27

Can they not be worked out from each other? No! That's the whole point for learning all of them. Why are each of these forms necessary for memorisation? That is the minimal amount of information to deduce how to use the noun. To be able to use a noun, you need to know all its forms and its gender. You cannot reliably deduce the gender from the forms, ...


18

Titus Livius, an excellent scholar even by modern standards, was very conscious of the problem of source reliability. Consider the beginning of Liv. 26 49: tum obsides ciuitatium Hispaniae uocari iussit; quorum quantus numerus fuerit piget scribere, quippe ubi alibi trecentos ferme, alibi tria milia septingentos uiginti quattuor fuisse inueniam.—aeque et ...


17

Joonas's answer is spot-on, but to give some more illustrations: Quite a lot of Latin nouns end in -us; it's one of the best-known features of the language. But they don't all decline the same! Servus "slave", genitive servī Tempus "time", genitive temporis Scelus "crime", genitive sceleris Manus "hand", genitive manūs You need the genitive to know which ...


16

Your suggestions are not quite right, and they might in fact be badly misunderstood. There are two things to consider here. The first one is simple. Omnia is plural and the verb must agree. Omnia (ex)urunt is grammatically valid. The second and more complicated thing is ergativity. Some English verbs behave ergatively, meaning that the one experiencing the ...


13

To offer a variant to the great suggestions by Nickimite: Amore crescit. [It] grows with love. There is an implicit noun or pronoun of some kind, but you don't have to spell it out and it can vary. It could be life, faith, love itself, a child, or anything else that could be referred to as it, he, or she. Adding an explicit subject vita (life) as ...


12

It is great that you looked up so many proposed translations! The many routes taken reflect the difficulty of translating well and the necessity to choose goals for the translation. Google Translate is unreliable with Latin; for detailed analysis and mockery, see the linked question. The original quote is a line from a poem written in dactylic hexameter. ...


11

The diminutive ending -ula is common in classical Latin, and arguably productive. The examples you found are not exceptional. The linked question does not discuss all the Latin diminutives. The suffixes listed in the question are all masculine, but there are corresponding feminine and neuter variants. So the -ulus there implicitly includes -ula (and -ulum). ...


11

Do not only look for “movement” when you see in used with the accusative. In is very versatile and has a lot of meanings that cannot be easily summed up in a few words. A good dictionary will describe them, such as Lewis & Short. Under “II. With acc.” look past letters A (“In space”) and B (“In time”) for C: In other relations, in which an aiming at, ...


10

This is an example of an indirect question, e.g. I asked where he was. I know what he did. I told you what I would do. Or, as in this case: "He didn't know what he was writing." This construction takes the subjunctive with the usual sequence of tenses. In this case, since the main verb (nesciebat) is imperfect indicative, and therefore secondary ...


9

Lucian of Samosata, a satirist writing in the second century CE, never had much regard for historians. His most famous work, the Alēthē Diēgēmata ("True Histories"), specifically mocks the sort of ridiculous stories that historians liked to recount as true. Here's how he puts it in the introduction: …τῶν ἱστορουμένων ἕκαστον οὐκ ἀκωμῳδήτως ᾔνικται πρός ...


9

The prosaic word order in Latin—that is, the ordinary, normal, unremarkable word order—goes like this:       noun modifier The noun comes first, and the modifier comes right after. The modifier can be any of: an adjective, as in canis ruber (a red dog); a noun in the genitive case, as in canis Georgii (George's dog); (rarely) a noun in the same case, as ...


9

The word is tĭmĕō, so the vowels are short, short, and long. The stress is indeed on the first syllable according to the standard stress rules in Latin. Thus the e is neither long nor stressed, so I agree that any kind of emphasis on it would be awkward. The stress on the first syllable is the standard stress in prose, but in metric poetry ...


9

I don't like having "things" in the predicate. I like one of these translations: Vita crescit amore. "Life grows (taller) with love" Vita per amorem nascitur. "Life is born through love" Caput vitae alet amoris fundamentum. "The beginning of life will grow the foundation of love." OR "A foundation of love will grow the beginning of life" The last ...


8

As far as I can see, your basic premise is doubtful, inasmuch as classical sources appear to have defined virgo in the same way as has been done down to modern times. Certainly, the word was then applied to girls, young women and various males, but generally implying maidenhood, sc. an absence of sexual experience. There are plenty of examples. Cicero has a ...


7

Most (if not all) languages change continually. There's no reason why Latin should be an exception but, if you want to define a period and give it a special name, it's necessary to look at a few facts. Early Latin — before the first century BC — is quite scarce. There are fragments of the early poets Naevius and Ennius, and the plays of Plautus and Terence ...


