29

This is a list of three names of freedmen (former slaves that were released by their master). Roman male names for free citizens in classical time usually consisted of three parts (known as tria nomina): Praenomen, Nomen gentile, Cognomen. Examples: (Praenomen) Marcus (Nomen gentile) Tullius (Cognomen) Cicero (Praenomen) Gaius (Nomen gentile) Julius (...


28

Can they not be worked out from each other? No! That's the whole point for learning all of them. Why are each of these forms necessary for memorisation? That is the minimal amount of information to deduce how to use the noun. To be able to use a noun, you need to know all its forms and its gender. You cannot reliably deduce the gender from the forms, ...


17

Joonas's answer is spot-on, but to give some more illustrations: Quite a lot of Latin nouns end in -us; it's one of the best-known features of the language. But they don't all decline the same! Servus "slave", genitive servī Tempus "time", genitive temporis Scelus "crime", genitive sceleris Manus "hand", genitive manūs You need the genitive to know which ...


16

Your suggestions are not quite right, and they might in fact be badly misunderstood. There are two things to consider here. The first one is simple. Omnia is plural and the verb must agree. Omnia (ex)urunt is grammatically valid. The second and more complicated thing is ergativity. Some English verbs behave ergatively, meaning that the one experiencing the ...


16

The verb Catullus uses is odisse, not odire (from which you would get an imperative odi). This verb only has forms in the perfect system but the meaning is that of the present system. That is, what is the present active indicative by meaning is odi, odisti, odit, odimus, odistis, oderunt — perfect active indicative forms. This is one of the defective verbs ...


14

To offer a variant to the great suggestions by Nickimite: Amore crescit. [It] grows with love. There is an implicit noun or pronoun of some kind, but you don't have to spell it out and it can vary. It could be life, faith, love itself, a child, or anything else that could be referred to as it, he, or she. Adding an explicit subject vita (life) as ...


13

Joonas's answer is entirely correct, but to give a slightly different explanation: Some verbs in Latin are defective. Some of their forms are outright missing, for no obvious reason. For example, the verb ait "say" is always cited in the third person singular present—because most of the other forms we'd cite don't exist! It has no first person ...


11

This is an example of an indirect question, e.g. I asked where he was. I know what he did. I told you what I would do. Or, as in this case: "He didn't know what he was writing." This construction takes the subjunctive with the usual sequence of tenses. In this case, since the main verb (nesciebat) is imperfect indicative, and therefore secondary ...


11

Do not only look for “movement” when you see in used with the accusative. In is very versatile and has a lot of meanings that cannot be easily summed up in a few words. A good dictionary will describe them, such as Lewis & Short. Under “II. With acc.” look past letters A (“In space”) and B (“In time”) for C: In other relations, in which an aiming at, ...


9

The word is tĭmĕō, so the vowels are short, short, and long. The stress is indeed on the first syllable according to the standard stress rules in Latin. Thus the e is neither long nor stressed, so I agree that any kind of emphasis on it would be awkward. The stress on the first syllable is the standard stress in prose, but in metric poetry ...


9

I don't like having "things" in the predicate. I like one of these translations: Vita crescit amore. "Life grows (taller) with love" Vita per amorem nascitur. "Life is born through love" Caput vitae alet amoris fundamentum. "The beginning of life will grow the foundation of love." OR "A foundation of love will grow the beginning of life" The last ...


8

Here's a literal translation of the four chapter titles: Christiani victores obsessi The Christian victors [are] besieged N.B. "obsessi" is the past participle of obsideo. Enumeratio civitatum persequitur The enumeration of cities continues Without context, this is harder to understand: I presume that a previous chapter began listing cities and ...


7

Indeed, if you want these two words, the correct agreement is animal fidele for the neuter gender.


7

In Latin, it's fairly common to stick prepositions onto the fronts of verbs to create new shades of meaning. Sometimes the new meaning is the same as the verb plus the preposition (advenīre is basically the same as venīre ad), sometimes it's just plain intensive (dēplorāre is just plorāre but stronger), and sometimes it creates a new meaning different from ...


7

First, I think you want to have a polite command here, and the imperative can be kind of harsh and authoritative. Second, I don't believe you would use the gerund here, because you're telling somebody "leave here as a smiling man/woman." Last, I'm not sure whether one would use the singular or plural in this case, so I'll include both. "Exias/Exiatis ...


