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22

Si Deus velit would be quite satisfactory, 'if God should wish [it]', but is, I think, neither as usual or as forceful as the more familiar ablative absolute form Deo volente, 'with God willing', often abbreviated as 'DV'. On old British coinage, etc., Dei Gratia, by the grace of God' used to appear, later shortened to 'DG', with very similar meaning. [The ...


20

From Bibliander's translation of the Qur'an, surah 18, ayah 69, Dixit Moyses, Deo uolente, me quilibet sustinentem, nec te in quoquam offendentem semper inuenies. This is not a literal translation. The original Arabic, transliterated here into a more familiar alphabet is Qala satajidunee in sha'a Allahu ṣabiran wa la a`ṣee laka amra Bibliander ...


18

It's pretty much arbitrary. There are some standard patterns: first-declension nouns tend to be feminine, second-declension masculine/neuter, third-declension abstract concepts, fourth-declension collectives and states, fifth-declension feminine. But there's an exception to each and every one of these rules. Historically speaking, the declensions derived ...


17

For a monotheist, Tom Cotton's answer is best; for a polytheist (like the ancient Romans), it would be in the plural, so something like dis volentibus. Another way to word it, which is very similar to Tom Cotton's answer, is si di vol-. I found it in several places, though it doesn't seem as common as an ablative absolute: Plautus Bacchides 239: Extexam ...


15

For my answer, I will use material from a 1931 article written to address this very issue: "The Use of Forem and Essem" by Winnie D. Lawrence, available on JSTOR. Abstract: While essem was always a good literary word, forem, after Plautus, gave evidence of decline in this respect. In later writers, especially in Sallust and Tacitus, it was an affected ...


13

As brianpck mentioned, the English suffix "-able" is borrowed from Latin. The rules for applying it in Latin are more transparent than the English alteration between "-able" and "-ible". EDIT: And are actually even easier, now that I think about it. First, choose your stem. If the verb has a fourth principal part (supine) ending in -tus, remove the -tus ...


12

If you're asking how the third conjugation historically came to use the vowels i/u, it has to do with regular sound changes that affected the original Proto-Indo-European (PIE) endings. The present indicative active paradigm for this verb in PIE, with its descendant paradigm in Latin, would look something like this: 1sg. *h₂eǵ-ō > agō 2sg. *h₂eǵ-e-si > ...


12

It is rare to find a true (i.e. non-deponent) passive imperative, because the idea of ordering someone to do something is opposed to the idea of having something done to you. Pinkster, in Oxford Latin Syntax (pg. 164), explains this more clearly: The grammatical category of 'mood' is one of the means by which the speaker can convey his view of the ...


11

Your translation "he proved to them that completing these efforts was done very easily" is good. To express such things in Latin the supine is a good choice. The supine ablative (like factu) is an ablative of respect. For example: Hoc responsum facile est scriptu. = This answer is easy with respect to writing. = This answer is easy to write. If ...


10

There certainly is a future imperative of esse in Latin: see Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar: IMPERATIVE PRESENT SING. 2. ĕs, be thou PLUR. 2. este, be ye FUTURE 2. estō, thou shalt be 2. estōte, ye shall be 3. estō, he shall be 3. suntō, they shall be I have never met sunto in casual reading, though ...


10

In the Perseus Project, I see many occurrences of estote; a disproportionate number of them appear to be in St. Jerome's Latin Vulgate. Here are two examples: 1 Maccabees 2:50, Latin Vulgate nunc ergo o filii aemulatores estote legis et date animas vestras pro testamento patrum Now therefore, O (my) sons, be zealots of the law... 1 Corinthians 4:16 ...


9

Perfacile factu means "easy to do." Factu is a supine, and this construction—supines coming off of certain adjectives—is pretty much where you will always see its ablative form. Other common examples are: Mirabile dictu, "Amazing to say"; Difficilis latu, "Difficult to bear"; Optimum factu, "Best [thing] to do; Nefas dictu, "Unlawful to say". With that in ...


9

A common Christian formula is Deo iuvante, literally "with God helping", more naturally rendered in English as "with God's help" or "if God helps". It signifies that the matter in question will only be completed successfully if God favors it and actively cooperates. The phrase has a long history. Google Books returns about 65,000 hits total for deo juvante, ...


8

That works fine. The Romans might have done it in a different order: Homo sum, ero deus. You could also say Homo sum, deus futurus. This would be roughly "I am a man [who] is to be a god." Yet another way to do this would be Homo sum, fiam deus. Which means "I am a man, I will become a god." By the way, there's a great story about the emperor ...


8

To be able to generate a list of candidates, one should know some common ways to produce different principal parts from a given stem. To produce the present stem (the first principal part as you call it) one might add a nasal before the last consonant. To produce the perfect stem one might reduplicate the first syllable, with possibility for vowel gradation....


