementary answer something that doesn't appear to be explicitly stated elsewhere: The genitive singular is the only form that is unique and uniform for each declension.
Unique: No other declension has the same genitive singular ...
The best free, online Latin-English dictionary is undoubtedly Lewis and Short. There are several ways to access it, too, and they are given in separate answers.
Most people seem to go straight to Tufts' Perseus website, which has the Lewis and Short in its entirety. As it provides a direct link to each word, this is a great way to link someone to a ...
This encyclopedia entry explains that
The Greeks and Romans did not attempt a work containing all the words of their own or any foreign language; their early dictionaries were merely lists of unusual words or phrases. [. . .] One of the earliest works in Latin lexicography, by Verrius Flaccus, is De Verborum Significatu (The Meaning of Words),...
It's the singular genitive-case form. The use is that if you know the nominative singular form, genitive singular form, and the gender of a regularly inflected Latin noun, you can predict all of its other forms. These are the "principal parts" of a regular Latin noun. (Some nouns have irregularities in their inflection that require more description, like the ...
First, not all dictionaries follow that convention.
Importantly, though, the infinitive cannot distinguish between 3rd and 3rd-IO verbs, which of the four principle parts, is only distinguishable in the first person present (cf. ago, agere, egi, actus v. facio, facere, feci, factus). Not having that there would lead students to miss that crucial information....
For more thorough comparisons with different Latin dictionaries, including the Latin-Dutch dictionary LaNe, one can use Chicago's Logeion. You can type in either Latin or Greek (transliterated or unicode) and it will bring up a drop down menu for you to select the word (good for seeing a bunch of potentially related words very quickly). Besides LaNe and ...
If you're looking for an English-to-Latin dictionary, I recommend A Copious and Critical English-Latin Dictionary, by William Smith and Theophilus (!) Hall. The most recent edition was published in 1871, so there are lots of ways in which it's not really suitable for today: many English words have changed their meanings since then, and many more have changed ...
You can find the abbreviations for Lewis & Short in the Latin Lexicon 'Numen' online:
First you will find the abbreviations of ancient authors and their works; then those of commonly used words and signs; last a catalogue of modern authors and their works referred to in the dictionary.
Here are the ...
The first form, e.g., cena, is the lemma or lexical form. This is the form you use when looking up words in a dictionary or lexicon.
The second form is the lemma declined in the genitive case, singular number. In this instance, it is cenae.
Robert J. Henle wrote,1
All Latin nouns are divided into five main groups called declensions, and in these groups ...
Oh, God, the prudish lengths to which dictionaries go to avoid translating profanity correctly! I feel your pain—I too feel cheated and betrayed when this happens. It's like, aren't you supposed to tell me what this word means? Well, "to practice unnatural vice" is not what this word means.
I don't know of any dictionaries that do their jobs properly in ...
I highly recommand Collatinus. There are a web version and a desktop version, and it's a free software (CC BY-NC).
search for lemma in several Latin dictionaries (Gaffiot, Calonghi, Lewis & Short, du Cange, Georges, Valbuena)
flex a lemma
scan a Latin text
lemmatize a Latin text (with 7 target languages)
perform its ...
Pollux: Archimedes Project Dictionary Access
Here you can search Lewis & Short, Liddell Scott Jones, and a few other dictionaries. The layout is not as good as on Perseus, but it loads much faster, so it is what I use.
You can add a bookmark with keyword in Firefox in order to search from the address bar. You can then simply type e.g. le meretrix in ...
The online version of William Whitaker's Words (originally an MS-DOS program, see Wikipedia) is very useful: http://archives.nd.edu/words.html
It is very useful, especially translate from English to Latin or Latin English words. It can identify an inflected or derived form of a Latin words based on tables of conjugations and declensions it contains. Some ...
One option is Philolog.us which not only allows for quick looking up of entries in Lewis and Short, but also the Greek dictionaries Liddel and Scott's and Slater's Lexicon to Pindar. The big bonus for Philologus is its iPhone app. Sorry Android users, no Philologus yet, though one is in the works.
But now there is: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?...
One option to consider is the online Latin-English Dictionary. It is essentially an online version of William Whitaker's words, and uses the exact same word list.
(Full disclosure: this is a shameless self-plug for a side-project I worked on while teaching myself Python / Django.)
Can accept and parse inflected words. (Searching for ...
