27

This means "illa" definitely doesn't refer to "dies". But it does! The word dies can be feminine, and it is here. The feminine gender is rarer but it is the typical choice for a special day like an appointment or a deadline. That's why it was chosen here. For details, see this question about gender variation in dies.


19

From the Perseus Database, the frequency of the cases is as follows: Nouns (19630): accusative 31.6% ablative 25.8% nominative 22.6% genitive 13.6% dative 4.6% vocative 1.2% locative 0.2% unknown 0.4% Adjectives (7497): accusative 33.0% nominative 31.6% ablative 21.8% genitive 8.6% dative 4.2% vocative 0.6% locative 0.0% unknown 0.0% Pronouns (6289): ...


12

It is the feminine nominative and refers to dies. It means “that day.” You do not say why you think you can definitely rule it out, but I guess you think dies is masculine, which is indeed the case. But it is also often feminine. Generally speaking, it is feminine only when referring to a set day, an appointed time. This does arguably apply to the day of ...


12

According to this study, the distribution is as follows: 1st declension 21.6% 2nd declension 23.7% 3rd declension 52.6% 4th declension 1.4% 5th declension 0.7% ("Development of Gender Classifications: Modeling the Historical Change from Latin to French," by Maria Polinsky and Ezra Van Everbroeck Language Vol. 79, No. 2, Jun., 2003, Table 2, pg. 362)


10

The prosaic word order in Latin—that is, the ordinary, normal, unremarkable word order—goes like this:       noun modifier The noun comes first, and the modifier comes right after. The modifier can be any of: an adjective, as in canis ruber (a red dog); a noun in the genitive case, as in canis Georgii (George's dog); (rarely) a noun in the same case, as ...


9

It is common for male names to be put into the second declension when Latinized, in which case they inflect in general like any other second-declension noun. So going from Raonīus as a second-declension nominative form, it is quite clear that the accusative is Raonīum and the ablative/dative is Raonīō. As far as I know, no native Latin name ends in -īus ...


9

One can split up the process of finding the case to three steps: Find all possible cases a word could possibly be. Also bear in mind that there might be several options for the base word, like supplici coming from either supplex or supplicium. Check the declension tables if you don't remember them by heart. Analyze the grammatical context. Does the word go ...


9

If the word for "day" had developed perfectly regularly, we'd actually expect to see it in the fourth declension, as it comes from a PIE u-stem! A few traces of this hypothetical fourth-declension are attested, such as the locative diū (which survives Classically in diū "all day") and the nominative dius (which survives Classically in nunc dius > nūdius "it ...


8

Looking at the Greek NT, it turns out the name in Greek is Ἀπολλῶς. This belongs to an odd subclass of Greek nouns called the Attic declension, which are basically second-declension nouns whose stem ends in -ω- instead of -ο-. The case forms are accordingly strange-looking, e.g. gen. Ἀπολλῶ, acc. Ἀπολλῶν. It looks like the Romans weren't quite sure how to ...


6

Here is another set of examples aimed at the precious bonus points. Now the cases are in the order they are taught here (nom, acc, gen, dat, abl) so as to help memorization; feel free to permute to your local standards. The first example uses only first declension feminines. You can also switch to plural for those endings. Puella uvam amicae vicinae e ...


6

Here is an example using all seven cases in a typical way: Marce, vir feminae panem e furno pistoris Romae dat. Marcus (voc.), the man (nom.) gives a bread (acc.) from the baker's (gen.) oven (abl.) to the woman (dat.) in Rome (loc.). Reason for each case: Marce, vocative: Marcus is being addressed ("Hey Marcus!"), and the vocative is used for this....


5

Additionally, note that "irae" in "Dies irae" is in the genitive. "illa", in the nominative, can't match a noun in the genitive case. :)


4

“In” with the ablative describes a location, time, or steady state, whereas with the accusative it describes a direction. So the ablative is the appropriate case here, as you want to describe a figurative position, or state. “In” never takes the dative (nor does any other preposition). The phrase you propose looks good to me. A precedent for it is found in ...


4

Diēs was originally an irregular member of the fourth declension: in Old Latin the nom. was diūs. But the irregular acc. diēm tended to generate a new nominative by analogy, and the noun was pulled into the emerging fifth declension while keeping its gender. These 12 or so nouns don't represent any identifiable group of PIE nouns, but slowly became more ...


4

It's not just vatēs - see Weiss pp 243-244 for details. He mentions 30 i-stem hysterokinetic nouns that have -ēs ending in nom.sg. (instead of the expected -is), for example: aedēs, caedēs, cautēs , cladēs etc. I am aware of two proposals. Analogical leveling in Latin Some researchers have claimed that nom.sg. -ēs is due to analogical leveling after acc....


