7

A note re: evidence from IE comparanda PIE *nH > Sanskrit ā, Avestan ā, Latin nā, etc. but Greek nē/ā/ō (Beekes 2011: 151). Some of the relevant IE cognates are Greek γιγνώσκω, OPers. xšnāsāhiy, and Sanskrit jānā́ti; however, only PIE *nh3 > Greek nō. Weiss 2009/2011: PIE *R̥HiC > *RĒiC In Greek: *CR̥h3C > CRώC cf. PIE *ǵnh3-sk̂é- Greek ...


6

Unfortunately you do need to memorize the perfect stem for each verb you learn. Many verbs are similar, and it helps a lot that many first conjugation verbs have the -v- in perfect forms. But not all have, and I can't think of a reliable way to tell when a first conjugation verb is going to have an irregular perfect stem. Especially when it comes to the ...


6

Yes. For a simple example, "I will love" is amā-bō, while "I will hear" is audī-am. Why does one take -bō and the other take -am? It depends which conjugation they're in; 1 and 2 use -bō, while 3 and 4 use -am. Once you get out of the "present system" (present, imperfect, future), things get even more complicated. You'll want to learn the four principal ...


6

Requiescant in pace is what you are looking for. Just as you say, third person, plural, subjunctive, present tense form, may they rest in peace. (Requiesce in pace, instead, is singular, imperative mood, so the sentence is commanding someone to rest in peace, or figuratively, wishing it.) Both the plural and singular (requiescat in pace) forms have ...


5

Since posting the question, I was able to consult Peter Schrijver's "The Reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Latin" (1991) (cited by de Vaan), which, along with Alex B.'s answer, has helped me to understand better the etymological arguments in favor of long ō in Latin nōscō. Like de Vaan 2008 and Beekes 2011 (cited in Alex B.'s answer), ...


4

After talking to another classicist, I can offer some thoughts, though sadly without definitive sources. It seems unlikely that the two are related, for various reasons: Contracted perfects are extremely rare with the syncopated ending: amārunt and amāvere are both possible for the third person plural perfect, but *amāre generally isn't. Historically, the ...


4

A Latin form *volĕre would have been stressed on the first syllable. Italian volere is stressed on the penultimate syllable, like a Latin form *volēre. There could have been a Vulgar Latin form *volĕre that was later replaced with voˈl[e]re, but it seems more parsimonious to just give *volēre as the ancestor of the Italian and French forms. "The Destiny Of ...


4

Good question! In Proto-Indo-European, there were multiple complete sets of person-number markings, used for different tenses of the same verb. You can see the relics of this most clearly in Ancient Greek, where the present tense conjugates -ō -eis -ei, the aorist tense conjugates -a -as -en, and the imperfect tense conjugates -on -es -en. In Latin, one ...


3

Punctuation and macrons might help: Respondēns autem Petrus dīxit, "Domine, sī tū es, iubē mē venīre ad tē super aquās." [29] At ipse ait, "Venī!" Et dēscendēns Petrus dē nāviculā ambulābat super aquam ut venīret ad Iēsum. [30] Vidēns vērō ventum validum timuit et cum coepisset mergī clāmāvit dīcēns, "Domine, salvum mē fac!" Answering, Peter said,...


2

This prayer seems to come from the Auxilium Christianōrum, which can either mean "Aid for Christians" or "Reinforcements/Backup Troops of Christians". They're an organization specifically dedicated to fighting and exorcizing demons. I've made only one correction to your text (adding a missing space) to bring it in line with the Auxilium's version (bottom ...


2

In my opinion the passive imperative suffers from similarity to the agent noun derived from the verb. This usually happens in the first conjugation. That is, the imperative meditator ("plan!") looks like the noun meditator ("planner"), and vowel lengths match as well. My first reaction to this word is that it's a noun. Therefore my starting point to choose a ...


1

If you're using the 7th edition of Wheelock's Latin (the most recent edition), this is explained at the bottom of page 4: Note that the stem vowel has no macron in certain forms (e.g., moneō, laudānt); learn the following rule, which will make it easier to account for macrons that seem to disappear and reappear arbitrarily: Vowels that are normally ...


1

I reached out to the community of discord.gg/latin for help with translating this motto, and received three possible translations: "meditator ut consequaris", "si vis consequi, meditare", and "consilio assequeris". Out of them the last one, "consilio assequeris" was recommended as the most appropriate.


1

Part of this prayer is a request that the Demons may not understand the Redemption. Hæc oblatio fit ne ... dæmonia cognoscant Let this oblation be so that ... the demons do not find out... ...ne dæmonia qui afficere membra Auxilii Christianorum petunt cognoscant originem expulsionis et cæcitatis suae. ...so that the demons who seek to affect the ...


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