Questions tagged [conjunction]

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5
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0answers
48 views

ἤ = vel or ἤ = aut?

LSJ says ἤ is a "disjunctive or", but does it correspond Latin's vel ("inclusive disjunction") or aut ("exclusive cunjunction")?
10
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1answer
571 views

Why “dilatasti” instead of “dilatavisti” in Psalm 4:2?

(Psalm 4:2) cum invocarem exaudivit me Deus iustitiae meae in tribulatione dilatasti mihi miserere mei et exaudi orationem meam When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me: when I was ...
5
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2answers
3k views

Why is there a Q in SPQR?

The abbreviation SPQR stands for Senatus PopulusQue Romanus. Why is the Q included, as there are only three words? Why isn't it just SPR? Or does SPQR stand for something else?
6
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1answer
84 views

Can “quam” be used as a mere intensifier to a superlative?

In a question about Augustine, this quotation is given: Frustra itaque nonnulli, immo quam plurimi, aeternam damnatorum poenam et cruciatus sine intermissione perpetuos humano miserantur affectu, ...
5
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2answers
168 views

How often is “et” used as an adverb, and what might distinguish that usage?

The conjunction et, in addition to its common use as a coordinating conjunction meaning and, can also be used adverbially, encompassing similar meanings as those found in words like etiam, item, etc. ...
2
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1answer
137 views

Is “que” or “et” better for a “God and Family” tattoo?

Hi I’m planning to have a tattoo and I would like to have a translation in Latin of “God and Family”. Which one is appropriate, "deo et familia" or "deo familiaque"?
8
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1answer
371 views

When to use “ac” instead of “et”?

What's the difference between the conjunctions: "et", and "ac"? Which one corresponds to what kind of situation? Allow me to elaborate for clarification, and to distinguish from similar questions. ...
3
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1answer
122 views

What is the difference between “enim” and “quia”?

Consider the following two phrases: noli timere: exaudivit enim Deus vocem pueri de loco in quo est (Genesis 21:17b) et benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes terrae, quia obedisti voci meae (...
8
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1answer
477 views

How do you say on the one hand … on the other hand?

I found in a book that quā ... qua means on the one hand ... on the other hand, but I found no example. Could you please provide a simple example? Should a specific mood be used (subjunctive or ...
6
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1answer
158 views

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle?

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle? This is the Greek analogue of my Latin question "Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?"
6
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1answer
252 views

Is “autem” an adversative or copulative particle?

Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?
3
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1answer
75 views

Does this adverb phrase apply to one or both verbs separated by 'vel'?

The quote below is from the Instituta Patrum de modo psallendi, an anonymous Carolingian or more likely High Medieval document on singing psalms in Gregorian chant. (I've seen one commenter on this ...
7
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0answers
550 views

Meaning of “quod si”

I'm having trouble with quod sī. L&S offers, under the definition of quod, With other particles, as si, nisi, utinam, ubi, etc., always with reference to something which precedes (very freq.), ...
3
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1answer
76 views

The (implied) meaning of “Et” in “Et in medio…” of Ubi Caritas

Here is a passage in Ubi Caritas: Simul ergo cum in unum congregamur: Ne nos mente dividamur, caveamus. Cessent iurgia maligna, cessent lites. Et in medio nostri sit Christus Deus. The English ...
1
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1answer
127 views

When to use “-que” and when to use “et”? [duplicate]

For example, it is "Senatus Populusque Romanus" but it could be "Senatus et Populus Romanus". Similarly, it is "qui ex Patre Filioque procedit" but it could be "qui ex Patre et Filio procedit" ...
42
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6answers
22k views

Why is the Roman acronym SPQR and not SPR?

SPQR stands for "Senātus Populusque Rōmānus". It would be logical (at least in English or Spanish) to expect the initialism or acronym to be SPR. However, the first letter of the conjunction "-que" is ...
9
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2answers
391 views

A list of the categories and subcategories of the Latin conjunctions

I am learning Latin. I have bought a grammar book, which is not that great. My professor is using words like adversative conjunction, comparative, conditional, and so on. I can't find any long list ...
10
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2answers
273 views

The logical “then”

I am interested in translating the word "then" in logical statements like this: "If a number is prime, then it is squarefree." Or maybe better: "If x is even and x+y is odd, then y is odd." In common ...
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1answer
2k views

Where to put the enclitic -ne?

The enclitic particle -ne can be used to form a binary (yes/no) question. I would like to know how attaching it to different words changes the meaning of the question. I have a clear idea of how it ...
13
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2answers
437 views

“If and only if”

In mathematical literature "if and only if" (sometimes abbreviated as "iff"1) is a relatively common phrase. Saying "A if and only if B" means that A and B are equivalent logical statements. This is ...
8
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1answer
147 views

How did velle give rise to vel?

