The Latin ablative case represents a merger of three earlier Proto-Indo European (PIE) cases: the ablative (sometimes referred to as the 'from' case, because it was used to express ideas of source, separation, etc. – ideas where English often can use the preposition 'from'), the sociative-instrumental ('with' case), and the locative ('in'/'on' case). Of ...
It's the former, curricula vitae. As the article linked in Wikipedia points out, vitarum would indicate that there are multiple lives mentioned per each curriculum. However, vitae as a genitive is describing the type of curriculum, and curriculum itself is the object that needs to be singular or plural.
This isn't so confusing if you plug it back into ...
This is a very abbreviated answer, which I will intend to expand on in the future (unless others get in there before me). The short answer is that the ablative didn't replace any earlier case - it dates back to at least late Proto-Indo-European (PIE), which developed a complex system of cases (including the ablative) best preserved (in general) in Sanskrit. ...
Your match of mihi with "to" is correct, but that's the dative case, not the genitive. The genitive is mei.
Neither case is appropriate here, though. Audio more or less contains the idea of "to" in itself—it means "hear" or "listen to". Thus
Listen to me!
(Listen to) (me)!
Another way of ...
The Greek - and hence Roman - tradition is to list cases in the order: NOM - GEN etc. Dionysius Thrax (170-90 BCE) is considered to be the first extant record of this system - see a screenshot from Allen and Brink 1980, p. 65 The old order and the new: A case history (btw I strongly recommend this paper - imho it's the best summary of all relevant research ...
The subject is latus. Definition 6 in OLD is most relevant here:
6 (of solid objects, usu. w. abl.) To be bathed or soaked (in a fluid specified or implied), run, stream, overflow, etc.)
For comparison, there's Ovid Metamorphoses 9.57-58:
vix tamen inserui sudore fluentia multo
bracchia, vix solvi duros a corpore nexus.
...arms streaming (with) ...
I agree with C. M. Weimer's response and have found three authors who use curricula vitae in their writings.
ante Socratem Democritum Anaxagoram Empedoclem omnes paene veteres, qui nihil cognosci nihil percipi nihil sciri posse dixerunt, angustos sensus imbecillos animos brevia curricula vitae et ut Democritus in profundo veritatem esse demersam......
I would say it's the same reason you see papam instead of papa above. That is, the whole thing is the direct object of habēmus.
In other words, the meaning is "we have a Pope, [we have a] most eminent and reverend…" and so on.
I don't know of a complete list, but Albert Hoefer has an extensive one:
ubi, ibi, hic, illic
However, I doubt these are true locatives. See de Vaan on ubi:
ubi 'where' [adv.]...PIt. *kwu-þ/fei 'where'. It. cognates: O. puf, U. pufe, pufe [adv.] 'where' < *kwu-b/dhei. PIE *kwu-dhi/-bhi 'where.' IE cognates: Skt. kuham OAv. kuda '...
Here is an example using all seven cases in a typical way:
Marce, vir feminae panem e furno pistoris Romae dat.
Marcus (voc.), the man (nom.) gives a bread (acc.) from the baker's (gen.) oven (abl.) to the woman (dat.) in Rome (loc.).
Reason for each case:
Marce, vocative: Marcus is being addressed ("Hey Marcus!"), and the vocative is used for ...
There is probably no fixed standard, and I am not sure there is any authority that might set one. I believe many Latin speakers do not leave out the anno.
However, when Pope Benedict XVI announced his resignation in Latin, he did use this precise format (no mensis, no anno), and as luck would have it, he read it out loud. (There are better versions, but I ...
Typically, Latin dictionaries just lump these uses together, hence your confusion.
O (oh) can used with a number of cases other than the vocative when there's no addressing a person. For instance, the OLD entry (s.v. o²) treats them separately (probably because the OLD lexicographers used relevant data from the TLL entry - see below on this).
2.1 with the ...
The most common usage of impleo is with the accusative and ablative.
