8

Aperiō literally means to uncover something, to lay it bare. It can also be used for opening a door, restoring vision to blind eyes, explaining a concept to others, and so on. A good way to find these meanings for an arbitrary word is to use the Perseus word study tool. Put in your word, choose "Latin", and submit. It should show all the possibilities on ...


8

Unfortunately, there's no foolproof way to predict a noun stem from the nominative form. Fortunately, you can predict the stem from the genitive form. So good Latin dictionaries will list both: your examples would be listed as genus, generis and līber, līberī. The genitive endings are predictable, and also tell you which declension the noun belongs to: ...


7

A note re: evidence from IE comparanda PIE *nH > Sanskrit ā, Avestan ā, Latin nā, etc. but Greek nē/ā/ō (Beekes 2011: 151). Some of the relevant IE cognates are Greek γιγνώσκω, OPers. xšnāsāhiy, and Sanskrit jānā́ti; however, only PIE *nh3 > Greek nō. Weiss 2009/2011: PIE *R̥HiC > *RĒiC In Greek: *CR̥h3C > CRώC cf. PIE *ǵnh3-sk̂é- Greek ...


7

The double ss is evidence for a short vowel in ussi (at least at some point) Just a short time after posting this question, I remembered a relevant fact. Even though there wasn't (as far as I know) a regular Latin sound change that would have shortened ū to u in this context, there was a Latin sound change that would have shortened ss to s after a long ...


7

You seem to be missing the four part in the verb's dictionary entry: plectō, plectere, plexī, plexus. The agent noun is derived from the perfect participle stem, which for this verb is plex-. This stem is obtained by removing -us from the participle listed in most dictionaries. To this stem you add -or, so the noun you are after is plexor. (This kind of ...


6

Good question! Let's break it down. The root of this verb is plect- (notably not plēct- which has a different meaning!). If you look it up in a dictionary you'll see the four parts plectō, plectere, plexī, plexus, which literally mean "I weave, to weave, I wove, woven". Now, the suffix is usually written as -tor, but a better way to think of it is -or, ...


6

Unfortunately you do need to memorize the perfect stem for each verb you learn. Many verbs are similar, and it helps a lot that many first conjugation verbs have the -v- in perfect forms. But not all have, and I can't think of a reliable way to tell when a first conjugation verb is going to have an irregular perfect stem. Especially when it comes to the ...


6

Requiescant in pace is what you are looking for. Just as you say, third person, plural, subjunctive, present tense form, may they rest in peace. (Requiesce in pace, instead, is singular, imperative mood, so the sentence is commanding someone to rest in peace, or figuratively, wishing it.) Both the plural and singular (requiescat in pace) forms have ...


5

Since posting the question, I was able to consult Peter Schrijver's "The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Latin" (1991) (cited by de Vaan), which, along with Alex B.'s answer, has helped me to understand better the etymological arguments in favor of long ō in Latin nōscō. Like de Vaan 2008 and Beekes 2011 (cited in Alex B.'s answer), ...


5

This is not exactly a sound change, but a substitution: this -am is originally that of the 1sg. subjunctive, which for some reason came to replace the expected -em of the 1sg. fut. There's actually some evidence that Old Latin had the expected ending -em; this is discussed in an article by Churchill 2000 (JSTOR link). It's not totally obvious why this ...


5

It depends on what you mean by "has an exact form". If you mean "has a single, invariant form", the answer would most likely be "no". According to several definitions of "stem", Latin words (including nouns) may have more than one stem (or alternatively, you could say that the stem of a word may have more than one form: it's a bit difficult to distinguish ...


4

Good question! In Proto-Indo-European, there were multiple complete sets of person-number markings, used for different tenses of the same verb. You can see the relics of this most clearly in Ancient Greek, where the present tense conjugates -ō -eis -ei, the aorist tense conjugates -a -as -en, and the imperfect tense conjugates -on -es -en. In Latin, one ...


4

Sure, lots, though some are less obvious because of sound changes etc. Examples: 1st conjugation: dō : δίδωμι, stō : ἵστημι, vocō : εἶπον 2nd conjugation: videō : εἶδον, οἶδα, moneō : μιμνήσκω, maneō : μένω, pleō : πίμπλημι 4th conjugation: veniō : βαίνω, saliō : ἅλλομαι, potior : δεσ-πότης


4

In addition to Draconis's suggestions, you can use the passive voice to express an indefinite 'agent': Romam itur. "[indefinite subject / 'it'] is being gone to Rome" => "One goes to Rome", in context probably "We/I/they/etc. goes to Rome". In horto esum est. "One ate in the garden". Noctis pugnandum est. "One ought to fight at night".