4

Here is an all-masculine attempt, one word per case, plus a verb: Vesperi, Attice, imperator populi iussu regi equum pollicebitur. In the evening, Atticus, the commander, on the people's order, will promise the king a horse. Explanation: Vesperi: Locative of vesper. Attice: Vocative of Atticus, the person to whom the narration is addressed. imperator: ...


4

LSJ on Σ: B the name σίγμα ( σῖγμα) was usu. indeclinable, τοῦ σῖγμα Pl. l.c., Cra.402e, 427a, Ath.10.455c, Lyd.Mens.1.21 (v.l. σίγματος) ; τῷ σῖγμα Gal.UP2.14, al.; τῶν σῖγμα Pl.Com.30; τὰ σίγμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀσπίδων X.HG4.4.10, cf. Hellad. ap. Phot.Bibl.p.532 B.; later declined, τοῦ σίγματος Eust.1389.15; σίγμασιν Id.905.7.


3

The morphological issues are explained already. In any case, I hope that a literal translation will help: "The day of wrath, that wellknown day" About the use of illa, in this context, I would say that it is used to indicate some well-known or celebrated object, equivalent to the ancient, the wellknown, the famous. You can find this use here: Lewis&...


3

Do it to the best of your abilities and don't worry too much Latinization would always be done to the best of one's abilities in the times where this was a thing. Details varied according to what dialect one was most familiar with: spoken "vulgar" Latin vs. Church Latin vs. classic Latin vs. whatever some local variant. Names often varied over the lifetime ...


3

Just making a post to hold a few more things I found out since asking the question. This noun is likely related to touiller (Fr.), tudiculare, and tudicula There is a French verb touiller 'toss', whose ou points to Latin short ŭ, which is thought to be derived from a Latin first-conjugation verb tŭdĭculō, tŭdĭcŭlāre. The Latin verb is thought to be derived ...


3

I wouldn't take Wiktionary's declension tables too seriously. They're algorithmically generated, and don't necessarily imply that any particular form is attested. In this case, I haven't been able to find any attested forms apart from the tuditēs and tudibus you cited. So any singular forms would have to be back-derived from there. The genitive singular is ...


3

Difficult to verify this research but, according to this Reddit thread, the distribution over An Elementary Latin Dictionary (Lewis) would be: 1st declension 19.14% (1248) 2nd declension 31.28% (2039) 3rd declension 45.93% (2994) 4th declension 3.59% (234) 5th declension 0.06% (4)


3

Cole can be either seen as a pet form of Nicholas, or apparently as an independent name derived from the Old English nickname Cola. See here, here, here, here. Since the Latin for Nicholas is Nicolaus (or Nicholaus), the former interpretation gives Colaus. In Italian there is the historical precedent of Nicola Gabrini, a 14th century politician, being known ...


3

The transaction's essential things Essentiālia negōtiī transactions' essential things Essentiālia negōtiōrum essential things of the transaction Essentiālia negōtiī essential things of the transactions Essentiālia negōtiōrum negōtia essentiālia trānsāctiōnis "Essential affairs of the transaction" negōtia essentiālia trānsāctiōnum "...


3

EDIT: Note that this answer applies to an earlier version of the question; see the revision history for details. The genitive in (Classical) Latin is, in fact, never accompanied by an article—because Latin has no articles at all! Like in (Ancient) Greek, the Latin genitive is marked by a special ending on nouns and adjectives. This ending varies by ...


2

I agree with @Vincenzo that Cola would probably work well, not only because in Latin there exists the word agricola, meaning "farmer", but especially since Agricola was a real name. Gnaeus Iulius Agricola was a politician and general who lived during the Early Roman Empire. He conquered Britain and governed on that region over quite a long period. Recalled ...


2

To answer the question from the title, after is somewhat more common than before, but both are perfectly acceptable. Most authors choose the order based on what sounds better, or what they want to emphasize. (Putting the adjective first puts more emphasis on it.) To answer the question from the body, though: syntactically, there are no adjectives in this ...


2

This rule applies to Russian, Germanic languages, Latin and ancient Greek as far as I know. So I suspect that it's a feature of the proto-IE language.


1

The "declension" table in Wiktionary is purely hypothetical; it does not prove that any of these forms actually occur in any text. The attested abl. pl. tudibus implies nom. sing. tudis or tudes. It is normal lexicographic practice to lemmatize all nouns under a (real or hypothetical) nom. sing.


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