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20

The Latin ablative case represents a merger of three earlier Proto-Indo European (PIE) cases: the ablative (sometimes referred to as the 'from' case, because it was used to express ideas of source, separation, etc. – ideas where English often can use the preposition 'from'), the sociative-instrumental ('with' case), and the locative ('in'/'on' case). Of ...


18

It's the former, curricula vitae. As the article linked in Wikipedia points out, vitarum would indicate that there are multiple lives mentioned per each curriculum. However, vitae as a genitive is describing the type of curriculum, and curriculum itself is the object that needs to be singular or plural. This isn't so confusing if you plug it back into ...


15

This is a very abbreviated answer, which I will intend to expand on in the future (unless others get in there before me). The short answer is that the ablative didn't replace any earlier case - it dates back to at least late Proto-Indo-European (PIE), which developed a complex system of cases (including the ablative) best preserved (in general) in Sanskrit. ...


13

The subject is latus. Definition 6 in OLD is most relevant here: 6 (of solid objects, usu. w. abl.) To be bathed or soaked (in a fluid specified or implied), run, stream, overflow, etc.) For comparison, there's Ovid Metamorphoses 9.57-58: vix tamen inserui sudore fluentia multo bracchia, vix solvi duros a corpore nexus. ...arms streaming (with) ...


11

The Greek - and hence Roman - tradition is to list cases in the order: NOM - GEN etc. Dionysius Thrax (170-90 BCE) is considered to be the first extant record of this system - see a screenshot from Allen and Brink 1980, p. 65 The old order and the new: A case history (btw I strongly recommend this paper - imho it's the best summary of all relevant research ...


9

I agree with C. M. Weimer's response and have found three authors who use curricula vitae in their writings. Cicero ante Socratem Democritum Anaxagoram Empedoclem omnes paene veteres, qui nihil cognosci nihil percipi nihil sciri posse dixerunt, angustos sensus imbecillos animos brevia curricula vitae et ut Democritus in profundo veritatem esse demersam......


8

I would say it's the same reason you see papam instead of papa above. That is, the whole thing is the direct object of habēmus. In other words, the meaning is "we have a Pope, [we have a] most eminent and reverend…" and so on.


7

Here is an example using all seven cases in a typical way: Marce, vir feminae panem e furno pistoris Romae dat. Marcus (voc.), the man (nom.) gives a bread (acc.) from the baker's (gen.) oven (abl.) to the woman (dat.) in Rome (loc.). Reason for each case: Marce, vocative: Marcus is being addressed ("Hey Marcus!"), and the vocative is used for ...


6

The most common usage of impleo is with the accusative and ablative. The accusative tells you what is being filled. The ablative tells you with what it is being filled. N.B. By analogy with plenus + gen. (= "full of X"), sometimes the genitive is used here instead. For example: Impleo poculum (acc.) vino (abl.) = "I fill the cup with wine." Augustine ...


6

In my view, there is a subtle difference in meaning. Crucially, note that the adjective propinquus, which expresses a state, selects a dative (e.g., in propinquis urbi montibus (Nep. Han. 5.1)). So the dative nominal associated to the verb appropinquare, which is derived from the adjective propinquus, is used to express the final static position attained by ...


6

Here is another set of examples aimed at the precious bonus points. Now the cases are in the order they are taught here (nom, acc, gen, dat, abl) so as to help memorization; feel free to permute to your local standards. The first example uses only first declension feminines. You can also switch to plural for those endings. Puella uvam amicae vicinae e ...


6

I don't know of a complete list, but Albert Hoefer has an extensive one: "Pronouns": ubi, ibi, hic, illic However, I doubt these are true locatives. See de Vaan on ubi: ubi 'where' [adv.]...PIt. *kwu-þ/fei 'where'. It. cognates: O. puf, U. pufe, pufe [adv.] 'where' < *kwu-b/dhei. PIE *kwu-dhi/-bhi 'where.' IE cognates: Skt. kuham OAv. kuda '...


6

I think both constructions are possible, but do not have the same connotation. Confiteor Deo […] et vobis fratribus would have a meaning like "I confess to God ... and to you (who are my) brothers"; but Confiteor Deo […] et vobis, fratres, "I confess to God ... and to you, O my brothers". In other words, there is a change of focus in the latter, where the ...


6

In your title you ask if "fame" is a predicate nominative, and the answer to that question is no. A predicate nominative involves the linking of a noun with the subject via a copula (usually a form of "to be" or "to become"). Based on the body of your question, I suspect that your real question is what case would best be used to translate fame. The answer ...


5

Well, on the one hand, it seems the two functions (which Fairbairn 2011 calls relational and belonging function) are blended into the genitive. In his book, he states about the genitive function: Genitive Function. This word comes from the Latin word for “to beget,” and it thus indicates some kind of relationship or belonging between two subjects. More ...


