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10

Good question! "Declension" (like "conjugation") is a word that means two different things. In the abstract sense, "declension" is the abstract process of changing a noun or adjective's ending to reflect its role in the sentence. In the specific sense, a "declension" is a class of nouns (or adjectives) that all decline the same way. Latin has five ...


9

If the word for "day" had developed perfectly regularly, we'd actually expect to see it in the fourth declension, as it comes from a PIE u-stem! A few traces of this hypothetical fourth-declension are attested, such as the locative diū (which survives Classically in diū "all day") and the nominative dius (which survives Classically in nunc dius > nūdius "it ...


9

One can split up the process of finding the case to three steps: Find all possible cases a word could possibly be. Also bear in mind that there might be several options for the base word, like supplici coming from either supplex or supplicium. Check the declension tables if you don't remember them by heart. Analyze the grammatical context. Does the word go ...


8

Unfortunately, there's no foolproof way to predict a noun stem from the nominative form. Fortunately, you can predict the stem from the genitive form. So good Latin dictionaries will list both: your examples would be listed as genus, generis and līber, līberī. The genitive endings are predictable, and also tell you which declension the noun belongs to: ...


8

The prosaic word order in Latin—that is, the ordinary, normal, unremarkable word order—goes like this:       noun modifier The noun comes first, and the modifier comes right after. The modifier can be any of: an adjective, as in canis ruber (a red dog); a noun in the genitive case, as in canis Georgii (George's dog); (rarely) a noun in the same case, as ...


7

As far as I can tell, this is an error in the workbook. LSJ lists them both as standard masculine second-declension (-os, -ou) nouns. A good way to find details on individual words is the Perseus lookup tool. You can put in any word (even inflected forms!) and it'll tell you what form you have and give its LSJ entry. For example, if you put in thórybos, it ...


6

For what it's worth, I think this was simply a mistake. Greek nouns ending in -is are generally third-declension i-stems, like póli-s. In Attic, these nouns tend to show an -i- in some forms and an -ei- in others, with no particular logic that I've ever learned; quantitative metathesis and contraction then make the forms even less predictable. The genitive ...


6

Classical Greek doesn't use very much the name θεός in vocative case; in case, the vocative form is θεός, like the nominative. But the vocative form θεέ is commonly used in later Greek (together with θεός): recall Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες; (Mt 27:46). Note that also in Latin the vocative of deus is the same as the nominative: the same verse ...


5

It depends on what you mean by "has an exact form". If you mean "has a single, invariant form", the answer would most likely be "no". According to several definitions of "stem", Latin words (including nouns) may have more than one stem (or alternatively, you could say that the stem of a word may have more than one form: it's a bit difficult to distinguish ...


5

Actually Du Cange (Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis) records a lot of examples of the neuter form Pascha, -ae, which he seems to prefer. "Orat. et prec. de Pascha annotino" "Micrologus de Eccles. observ. cap. 56 : Romani Annotinum Pascha, quasi anniversarium Pascha dicunt, quia antiquitus apud illos qui in priori Pascha baptizati erant, ...


4

The definition of "I-stems" is relevant Although the question said to ignore i-stems, I think it's actually necessary to discuss them, because many Latin nouns of the third declension have a mix of i-stem and consonant-stem forms (to the extent that the division of nouns into these two categories is fairly problematic). And i-stem nouns, as the name implies,...


4

Here are some examples of different stem-final consonants: B: plēbs, plēb- C: dux, duc- D: lapis, lapid- G: rēx, rēg- H: Iphis, Iph- L: sōl, sōl- M: hiems, hiem- N: nōmen, nōmin- P: apis, ap- R: ōs, ōr- S: os, oss- T: mīles, mīlit- V: Iuppiter, Iov- X: axis, ax- I found nothing with F. I am not aware of any third declension nouns whose stem ends in a ...


4

Bethlehem, n., indecl. Though a borrowing, clearly does not belong to the second declension. Note that there is also the alternative Bethlehemum, -i, which does belong to the 2nd. I suspect there are no native Latin words, but it's just a suspicion with no etymological explanation. I'm certain other users could help with that. We have a number of experts in ...


4

Cardinal numbers in Latin have some very peculiar rules. As you say, unus, duo and tres are inflected, but beyond those, from quattuor, four, to centum, hundred, they are indeclinable. The cardinals from 200 (ducenti) to 900 (nongenti) are declined like the plural of adjectives such as bonus, agreeing in number and gender with the noun — sescenti, sescentae,...


4

First, the empirical facts, which are pretty much beyond controversy. In classical Latin, there is no (textually secure*) attested vocative form of deus. That is, dee does not exist, and deus is not used as a vocative. When a vocative deus became necessary for Christian Latin, they employed the nominative form deus rather than creating a new vocative ...


