13

Yes, a deponent verb can have an accusative object just like non-deponent verbs do. If I threaten someone with something in Latin, then alicui aliquid minor. The person (or other entity) being threatened is in dative, but the threat (death, punishment, fine, ...) is in accusative. Since minari is a deponent verb, the seemingly passive form can be used as if ...


12

It is rare to find a true (i.e. non-deponent) passive imperative, because the idea of ordering someone to do something is opposed to the idea of having something done to you. Pinkster, in Oxford Latin Syntax (pg. 164), explains this more clearly: The grammatical category of 'mood' is one of the means by which the speaker can convey his view of the ...


10

Good question! I am not aware of a possibility of passivizing such a structure. Instead, I suggest two ways around this: Use a different verb. Depending on context, perhaps comitare, haerere, or insistere could replace sequi. With a non-deponent verb you can form passives as usual. Use a pronoun meaning "someone". Although aliquis me sequitur might not be ...


10

I don't know of a good way to distinguish patere from patēre in a corpus search, so I think you have three choices: Look through the results. Come up with another search that captures what you are looking for. Try to think of a contextual word that would remove (most) false positives. As it happens, all three methods worked for me! The second result in ...


9

Indeed, historically deponents are descended from a middle/reflexive voice. In historical usage, though, deponents lost this, and can take a direct object. See e.g.: te sequor aggredior hominem te hortor With plenty other examples, and even verbs like uti can take an accusative in some situations. One could argue that the forms themselves make the ...


9

The Lewis & Short entry for miro indicates that it is an “ante-classical form of miror”. Combining the examples in this entry with those found in An Etymological Analysis of Latin Verbs, I have found the following authors who use the active form instead of the deponent: Varro (d. 27 BC) Hospes, quid miras nummo curare Serapim? and Aut ambos mira ...


9

The present stem is persequ-: this can be found by removing -or from the end of the first person active singular persequor. It is a consonant stem, which gets an -e- in present participles: persequens. The same applies to the gerundive: persequendus. The supine stem is persecut-: this can be found by removing -um from the end of the supine persecutum. The ...


8

Before we understand the gerundive of a deponent verb, we need to first understand the particples of deponent verbs. Participles of Deponent Verbs Deponent verbs are often described as verbs with "passive forms but active meanings." While this generally holds true, it ignores a crucial extra step: deponents have participles in both voices! (See Allen & ...


7

digno and the deponent dignor are both used in the same meaning "to deem worthy", but the latter is much more frequent. L/S have a separate entry for each of them.


7

My understanding is that deponent verbs, unlike passive verbs, are conjugated the same way as active verbs for a few non-finite forms/constructions. Specifically, according to the document "Deponent Verbs" from The Latin Library online, deponent verbs use the same forms as active verbs for the present active participle, the future active participle and the ...


7

190b. The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs otherwise deponent it is often passive: as, mercátus, bought; adeptus, gained (or having gained). As I read it (with the help of some other paper grammars) this means: “Perfect participles of deponent verbs generally have an active sense. However, there are deponent verbs which follow ...


5

In his Corso elementare di lingua latina ("Elementary Latin course", 1844), Vincenzo De Angelis deals with this in Volume 1, p. 191: Se il verbo indica azione vi sarà il passivo, come amo ed amor... e perciò amans ed amatus-amaturus ed amandus. Ma ove indicasse uno stato intransitivo, nè il verbo vi sarà con questo doppio valore, e forma; nè participi ...


5

I looked into how Caesar uses past participles and est. His style is considered good and he does not aim for anything particularly convoluted or poetic, so I think he is a good choice for this question. I searched for all examples of -tus close to est in a corpus, and found the following: There are many examples of a past participle and an est (although ...


5

There is no separate vertor; they're the same word. However, it's not truly passive. Verto in the passive can have a middle sense, i.e. where you are the actor doing the action to yourself. The OLD spells it out clearly: (pass. in middle sense, cf. uersor) To go to and fro, move about (in a place). b (of affairs, etc.) to be involved (in difficulties). ...


4

The verb κεῖμαι isn't a contract verb like θεάομαι or ἡγέομαι (or a 'regular' verb like λύω); it's an athematic verb like τίθημι, δίδωμι, or ἵημι, but deponent. So, the circumflex isn't showing contraction as it is in θεῶμαι and ἡγοῦμαι; it's used simply because the accent is on the penult, the penult is a long syllable, and the ultima is short, per the ...


4

Thinking about your very interesting question ("That is, do we ever see non-deponent verbs with passive morphology, but able to take accusative direct objects and not able to take ablative agents?"), here is an example that could be argued (at least, claimed!) to satisfy your grammatical conditions: flava caput nectentur oliva (Verg. Aen. 5, 309) '...


3

I would argue that iacēre is of this kind. Morphologically it is fully active, but semantically it can be seen as a passive form of iacĕre. Lewis and Short describe it as "to be thrown" and hence "to lie". However, iacēre is not syntactically fully passive: It is intransitive so it takes no objects, but to my knowledge it cannot take an ...


3

The OLD says the following: "usu. dep. in pres. system, active in pf. system. Dep. pf. mostly post-Augustan."


2

The way I see it, there is no middle voice in Latin, but there can certainly be traces of it. The situation is similar to the dual number. That said, looking for such traces is interesting. Here is one candidate worth considering. Dictionaries tend to list contemplare and contemplari as separate entries. However, if we analyze them as the same word, ...


2

Third time lucky! Here is then my third try in answering Draconis's intriguing question ("do we ever see non-deponent verbs with passive morphology, but able to take accusative direct objects and not able to take ablative agents?"). Consider the following example: Namque umeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum venatrix dederatque comam diffundere ...


1

As comments-section grows, this is not so much an answer as an interpretation of Mitomino's "flava caput nectentur oliva": the assertion that "caput" is an accusative; not a nominative. Expressions like "accusative-of-relation" & "retained-accusative-of-specification" can be baffling to those who have not studied linguistics. Extra study is required: "...


1

I think that the meanings attributed by sumelic to nasciturus and nascendus ("about to be born" and "needing to be born", respectively) are more or less appropriate (NB: the modal meaning "needing" is not present in all gerundives. Rather the "conditio sine qua non" for gerundives seems to be that their argument must be a Patient/Theme). The form nasciturus ...


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