5

Not all prepositions are created equal. Some prepositions need to be followed by ablative as you say. Examples are cum (e.g. cum Ipso), sine (sine Deo nihil), de (de hoc mundo). Yet most prepositions need to be followed by accusative, like ante (ante constitutionem mundi), per (per Ipsum), post (post mortem). A number of prepositions may be followed by ...


5

As a first note, I have been unable to find a classical work where posthinc is treated as one word. The two Vergil citations in the L&S entry you mentioned actually have post hinc: post hinc digressus iubeo frondentia capris arbuta sufficere et fluuios praebere recentis, (V. G 3:300-301) and post hinc ad nauis graditur sociosque reuisit. (V. A 8:...


4

Here is an all-masculine attempt, one word per case, plus a verb: Vesperi, Attice, imperator populi iussu regi equum pollicebitur. In the evening, Atticus, the commander, on the people's order, will promise the king a horse. Explanation: Vesperi: Locative of vesper. Attice: Vocative of Atticus, the person to whom the narration is addressed. imperator: ...


4

A purely synchronical description of the whole picture in the first Century BC would be as follows. Pronouns of the first and second person, as well as reflexives, don't have a single form in the genitive. In most contexts, possessive adjectives are used instead. Otherwise, For partitives and adpositions with omnium, nostrum, vestrum are used. For objects ...


4

Cardinal numbers in Latin have some very peculiar rules. As you say, unus, duo and tres are inflected, but beyond those, from quattuor, four, to centum, hundred, they are indeclinable. The cardinals from 200 (ducenti) to 900 (nongenti) are declined like the plural of adjectives such as bonus, agreeing in number and gender with the noun — sescenti, sescentae,...


4

The instrumental -φι suffix in Homeric Greek seems to be derived from the PIE plural instrumental case, which apparently still existed in Mycenaean Greek. From Smyth's grammar (280): -φι(ν) is often added to noun stems in Hom. to express the relations of the lost instrumental, locative, and ablative, both singular and (more commonly) plural; rarely to ...


4

The most important idea is already said by Draconis, but... In case you are not familiar with declensions, nouns, adjectives and some pronouns in Latin change their ending depending on their grammatical function, in an analogous way as verbs in English end in -ed to signify they are in past tense. In the example you give—Papam and dominum—, the ...


4

First of all, nothing provides a better brief on the semantics of these conjunctions than a good dictionary. L&S has quite exhaustive (if not exhausting) articles on et and ac/atque. You can supplement it with others at hand, for example, the Oxford Latin Dictionary, which is not available online. In the present narrow context, both conjunctions mean ...


4

No, forms of address are always in the vocative and are syntactically independent - they are extraclausal (Pinkster 2015: 1224). However, appositives agree with the head (in case, gender, and number), so they are syntactically dependent. Naturally, appositives can precede or follow vocative forms of address. Appositives will be in the morphological form ...


4

First of all, a very important note on your use of genitive and possessive (and some incorrect assertions expressed in someone else's post). We are very fortunate that Classical studies have benefitted immensely from contemporary linguistic research. The great Latinists of the past did a lot to collect data - manually! - and they tried to describe and ...


3

The distinction — as well as the possible ambiguity — is nicely shown in your examples of English, in which the -'s indicates ownership, or indeed possession. 'John's photo', strictly, indicates John's ownership of a photo, and is equivalent to 'a photo of John's'. On the other hand 'a photo of John' means — and really only means — that John is the subject ...


3

Your translation is quite good! I don't think I would use both sed and etiam here; etiam on its own seems sufficient. And it typically comes second in the clause. So I would say: Tempus fugit; muscae etiam fugiunt However… The pun, unfortunately, doesn't work in Latin. The verb fugere means to flee or run away, the noun musca means the insect, and the ...


3

It is indeed genitive. First, no other form of virtus looks like virtutis. For that reason alone, it has to be genitive. But what is the genitive doing in the sentence? The virtus comes with the adjective summa. Virtus can have many meanings, and "courage" is indeed a possible translation. Together summa virtus means "highest courage". Therefore vir summae ...


3

As Cerberus points out, plus is an adjective and has therefore the gender and number and case of the main word. There is also the corresponding adverb plus, which could be seen as the neuter accusative of the adjective. The word magis is also an adverb, but not synonymous with plus. I assume your question concerns the adverbial usage, but do bear in mind ...


2

The usage of plus and other forms like plures, plura seems to be a little complicated and depend on the grammatical number. Plus can be used as a singular noun or an adverb The form plus looks like a singular neuter adjective in the nominative/accusative case. However, what I've read is that this word in the singular is only used as an adverb (the nominative/...


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