8

C.M. Weimer has given an expectedly excellent answer to the Latin part of this question. Otherwise, it might be permitted to add that the Muslim usage is in response to an explicit Qur’anic injunction (18:23) that one must not make any statement about the future without adding the proviso “if God wills”. This is not about “evading responsibility”. It is ...


8

PIE appears to have had dual verb forms, as can be seen from e.g. Greek ἐστόν "you two are", Sanskrit ithás "you two go", Gothic baírats "you two carry". (Anatolian, though, lacks dual forms, which makes it uncertain whether these existed in PIE and were lost in Anatolian, or only developed after Anatolian had branched off from the rest of the IE languages; ...


8

A good question. Assimilation (voice): * tagto > * takto. This is a common phenomenon, cf. scribo-scripsi, veho-vixi etc. (see e.g. Weiss, p. 188, I.1); With dico, there's nothing unusual: diksi, dikto; With struo: k was inserted there analogically. Verbs ending in a labiovelar (kw, gw) follow this pattern: "the labial element of a labiovelar is ...


8

The form structum seems to have "c" by analogy to stems that had labiovelar consonants in Proto-Indo-European, as Alex B. says. In frūctus (from fruor) the Indo-European present stem ended in a labio-velar gʷ, but various analogies no doubt account for strūctus, flūxus, old flūctus, uīctum (from struo, fluo, uīuo) (Vox Latina, W. Sidney Allen, Second ...


8

There is abluō, abluere, abluī, ablūtus. And acuō, acuere, acuī, acūtus. And arguō, arguere, arguī, argūtus. And compluō, compluere, compluī, complūtus. And exuō, exuere, exuī, exūtus. And futuō, futuere, futuī, futūtus. And imbuō, imbuere, imbuī, imbūtus. And minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtus. And rŭo, ruere, rŭi, rŭtus. And spŭo, spuere, spui, ...


8

Szemerényi (1980) says that the following "descriptive rule" summarizes the conjugation pattern for verbs ending in -uo: verbs in -uo in general form their perfect in -uī, their PPP in -ūtus (even tuor/tūtus would conform to this rule!); a list would have to specify four exceptions: ruo has rūtus, but in the compounds -rŭtus; two verbs which have a velar ...


8

Aperiō literally means to uncover something, to lay it bare. It can also be used for opening a door, restoring vision to blind eyes, explaining a concept to others, and so on. A good way to find these meanings for an arbitrary word is to use the Perseus word study tool. Put in your word, choose "Latin", and submit. It should show all the possibilities on ...


8

Unfortunately, there's no foolproof way to predict a noun stem from the nominative form. Fortunately, you can predict the stem from the genitive form. So good Latin dictionaries will list both: your examples would be listed as genus, generis and līber, līberī. The genitive endings are predictable, and also tell you which declension the noun belongs to: ...


7

Estōte occurs five times in Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata by Hans Henning Ørberg. This textbook, written in the 20th century, teaches elementary conversational classical Latin by example. The story is set in about 150 A.D., is limited to basic language, and often presents simplified versions of excerpts from classical works, sometimes quoting directly when ...


7

Welcome to the site! Each of the adjectives you list tells you a little more about how the verb is being used. Second person specifies person; it tells you that the subject of the verb is "you." If the subject were "I" or "we" the verb would be "first person" (acuam or acuémus), and if the subject were "she" or "he" or "they" it would be "third person" (...


7

To ask “why” is inevitably a question about etymology and Indo-European (IE) comparative linguistics. The Latin 3rd conjugation continues IE thematic presents. There is a root, then the “thematic vowel” *e or *o, and then the personal ending. In Latin *e regularly becomes /i/ before /s/ and /t/. Thus IE *bher-e-ti becomes bharati in Sanskrit, but *ferit > ...


7

There are no passive forms of esse, for the reason you state -- it's not a transitive verb. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivized, with the minor exception of "impersonal passive" forms (in the 3sg. only), which are not used with esse. The crossed-out forms on that site don't exist. (Neither do some of the forms that aren't crossed out, like the gerundive ...


7

There are some Hebrew plurals in Latin, e.g. Seraphim and Cherubim, with rarely used Hebrew singulars (Seraph and Cherub).


7

You seem to be missing the four part in the verb's dictionary entry: plectō, plectere, plexī, plexus. The agent noun is derived from the perfect participle stem, which for this verb is plex-. This stem is obtained by removing -us from the participle listed in most dictionaries. To this stem you add -or, so the noun you are after is plexor. (This kind of ...


7

A note re: evidence from IE comparanda PIE *nH > Sanskrit ā, Avestan ā, Latin nā, etc. but Greek nē/ā/ō (Beekes 2011: 151). Some of the relevant IE cognates are Greek γιγνώσκω, OPers. xšnāsāhiy, and Sanskrit jānā́ti; however, only PIE *nh3 > Greek nō. Weiss 2009/2011: PIE *R̥HiC > *RĒiC In Greek: *CR̥h3C > CRώC cf. PIE *ǵnh3-sk̂é- Greek ...


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