Some time ago I asked about the missing imperative of velle. The answer indicated an old imperative (or indicative) second person singular form, vel, and that this word became a conjunction. I am ...
9
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1answer
160 views

Can -c replace -que in other words than atque and neque?

The enclitic -que in the words neque and atque can be shortened to produce nec and ac. Are there other instances where -que can turn into -c? Can this be productive, or can it only happen in very ...
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0answers
177 views

Differences between et and atque [duplicate]

What are the differences between et and atque? When should each be used? My current understanding is that they both mean and, although atque implies a slightly closer relationship.
17
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1answer
249 views

Can “si etiam” have the same meaning as “etiam si”?

As is well known, "etiam si" is a Latin conjunction that means "even if." Are there any examples in Classical or Medieval Latin in which reversing the word order and saying "si etiam" preserves the ...
11
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1answer
203 views

Can you place “et” inside a prepositional phrase?

I became curious about this question as I was translating a passage written by a textbook author. The passage begins, Poeta Ovidius fabulam de dea Latona et de femina Niobe narrat. (Latin via Ovid)...
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1answer
156 views

Is it possible to use και as both coordinating and correlative conjunctions in the same sentence?

As a textbook exercise, I'm translating the following sentence from English into Greek. Farewell, dear country! The war will be long, and I shall flee through the rivers and the marshes. (T1 = ...
6
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1answer
97 views

Is the coordinating conjunction necessary in a parallel series of terms?

I just finished translating line 6 of Bellum Gallicum, Book I Ch. I, and the absence of a coordinating conjunction at the end made me wonder. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ...
6
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1answer
64 views

“Ut” in Livy XXI via LLpsi

In an excerpt from Livy XXI, Lingua Latina per se illustrata has this: . . . Haud ferme plures Saguntini cadebant quam Pœni. Ut vero Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, tragula graviter ictus ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the difference between “ac” (or “atque”) and “et”?

What is the difference between ac (or atque) and et? And how do I know when to use atque instead of just ac? It seems that ac "binds more tightly" than et. Is this true? Or is the difference between ...
7
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1answer
437 views

Fieri potest with final ut or explicative quod

Suppose I want to say: It can happen that my horse dies. I do not want to say "my horse can die", but I want to keep this structure where the thing that happens is in a subordinate clause. This ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the difference between cum, quia and quod in a causal clause?

I asked yesterday about the difference between causal clauses and causal relative clauses, and I was surprised by a comment: apparently there is a difference between causal cum clauses and causal quia ...
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1answer
2k views

Are the two cums related?

In short, is there a relation between the preposition cum and the conjunction cum? It makes some sense that the conjunction would come from the preposition. One could interpret some cum clauses so ...
4
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1answer
86 views

“vel” in Tusculan Disputations V.iii

In the Tusculan Disputations V.iii, Cicero writes about Pythagoras declaring that life seems to him like the great Greek games: Nam ut illic alii corporibus exercitatis gloriam et nobilitatem ...
13
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1answer
423 views

Can -que be attached to a word ending in -que?

Some Latin words end in -que (for example quinque, vocative of adjectives ending in -quus and imperatives like relinque), but I have never seen the conjunction -que attached to such words. Are there ...
9
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2answers
254 views

Is the -que in quinque at all related to the conjunction -que?

I noticed that quinque ends in -que. I asked my teacher if this was sheer coincidence or so reason for it. He didn't know but he thought it was coincidental. I, however, think that they probably share ...
12
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2answers
2k views

What's the difference between nam and enim?

Both nam and enim are generally defined as meaning "for," the only difference between them being that nam comes first in a clause and that enim is postpositive (i.e., it comes second). Is there a ...
11
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3answers
270 views

What nuances distinguish sed/vērō/vērum as words for “but”?

I've seen sed, vērō, and vērum described as "but, butter, buttest," but the descriptions in e.g. Gildersleeve, Bennett—even Zumpt—leave me scratching my head.
9
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2answers
256 views

Is “ergo” an appropriate word for this context?

I'm translating this sentence into Latin: You said that I could do anything, so I went to the strip club. (It's for a late Valentine's card for my girlfriend.) So far, I have the first and second ...
12
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1answer
6k views

Why does “ut” mean such different things when it has a subjunctive verb vs. an indicative one?

We all know that ut, when paired with a subjunctive, is translated as "in order to" (purpose), "to" (indirect command), and, with some words, "that" (result/fear). However, ut with an indicative ...
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2answers
5k views

What's the difference between vel, aut, -ve, et cetera?

So I see "vel", "aut", and "-ve" being used (mostly) interchangeably in the Latin I read. Is there any idiomatic difference, or can they be used interchangeably? For example, is it valid Latin (and ...
53
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5answers
4k views

Are “-que” and “et” equivalent?

I was taught that one can use the '-que' suffix to string together multiple words, in a similar way to putting 'et' between them. Are these two equivalent? Did one have a connotation in classical (...