Actually, Latin dictionaries tend to list four forms of a Latin verb. These forms are known as "principal parts." So the "official" listing for your example consists of four principal parts:
sedeō, sedēre, sēdī, sessum [or "sessus," depending on which tradition you follow].
The first word means "I sit," the second one "to sit," the third "I sat," and the ...
One possibility is to use Webxicon.
It translates between several languages, including Latin and English.
You can even leave the target or source language blank to get answers for all possible languages.
It is sometimes useful to translate a Latin word to several languages at once and to see many translations options in all languages at one glance.
If you ...
I often use Numen, the Latin lexicon (latinlexicon.org).
It is easy to use and allows searches for both Latin and English words.
Many entries have use examples, although they can be quite cryptic.
It also has a "word study tool" where you can enter a passage of Latin text and look at all possible translations word by word.
This tool works because the ...
To be able to generate a list of candidates, one should know some common ways to produce different principal parts from a given stem.
To produce the present stem (the first principal part as you call it) one might add a nasal before the last consonant.
To produce the perfect stem one might reduplicate the first syllable, with possibility for vowel gradation....
First of all, I must confess I don't know many. However, the one I commonly use meets my needs pretty well and isn't mentioned above: it is University of Notre Dame's Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid.
15,000+ Words. Classical-Latin prone.
Latin and English search, very intuitive. It looks for words starting with your query by default, allowing great ...
There's a widget that lets you look up any word in the Oxford Latin Dictionary.
It's the Oxford Latin Dictionary
It's behind a paywall (subscription-based) - available to institutions only.
There's a free YouTube tutorial that shows its functionality in all its glory.
Latin is Simple!
http://latin-is-simple.com/ is a dedicated online dictionary that contains most latin words:
Over 44,000 vocabulary entries (with translations)
Thus over 3,100,000 inflected (conjugated/declined) forms! Including all tenses, cases, persons, participles, .... Each word can be displayed individually including all details and inflections
Concerning your first question, "straining for a stool" has an unambiguous meaning in English. "Straining oneself," on the other hand, can mean any number of things. I'm not sure what else needs to be said on this point.
Expanding the context of the Suetonius quote makes it pretty clear why this particular meaning is inferred:
Statura fuit quadrata, ...
The Lexicon Morganianum (with a new website as of only a few months ago) is an excellent resource. It was originally compiled by David Morgan and Patrick Owens. It includes macrons and is exclusively for neo-Latin words, like "radio."
The search-utility is not terribly good (as you can see from the above example). It certainly beats what I did earlier: ...
A digitized version of Harper’s Latin Dictionary: A New Latin Dictionary founded on the Translation of Freund’s Latin-German Lexicon (a.k.a. Lewis & Short Lexicon) is also available at Internet Archive, albeit not as easily searchable as an HTML webpage.
The beginning of the lexicon includes the:
“Orthographical Index” on pages v–vi,
I always use the site: https://en.glosbe.com/
I like the site because it has got more than 15.000 words, new and old Latin. It shows:
The conjugation of the word
A lot of example sentences
You can listen to the pronunciation
It is based on several online dictionaries
It's a great site, I recommend it.
The following is a summary of Ferri 2011. His Academia.edu account can be found here. Rolando Ferri is Professore Ordinario presso at Dipartimento di Filologia, Letteratura e Linguistica, at the University of Pisa.
Roman lexicography includes “anonymous or pseudo-epigrapha glossaries and word-lists, both monolingual (Latin-Latin) and bilingual (Greek-Latin ...
I recommend this method when choosing a Latin translation for an English word:
When you look up the word in an English–Latin dictionary (or several sources), you get a list of possible translations.
Then check each of the suggested Latin words in a Latin–English dictionary to get an impression of their meaning.
For a better insight, consult ...
The best quick reference for such questions is Allen's Vox Latina (2nd ed., 1978). Here's what he says:
"One further peculiarity of spelling concerns compounds of iacio, such as conicio (also in-, ad-, ab-, sub-, ob-, dis). With the exception of a few examples in early and late Latin, the first syllable is always heavy, which indicates that the i here ...
Lewis and Short was published in 1879 and of course knowledge of Latin has progressed since then. It has been superseded by the Oxford Latin Dictionary, to say nothing of the multi-volume Thesaurus Linguae Latinae of the Berlin Academy. But these books are protected by copyright and are not available on the internet.
What is L&S not good for? It is not ...