4

A Latin form *volĕre would have been stressed on the first syllable. Italian volere is stressed on the penultimate syllable, like a Latin form *volēre. There could have been a Vulgar Latin form *volĕre that was later replaced with voˈl[e]re, but it seems more parsimonious to just give *volēre as the ancestor of the Italian and French forms. "The Destiny Of ...


3

In English, "crossroads" has an -s on the end, but isn't plural—that's why it takes a singular article, and singular verbs ("a crossroads is a place where two roads meet"). In Latin, it's the same: a single crossing of roads is a compitum, and multiple crossings in different places are compita. Apart from that, your translation is good: nominative is to ...


3

One example of derivation pushing first conjugation verbs to the third conjugation is given by prefixed versions of dare. The short a is weakened and one ends up with verbs like addere which behave according to the third conjugation. A second example arises in derivation of verbs from adjectives. You can derive ruber > rubere and albus > albere and many ...


3

The rules in Latin are somewhat the same as in English: use a separate word for the subject, then conjugate the verb to agree with it. In English, you say "one eats" but "many eat" because the former is third person singular and the latter is third person plural; in Latin, the same applies: aliquis edit, multī edunt. Direct translations of the words you ...


3

Colin Fine's comment hit it on the head: I think it's syncretism - historically different forms being reanalysed as playing the same role (like several historically different past forms being levelled out as the "perfect" in Latin). Latin, historically, had three different ways of forming the present passive infinitive: A suffix -(r)ier, cognate with ...


3

Punctuation and macrons might help: Respondēns autem Petrus dīxit, "Domine, sī tū es, iubē mē venīre ad tē super aquās." [29] At ipse ait, "Venī!" Et dēscendēns Petrus dē nāviculā ambulābat super aquam ut venīret ad Iēsum. [30] Vidēns vērō ventum validum timuit et cum coepisset mergī clāmāvit dīcēns, "Domine, salvum mē fac!" Answering, Peter said,...


2

After talking to another classicist, I can offer some thoughts, though sadly without definitive sources. It seems unlikely that the two are related, for various reasons: Contracted perfects are extremely rare with the syncopated ending: amārunt and amāvere are both possible for the third person plural perfect, but *amāre generally isn't. Historically, the ...


2

In my opinion the passive imperative suffers from similarity to the agent noun derived from the verb. This usually happens in the first conjugation. That is, the imperative meditator ("plan!") looks like the noun meditator ("planner"), and vowel lengths match as well. My first reaction to this word is that it's a noun. Therefore my starting point to choose a ...


2

This prayer seems to come from the Auxilium Christianōrum, which can either mean "Aid for Christians" or "Reinforcements/Backup Troops of Christians". They're an organization specifically dedicated to fighting and exorcizing demons. I've made only one correction to your text (adding a missing space) to bring it in line with the Auxilium's version (bottom ...


1

Part of this prayer is a request that the Demons may not understand the Redemption. Hæc oblatio fit ne ... dæmonia cognoscant Let this oblation be so that ... the demons do not find out... ...ne dæmonia qui afficere membra Auxilii Christianorum petunt cognoscant originem expulsionis et cæcitatis suae. ...so that the demons who seek to affect the ...


1

I reached out to the community of discord.gg/latin for help with translating this motto, and received three possible translations: "meditator ut consequaris", "si vis consequi, meditare", and "consilio assequeris". Out of them the last one, "consilio assequeris" was recommended as the most appropriate.


1

So, what you posted looks like you want to say, "Lictor of Holy Matters" or "Lictor for Holy Matters," which would be: Lictor Rērum Sanctārum or Lictor Rēbus Sanctis However, based on your comment you were thinking something to the tune of "Order of Vatican Intelligence Operatives," which presents a quandary, seeing as, per the Wikipedia pages, it would ...


1

This site should have some answers for you: http://www.verbix.com/webverbix/go.php?D1=9&T1=aperio I believe it is conjugated as a normal 4th declension verb.


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