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11

The diminutive ending -ula is common in classical Latin, and arguably productive. The examples you found are not exceptional. The linked question does not discuss all the Latin diminutives. The suffixes listed in the question are all masculine, but there are corresponding feminine and neuter variants. So the -ulus there implicitly includes -ula (and -ulum). ...


10

I found a few other examples from a search on Perseus of Lewis and Short (I looked for words ending in "llula", "llulus" and "llulum"): arcellula < arcella < arca a very little box, Diom. p. 313 P. lamellula < lamella < lamina a small plate of metal: “glebulas emi, lamellulas paravi,” Petr. 57, 6. asellulus < asellus < asinus a ...


9

I think abdomunculum would be the most regular diminutive of abdomen. But it seems a bit difficult to me to give a clear answer because the rules about "proper" diminutive suffixes are often based on the form and gender of the original noun, and I know of no existing diminutives formed on nouns with precisely the same morphological form and gender as abdomen,...


8

It depends on how much emphasis you put on "unambiguously refers to an individual human being". I don't know of any examples that are just like παιδίον or Mädchen. Several Latin grammars that I have looked at include short lists of neuter nouns that seem to have been used fairly regularly to refer to human beings, but it seems like most of these words did ...


8

A word search confirms that -olus is used instead of -ulus after a vowel. A Perseus search for words ending in -olus reveals (among a few false positives, like malevolus) that every diminutive form follows a vowel. A similar search for -[vowel]ulus, such as -iulus, only returns false positives. This is confirmed in Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar: [...


6

According to Sihler, New comparative grammar of Greek and Latin, the PIE root is *H3ekw, 'see'; according to OLD, the (theoretical) original Latin form is *oquelos. Presumably, the (u)lus that looks like a diminutive suffix is actually one of the suffixes that are added to verb roots and used to indicate instrument/means (Gildersleeve and Lodge, Latin ...


6

According to Gildersleeve and Lodge, §182.1, ‑ulus is a regular former of adjectives from verbs. This particular formation indicates repeated action. They cite querulus and I could add bibulus. ‑bundus is unrepeated action (cunctabundus, nauseabundus). ‑bilis (amabilis, bibibilis, vendibilis) is passive action, as also, I suspect, is ‑ulis (edulis). The ...


5

I'm afraid *fra is not possible in Latin. Truncating words like that is probably very rare in Latin—of course excluding abbreviations in inscriptions and the like: those would be pronounced in full when read. So what you suggest seems impossible.


5

It looks like the etymology of titulus is unclear. The Lewis and Short suggestion that it is related to τίνω seems a bit hard to accept (unless titulus was borrowed at some point from some Greek form), as Wiktionary indicates that the initial consonant of τίνω is thought to have come from a PIE labiovelar *kʷ. The change of *kʷ to /t/ before /i/ is specific ...


5

No, the form is accidental. Instead it's onomatopoeic, which can be deduced by it's cognates in: Greek ololyzein [ὀλολύζειν], Sanskrit ululih "a howling," Lithuanian uluti "howl," Gaelic uileliugh "wail of lamentation," Old English ule "owl". Greek diminutives aren't formed by a lambda. That Latin's diminutives do is coincidence.


5

On the model of homō, hominis (stem = homin), the recorded diminutives of which are homullus (< homōnlus) and homunculus, I'd guess abdōmullus or abdōmunculus (update: or maybe abdōmullum or abdōmunculum). The topic of suffixes for various types of words is covered in, e.g., §176 ff. of Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar. Diminutive suffixes are ...


5

angulus is cognate with English “ankle” (and other Germanic words) and Russian “ugol” (corner) and its Slavic cognates, so the /l/ is Indo-European heritage, not a Latin innovation. PIE reconstructions such as *ang-(o)lo- or *h2eng-(o)lo- have been proposed. angere “to strangle” is supposed to be from *h2emǵho-, with a palatal *ǵh.


4

The fact that the etymology of titulus seems to be unclear, was definitely a held opinion in the past among some classicists. A book from 1889 about loaned words in Latin by Edward Ross Wharton, from the University of Oxford, includes titulus as part of the "un-Greek loan-words" that "seem foreign, though we cannot tell where they came from". A few years ...


4

There certainly are double diminutives in Latin. Here are some examples explicitly indicated in Lewis and Short: agellulus < agellus < ager ancillula < ancilla < ancula (Yes, ancilla is a diminutive!) arcellula < arcella < arca asellulus < asellus < asinus


4

Indo-European *ekʷ (or h³ekʷ) is the source of the word for “eye” in many IE languages (possibly including English, though this is debated). The /l/ suffix is found only in Latin, so it is certainly possible that the Latin form is a diminutive. In this case, ocellus “little eye” would be doubly diminutive, like the words discussed here: Can there be double ...


2

Augmentatives seem to me far less clear-cut than the diminutives: .a. Obviously the comparatives and superlatives, -ior and -issimus. .b. -osus for example formicosus – full of ants. .c. Some of the inceptives seem to carry augmentative meaning: děhisco, -hivi, (inf dehisse) gape, yawn. fortesco -beome braver possibly also obliviscor grow more oblivious (...


2

Sumelic has answered this question wonderfully, but I wanted to add a lovely bit of folk etymology I came across. Títan heitir sól, en þaðan af er minkat þat nafn, er títúlus er á Látínu. Títull, kveðum ver, þat er sem lítil sól sé, því at svá sem sól lýsir, þar er áðr var myrkt, þá lýsir svá títull bók, ef fyrir er ritinn… The Sun is called Titan, ...


1

It seems difficult to find a diminutive form of the word frater in actual usage in Latin. The closest I can find is in the Italian fra as in Fra Angelico. There is a traditional Benedictine monastery near where I live and the priests are often referred to as Pater (P. Placidus) and those studying for the priesthood are are called frater (Fr. Augustinus). ...


1

Even though a non-diminuitive version of credulus does not exist, it kind of has this "smallness" connotation. If somebody is credulus, he is childish in some way, so you call at least some part of his brain little developed. This naivity comes with a childish innocence and also dinkiness. Furthermore, this is meant derogatively, so there are some fulfilled ...


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