7

As fdb mentioned in a comment on another question, Tibullus references the planetary days in the first century BCE: Aut ego sum causatus aves aut omina dira,     Saturni sacram me tenuisse diem. I made excuses [not to leave]: birds, or dire omens, or that I held Saturday sacred. (I.3.15, translation mine) So even in late ...


7

Indeed, if you want these two words, the correct agreement is animal fidele for the neuter gender.


7

In Latin, it's fairly common to stick prepositions onto the fronts of verbs to create new shades of meaning. Sometimes the new meaning is the same as the verb plus the preposition (advenīre is basically the same as venīre ad), sometimes it's just plain intensive (dēplorāre is just plorāre but stronger), and sometimes it creates a new meaning different from ...


7

First, I think you want to have a polite command here, and the imperative can be kind of harsh and authoritative. Second, I don't believe you would use the gerund here, because you're telling somebody "leave here as a smiling man/woman." Last, I'm not sure whether one would use the singular or plural in this case, so I'll include both. "Exias/Exiatis ...


7

In Classical Latin, like in many of the older Indo-European languages, the masculine was very much a "default" gender. (The feminine was a relatively late development within Proto-Indo-European, and it took a few more millennia for it to become as common and well-established as the masculine.) So a group of friends of mixed gender would be, by default, amīcī....


7

In addition to desertum, solitudo and erema, Calonghi dictionary suggests two more choices. The plural Deserta: (Virgil, Pliny, Seneca). Also, Vastitas, as alternative to deserta: Both here refer to geographic areas (deserta Apuliae and vastitas Lybiae) that may likely have been "proper deserts" a couple of millenniums ago.


6

I don’t think there is any attestation of a direct prohibition of the no smoking type for the classical period. The closest I could find is CIL VI, 2357, from Rome, but it is not a prohibition, it is a kind request: HOSPES AD HUNC TUMULUM NI MEIAS OSSA PRECANTUR TECTA HOMINIS SET SI GRATUS HOMO ES MISCE BIBE DA MI NI=ne, SET=sed, MI=mihi Passerby, the ...


6

TL;DR: No; I wouldn't, at least. Hey Ave seems like a very good word for this. It's conventionally translated as "hail", but at this point that just sounds archaic; the Latin word can also be a casual "hi!" or "hey!" to a friend. (There's also eja or heja, cognate to English "hey", but that's more like "ah!" to my mind, less of a greeting.) Bro ...


6

The word itself was typically a signum, a sign, as in Plautus's Miles Gloriosus: M: cedo signum, si harunc Baccharum es. P: amat mulier quaedam quendam. M: Give the password, if you're one of these Bacchants. P: A certain woman loves a certain man. But in military contexts, a nightly password was usually written on a little piece of material (...


6

Unfortunately you do need to memorize the perfect stem for each verb you learn. Many verbs are similar, and it helps a lot that many first conjugation verbs have the -v- in perfect forms. But not all have, and I can't think of a reliable way to tell when a first conjugation verb is going to have an irregular perfect stem. Especially when it comes to the ...


6

That English phrase sounds like a stage direction. If you want to echo that and if an indicative meaning is possible, you could go with exit subridens (or exeunt subridentes). Otherwise, I'd go with Nickimite's or KRyan's suggestions. Note that you definitely need the participle, not the gerund.


6

From a comment, For some further context, this is a military superior telling a subordinate to "exit smiling", although in a joking manner. This being the case, I think the imperative is the correct voice to use: a military superior orders a subordinate, rather than request or suggest politely. And since it is a single subordinate being so ordered, the ...


6

No, that translation is not grammatically valid. It means roughly "belief of law, long use, to be saved firmly" but it is somewhat incoherent. Let me go through a translation process step by step. As you seem to know, opinio iuris is a fixed expression and we can of course start with that. The modifiers will probably not be parts of standard legal Latin ...


5

Plautus, Bacchides, lines 816-7: quem di diligunt / adulescens moritur He whom the gods love / dies young Menander, Dis Exapatōn (fourth century BCE), fragment quoted in Stobaeus (KT 111): ὃν οἱ θεοὶ φιλοῦσιν, ἀποθνῄσκει νέος. He whom the gods love, dies young. Neither Dis Exapatōn nor Bacchides survives completely, but the fragments we have ...


5

"To explain oneself", as an official-sounding idiomatic expression for providing plausible reasons or explanation for one's statements or behaviour, can be expressed with (examples mine unless noted, translations variously mine or lifted from the Loebs): quid sibi vult? (ctrl+F "sibi vult") is perhaps the shortest and most idiomatic: Quid istuc est? ...


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