7

In Classical Latin, like in many of the older Indo-European languages, the masculine was very much a "default" gender. (The feminine was a relatively late development within Proto-Indo-European, and it took a few more millennia for it to become as common and well-established as the masculine.) So a group of friends of mixed gender would be, by default, amīcī....


7

In addition to desertum, solitudo and erema, Calonghi dictionary suggests two more choices. The plural Deserta: (Virgil, Pliny, Seneca). Also, Vastitas, as alternative to deserta: Both here refer to geographic areas (deserta Apuliae and vastitas Lybiae) that may likely have been "proper deserts" a couple of millenniums ago.


7

Henry de Bracton, a medieval English jurist, in his book De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae, defined furtum as follows: … furtum est secundum leges contrectatio rei alienæ fraudulenta animo furandi, invito illo cuius res illa fuerit. … theft is, according to the laws, a deceitful touching of a thing that belongs to someone else with the intent to ...


7

The Romans had a word for hard cash, as opposed to money or wealth in general: nummi. One could therefore say: Civitas nummorum expers. I think it would not be lost on the Romans that this would not mean sine opibus et divitiis, and one could still transfer wealth somehow in such a society; after all, they did have bankers and kept books (tabulae). Perhaps ...


7

This is a double pun. Cum chordis means "with the chords" or "with the strings"; corda means "the hearts". Similarly, cum fidibus means "with the lyre" or "with the strings"; fides means "faith". So literally: the hearts [should align] with the chords, and the faith [should align] with the strings. ...


7

It is to be found in Seneca the Younger, De Providentia (On Providence), book 1, chapter 4, section 16 Non est arbor solida nec fortis nisi in quam frequens ventus incursat


6

While one may intuitively think of using me or memet for "myself" here, the thing to keep in mind is that in your sentence "myself" is a predicative nominative - always look at the performed function in the sentence. This tells us we must use the nominative for it, that is ego again. Therefore the phrase is ego sum ego or, for more ...


6

That English phrase sounds like a stage direction. If you want to echo that and if an indicative meaning is possible, you could go with exit subridens (or exeunt subridentes). Otherwise, I'd go with Nickimite's or KRyan's suggestions. Note that you definitely need the participle, not the gerund.


6

From a comment, For some further context, this is a military superior telling a subordinate to "exit smiling", although in a joking manner. This being the case, I think the imperative is the correct voice to use: a military superior orders a subordinate, rather than request or suggest politely. And since it is a single subordinate being so ordered, the ...


6

I would say that the original expression Manilius nesciebat quid scribebat can be read in two ways: There is an indirect question: He did not know what he was writing about. There is a relative clause: He did not know the thing about which he was writing. The answer by brianpck covers the first case, and indeed then one would expect scriberet. In the ...


6

No, that translation is not grammatically valid. It means roughly "belief of law, long use, to be saved firmly" but it is somewhat incoherent. Let me go through a translation process step by step. As you seem to know, opinio iuris is a fixed expression and we can of course start with that. The modifiers will probably not be parts of standard legal Latin ...


6

The selenographical names can perhaps be viewed as appositions and would as such not be ungrammatical (Latin appositions may be incongruent in number or gender, like urbs Athenae). In that case both parts would have to be declined in parallel, e.g. Videsne Montes Agricolam? In my opinion one should take this as scientific terminology based on Latin, not ...


6

Neither genitive nor ablative: secundum takes the accusative, so the phrase would be secundum legem latam. You can usually find which case a preposition takes from its dictionary entry.


6

I've heard it said that it takes about 10 years of study to gain a real facility at reading Latin. My own experience bears this out. That said, with a good dictionary and a lot of hard work, you ought to be able to struggle through a typical Latin text after studying a year. I think Oerberg's course is as good an introductory course as any. It can be ...


5

The complete answer has already be given by Joonas Ilmavirta; here are a few words on the prosody, which however only makes sense if you say the complete verse. As we know, these are the last words of Laocoön's speech (and, sadly, of his whole life), trying to persuade his fellows Trojans to not receive the horse from the Greeks. The whole verse (Æneid, II, ...


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