9

Of course, as with so much in Latin, there's more than one answer, none of them incorrect. The first answer is yes, using hic and ille like this to mean "the latter" and "the former" is common and correct. Here's Cicero in De Amicitia: Scitum est enim illud Catonis, ut multa: 'melius de quibusdam acerbos inimicos mereri quam eos amicos ...


9

When hic and ille are used like this, they refer to the distance of words: hic refers to the closest noun, ille the one that came first. In your example, you have first pontus and then aer. Hic therefore refers to the one closer to the pronoun, and since aer is closer to hic than pontus, it must refer to that. Likewise, since pontus is further away than aer,...


8

You may be able to find nouna...nounb, isb...sed illea, but that's an unusual pairing, and you'd probably want to read it more literally, i.e. "he did X, but the former/latter did Y." The most common pairing is nouna...nounb, hicb...illea. Allen & Greenough §297 have this to say about is in this usage: Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and ...


8

I don't have a source for this answer, as it's based on my intuition from reading Latin texts, but here's my sense of the difference between is and hic/iste/ille. Hic/iste/ille are strongly deictic: that is, they have a kind of "pointing finger" meaning. They often point out objects in space (here, near you, over there); but they can also point out things ...


8

I'd like to offer an addition, which was originally posted as a comment but requested to be turned into an answer by OP. As explained in the other two answers, iste, ille and hic are used to refer back to the items of a previous enumeration. In that sense, "the former ... the latter" is a perfectly acceptable translation. However, in your example this ...


7

Isolated usages of unus as an indefinite article have been identified in Old and Classical Latin, but generally speaking unus and ille did not establish themselves as articles until Late and early Medieval Latin. Unus Regarding unus, Harm Pinkster provides several commonly cited examples of unus as article or article-like from the 4th century and earlier: ...


6

A pronoun is called a pronoun because it stands in place of a noun. The preposition pro in Latin means “in place of, on behalf of” (well, it is a bit more versatile, but it fits here). So a proconsul acts on behalf of a consul and a pronomen stands in for a nomen. For example: Marcus Claudiae obviam factus est et eam [= Claudiam] salvere iussit. Marcus came ...


6

You can't read Latin proficiently without knowing these pronouns: they're all very common, and the meaning of a sentence often hinges on their precise form. That said, their declensions are complicated and tend to be something students of Latin come back to again and again until they're mastered. So you don't necessarily need to stop here until you've ...


6

In Latin (and most if not all other Indo-European languages that maintain noun genders), the masculine is used for groups of mixed gender. This comes from how the genders formed in Proto-Indo-European. According to the prevailing theory, originally there were only two genders, animate and neuter. But there were certain common suffixes used on certain types ...


4

Him (meaning 'this man,' 'that man.') hunc, illum, istum, (also (derogatory) ollum Cicero, but this usage decried by Quintilian) also ollus, a, um, old form for ille, q. v. Lewis and Short perseus Him (meaning 'this very person' or 'the self-same person) See II Esp. A By way of eminence, ipse is used to indicate the chief person, host, master, teacher, ...


4

Your suggestion eum would indeed be the standard one. There are options, based on the fact that the English "he" does not correspond to a single Latin pronoun. Instead of is you could use ille and sometimes qui or iste or ipse or idem, and sometimes you can drop the pronoun altogether. Without further context (and there usually isn't further context for an ...


4

Two ways: By agreement in gender and number—but not case, since the pronoun's case in the subordinate clause may differ from that of its antecedent in the parent clause. By sense—that is, by what interpretation makes sense in context. You're running into trouble, though, because qui in that sentence has no antecedent. It refers to the as yet unnamed ...


3

The relative pronoun qui is masculine plural, and you translate it as "those who". As you can see, in English, we have a demonstrative/personal pronoun "those" and a relative pronoun "who". In Latin (and some other languages), the demonstrative pronoun can be left out in certain such cases. You have left it out. I think that's acceptable, but you could add ...


3

Descriptively speaking, relative clauses can be classified into two types depending on having an external antecedent or not (e.g., please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_clause ): cf. so-called "bound relative clauses" and so-called "free relative clauses", respectively. The former are the "typical" ones, which, as you point out, have an ...


2

Pronoun differences. In my beginner-Latin courses, my instructors were fairly explicit with the differences; In classical Latin, hic was a pronoun that indicated closeness to a person either in proximity or friendship. Ille was often used for proximity as well, but it could also be a more diplomatic word for somebody you disagreed with. Iste, a common ...


2

Yes, the boundary between adjective and substantive nouns is often unclear in Latin and Greek. So adjectives can generally be used like substantive nouns, and demonstrative pronouns like ille are adjectival and can be used like substantive nouns as well. So ille can be "he" or whatever pronoun fits the antecedent. Similarly—or the other way around—, nouns ...


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