15

The answer is perhaps surprisingly simple: they're all indicatives! Commeant is from commeare, which is of the first conjugation: the a is part of the present stem of the verb, so the a does not indicate a subjunctive. The imperative, for example, is commea. The present indicative goes like this: commeo, commeas, commeat The present subjunctive: ...


14

The direct question 'What is love?' has been embedded into another sentence, forming an indirect question. An indirect question 'gives the substance of the question, adapted to the form of the sentence in which it is quoted' (Allen & Greenough, New Latin grammar, §330.2). In Latin, the verb in indirect questions is usually subjunctive, not indicative. ...


13

A subjunctive is practically never negated with οὐ. The only systematic exception I can find -- and even this is rare -- is in Homer, where the use of the subjunctive is somewhat different from Attic; some subjunctives in Homer are more or less synonymous with future forms, and these are negated with οὐ. But this doesn't happen in Attic. The main uses of ...


10

This is a simple purpose clause, and so you'll want to the present subjective, ut alii vivant. (Note that you'll want to turn the accusative alios into the nominative alii since it's the subject of the purpose clause.) There's already a future aspect to the subjunctive present, so there's no need for further differentiation. For more information, check out ...


10

It's not just Latin. As far as I'm aware, the only language that has a future subjunctive is Spanish, and it's disappearing there as well. (I don't speak Spanish, so I can't say from personal experience.) William Harris, in Orbis Latinus, writes that the subjunctive calls forth all the associations that go with unreality, possibility, potentiality, in ...


10

Proposal: Stop trying to classify all subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses with cum can express a number of different things, and they often overlap. Reason, circumstance, and time are very closely related, and drawing boundaries between them is artificial. Do you think a Roman would have classified, consciously or not, your first example in a specific ...


9

There's no „classical Latin“ when it comes to grammar, as Latin grammarians flourished during Late antiquity. The most famous of them all (and synonymous with „grammar“ through the Middle Ages), Aelius Donatus, wrote his Ars Maior and Ars Minor during 4th century. Donati Ars minor, de verbo: modi qui sunt? indicatiuus, | ut lego; imperatiuus, ut lege; ...


8

Latin does have something that resembles future and future perfect conjunctive (subjunctive): the periphrastic conjugation in conjunctive. The periphrastic present forms are formed from the present tense forms of esse and the future participle (with the gerundive playing the role of a passive future participle). For the verb canere, in indicative we have ...


8

This is a quirk of conditions in indirect statement: a perfect subjunctive in the protasis of a future less vivid condition turns to pluperfect subjunctive when in indirect statement. For examples see Allen and Greenough 589, 2.a.3. What's a little unusual about this example is that pollicebatur isn't introducing a full indirect statement, but just takes an ...


8

Can someone please expound and enlarge on this sentence? Why was the subjunctive mood 'regarded as specially appropriate to ‘subjoined’ or subordinate clauses'? Perhaps you are looking at it the wrong way around. Language happens to be what it is and we describe it, but our descriptions have little or no effect on the language. If we declared subjunctive ...


7

Indicative seems to be correct for both languages. It's true that Latin has a so-called "subjunctive by attraction", whereby a verb in a subordinate clause that depends on a subjunctive will itself be subjunctive; but that probably wouldn't apply here. Gildersleeve and Lodge (sec. 629) give examples of the construction, but in all of them there is something ...


7

The basic sentence structure can broken down into three component parts: imperavi militi, "I ordered" - main clause, indicative ut flores conligeret, "the soldier to collect flowers" - indirect command, subjunctive qui in horto ambulabat/ambularet - relative clause inside the indirect command, also subjunctive. Inside the ut flores conligeret is another ...


7

The verb in question (minor, -ari, -atus) is a deponent verb, which means that it has a passive form but an active meaning. There are many such verbs in Latin. Consider the following cases: Multa passus est. He suffered many things. or: Te hortamur... We urge you...


7

There aren't any special uses involved here; your incorrect assumption is that embolum (navis) aeneum is accusative -- in fact it's the nominative subject of finiebat. Literally, "one part of which a sort of (quasi) bronze beak of a ship completed". The Latin idiom is different here from how we'd say it in English, which is what makes this clause confusing, ...


6

Pretty much never. LSJ's entry on οὐ mentions οὐ + subjunctive only once: ...with subj[unctive] in fut[ure] sense, only in Ep[ic], “οὐ γάρ τίς με βίῃ γε ἑκὼν ἀέκοντα δίηται” 7.197; “οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίς μῃ κίθαρις” 3.54, cf. 11.387. To elaborate: the subjunctive mood in Epic can have a meaning closer to the Classical future tense. When this happens, and the ...