4

The usual form used in Classical Latin seems to have been plura. I don't know of any "good reason" to choose plura aside from that. The discrepancy between plura and plurium was noted by past authors. The main historical source I've seen mentioned1 that discusses pluria is Aulus Gellius, who in Noctes Atticae 5.21 recounts an anecdote where a friend of his ...


4

LSJ on Σ: B the name σίγμα ( σῖγμα) was usu. indeclinable, τοῦ σῖγμα Pl. l.c., Cra.402e, 427a, Ath.10.455c, Lyd.Mens.1.21 (v.l. σίγματος) ; τῷ σῖγμα Gal.UP2.14, al.; τῶν σῖγμα Pl.Com.30; τὰ σίγμα τὰ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀσπίδων X.HG4.4.10, cf. Hellad. ap. Phot.Bibl.p.532 B.; later declined, τοῦ σίγματος Eust.1389.15; σίγμασιν Id.905.7.


4

Never realized that, but you have an example (nominative-only, though) in ecclesiastical Latin in the hymn Lauda Sion: In hac mensa novi Regis Novum Pascha novae legis Phase vetus terminat Translation (lyrical): On this table of the [new] King, Our new Paschal offering Brings to end the olden rite. So I did the exercise and searched for ...


4

This is, perhaps surprisingly, how the vast majority of Latin adjectives work! In general, there are two types of Latin adjectives: "first-second" and "third". These are all "first-second" adjectives, which take first-declension endings in the feminine, and second-declension endings everywhere else. Note that this is based on the noun's gender, not its own ...


4

It's not just vatēs - see Weiss pp 243-244 for details. He mentions 30 i-stem hysterokinetic nouns that have -ēs ending in nom.sg. (instead of the expected -is), for example: aedēs, caedēs, cautēs , cladēs etc. I am aware of two proposals. Analogical leveling in Latin Some researchers have claimed that nom.sg. -ēs is due to analogical leveling after acc....


3

I just found that Nouvelle méthode pour apprendre facilement la langue latine, by Claude Lancelot (? et al?), which I quoted in my previous question about Pascha, includes this word in a list of "those nouns which, as grammarians say, are not used in the plural, though we sometimes meet with examples to the contrary" (p. 150, A New Method of Learning with ...


3

Just making a post to hold a few more things I found out since asking the question. This noun is likely related to touiller (Fr.), tudiculare, and tudicula There is a French verb touiller 'toss', whose ou points to Latin short ŭ, which is thought to be derived from a Latin first-conjugation verb tŭdĭculō, tŭdĭcŭlāre. The Latin verb is thought to be derived ...


3

I wouldn't take Wiktionary's declension tables too seriously. They're algorithmically generated, and don't necessarily imply that any particular form is attested. In this case, I haven't been able to find any attested forms apart from the tuditēs and tudibus you cited. So any singular forms would have to be back-derived from there. The genitive singular is ...


3

It looks like a couple of neuter nouns of the fourth declension might have nominative singular forms derived from PIE duals. (Note that the nominative neuter ending -u might have been pronounced either as -ŭ or -ū; it seems that we don't have any clear evidence either way for the quality of the vowel in this context.) A form -ū with a long vowel could be ...


3

Sort of, but technically "no". It seems that -i was sometimes used as a genitive singular ending for masculine names from Greek that end in -ēs in the nominative. But although many of these come from Greek first-declension nouns, they typically seem to be classified as third-declension rather than first-declension nouns in the context of Latin. In fact, ...


3

The etymological explanation (which of course only takes the question a stage further back) is that in PIE, thematic inanimate nouns had the nom./acc. sg. ending *-om, while athematic inanimate nouns had a zero ending. The former became Latin second-declension neuters, the latter third-declension neuters. This is only a partial explanation in that one might ...


3

I hadn't noticed this when I posted the question, but it turned out that the Wiktionary list that I mentioned in the original question contained at least one genuine word of interest. The word jūgerum/iūgerum is a second-declension form, but it seems that in the plural oblique cases we almost always see third-declension forms (jūgerum and jūgeribus; with ...


3

Quasi is "as if"; for this, I'd use similis, "like". I think I'd also use longa instead of magna, to express size rather than quality. The older (pre-Augustan) way to use similis is with the genitive, which would be longae tibiae dulcis. The newer (post-Augustan) way is with the dative, which would be longae tibiae dulcī. EDIT: Vincenzo Oliva in the ...


3

Here are all the references that I have found so far that have relevant information about the declension of nouns ending in -es that come from Greek. These references don't specifically mention Arsaces and Gotarzes. Allen and Greenough: Many Greek nouns vary among the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd declensions. Boōtae (genitive of Boōtēs, -is), ...


3

EDIT: Note that this answer applies to an earlier version of the question; see the revision history for details. The genitive in (Classical) Latin is, in fact, never accompanied by an article—because Latin has no articles at all! Like in (Ancient) Greek, the Latin genitive is marked by a special ending on nouns and adjectives. This ending varies by ...


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