6

Latin as we know it never had an optative mood as distinct from the subjunctive, so this answer will be largely about Proto-Indo-European (PIE), which did. PIE had both a subjunctive mood and an optative mood, with different forms and functions. The optative was formed with the suffix *-yeh₁- ~ *-ih₁-. (The sound written as *h₁ was probably either a glottal ...


6

In English, your consecutio temporum is usually called the ‘sequence of tenses’. There is a general rule that in the principal sentence (i) a primary tense is followed in the subordinate clause by a primary tense, and (ii) a historic tense by a historic tense. In subordinate clauses the subjunctive is usual, incomplete action being represented by the ...


6

As TKR said, there's also no future active subjunctive. Although I don't know of any particular historical reasons for it (probably just another language quirk), I suppose the future more vivid construction somewhat accomplishes what a future subjunctive might. For example, with the phrase Sī Marcus Iūliam amāverit, ea eum amābit, translating to If Marcus ...


6

Alongside Joel's and Nick's answers, I'd like to call into question your English presumptions. To my ears, there's no different between "were to have" and "had", i.e. the pluperfect. Consider the following examples: Your English: If Marcus were to have been king, he would have killed them. & If Marcus had been king, he would have killed them. I ...


6

Let us first look at the Latin Vulgate, which had an enormous influence on medieval Latin. The exact phrase memento quod occurs 5 times (of which 4, interestingly, are in Deuteronomy) and each occurrence uses the subjunctive. I unfortunately do not have a critical apparatus handy at the moment, but my text of Deut 15:15 (both here and here) uses liberaverit, ...


5

To answer your question, one could choose to interpret it to have an unspoken clause, as per the comments to the first answer. There are indeed ways to express this in Latin: nē (…) quidem [–––] nōn mōdō expresses ‘not even [–––] much less’ or the likes. Examples: nē suēs quidem id velint, nōn mōdō ipse: not even swine would like that, no less he. This ...


5

Hmm. My understanding is that the bare subjunctive as a positive request/command is actually rather rare in classical Latin. Woodcock's New Latin Syntax, p. 97, after a discussion of noli, nolite + infinitive as more polite than ne + perfect subjunctive, tells us: Besides noli, nolite with the infinitive, the following periphrases also are frequently ...


5

I don't believe it is possible. A quick scan of the article in Liddell Scott Jones gave only this: with subj. in fut. sense, only in Ep., “οὐ γάρ τίς με βίῃ γε ἑκὼν ἀέκοντα δίηται” 7.197; “οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίς μῃ κίθαρις” 3.54, cf. 11.387. However, θαυμάσῃ is not normally indicative: ῃ ... is usually given as the proper spelling in the texts of the ...


5

Tenses of the subjunctive The subjunctive is also known as conjunctive — these two words are synonymous in Latin grammar. The subjunctive mood has four tenses: present (faciam), imperfect (facerem), perfect (fecerim) and pluperfect (fecissem). The indicative mood has two more tenses: future and future perfect. While the subjunctive does not have ...


5

You do need a subjunctive, but here the pluperfect diminutus esset rather the imperfect that you propose provides the correct sequence of tenses. Just as the English omits the auxiliary verb, so has this been contracted (in a quite normal way) from 'though it had been diminished' to 'though diminished' by omitting esset.


5

This is an indirect command (entirely separate from indirect questions). The key is the word ut, which indirect questions don't use. Ut in Latin can introduce four types of clauses: purpose, result, fear, and indirect command. Purpose clauses indicate why the main verb happens, and are the most common. Result clauses are only found with "so"-words (so big, ...


5

One way you can do this is using the verb debeo, debere, debui, debitus, which not only means "to owe," but also "ought/should." It's relatively simple in its construction, so lets go through each scenario you gave using the verb amo for the thing you should be doing. You should love him So first, one puts debeo into the second person singular. Then, one ...


5

(First of all, here's how I'm interpreting the text: comment if this is significantly different from yours.) nihil in natura clarius quam quod unumquodque ens sub aliquo attributo debeat concipi Nothing in nature is clearer than the fact that every individual essence should be imagined as underlying some attribute. The explanation is actually ...


4

Translated by the English 'would' or 'should' gives something like : Let me say that I should find this so distasteful that I would not inflict it on the public, — for which the subjunctive would naturally be used in turning it back into Latin.


4

There are two possibilities: 1) The relative clause is consecutive (like Cerberus commented) and you could translate it like this: "This, I say, is (generally) such a thing / something, that fights against me, ..." 2) The subjunctive could be jussive, like: "This, I say, is it, that shall fight against me, ..." In my opinion, it's more likely to be the ...


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