The accusative tells you what is being filled.
The ablative tells you with what it is being filled.
N.B. By analogy with plenus + gen. (= "full of X"), sometimes the genitive is used here instead.
Impleo poculum (acc.) vino (abl.) = "I fill the cup with wine."
In my view, there is a subtle difference in meaning. Crucially, note that the adjective propinquus, which expresses a state, selects a dative (e.g., in propinquis urbi montibus (Nep. Han. 5.1)). So the dative nominal associated to the verb appropinquare, which is derived from the adjective propinquus, is used to express the final static position attained by ...
Here is another set of examples aimed at the precious bonus points.
Now the cases are in the order they are taught here (nom, acc, gen, dat, abl) so as to help memorization; feel free to permute to your local standards.
The first example uses only first declension feminines.
You can also switch to plural for those endings.
Puella uvam amicae vicinae e ...
I think both constructions are possible, but do not have the same connotation. Confiteor Deo […] et vobis fratribus would have a meaning like "I confess to God ... and to you (who are my) brothers"; but Confiteor Deo […] et vobis, fratres, "I confess to God ... and to you, O my brothers". In other words, there is a change of focus in the latter, where the ...
In your title you ask if "fame" is a predicate nominative, and the answer to that question is no. A predicate nominative involves the linking of a noun with the subject via a copula (usually a form of "to be" or "to become").
Based on the body of your question, I suspect that your real question is what case would best be used to translate fame. The answer ...
The entry for pro in Lewis & Short mentions at II that the preposition pro comes with the ablative but remarks that accusative is possible in late Latin.
As you quote a coat of arms, influences of late Latin are certainly a possibility.
I don't know what the relative frequency of the two cases with pro is in any given era — apart from the accusative ...
The case here is ablative. The preposition “ex” preceding the word “machina” is one of the many common usages of the ablative case.
This could be the ablative of place (from), or as you can in your English translation, ablative of means.
Well, on the one hand, it seems the two functions (which Fairbairn 2011 calls relational and belonging function) are blended into the genitive. In his book, he states about the genitive function:
Genitive Function. This word comes from the Latin word for “to beget,” and it thus indicates some kind of relationship or belonging between two subjects. More ...
Not all prepositions are created equal.
Some prepositions need to be followed by ablative as you say. Examples are cum (e.g. cum Ipso), sine (sine Deo nihil), de (de hoc mundo).
Yet most prepositions need to be followed by accusative, like ante (ante constitutionem mundi), per (per Ipsum), post (post mortem).
A number of prepositions may be followed by ...
As a first note, I have been unable to find a classical work where posthinc is treated as one word. The two Vergil citations in the L&S entry you mentioned actually have post hinc:
post hinc digressus iubeo frondentia capris
arbuta sufficere et fluuios praebere recentis, (V. G 3:300-301)
post hinc ad nauis graditur sociosque reuisit. (V. A 8:...
Here is an all-masculine attempt, one word per case, plus a verb:
Vesperi, Attice, imperator populi iussu regi equum pollicebitur.
In the evening, Atticus, the commander, on the people's order, will promise the king a horse.
Vesperi: Locative of vesper.
Attice: Vocative of Atticus, the person to whom the narration is addressed.
A purely synchronical description of the whole picture in the first Century BC would be as follows.
Pronouns of the first and second person, as well as reflexives, don't have a single form in the genitive. In most contexts, possessive adjectives are used instead. Otherwise,
For partitives and adpositions with omnium, nostrum, vestrum are used.
For objects ...
Cardinal numbers in Latin have some very peculiar rules. As you say, unus, duo and tres are inflected, but beyond those, from quattuor, four, to centum, hundred, they are indeclinable.
The cardinals from 200 (ducenti) to 900 (nongenti) are declined like the plural of adjectives such as bonus, agreeing in number and gender with the noun — sescenti, sescentae,...
The instrumental -φι suffix in Homeric Greek seems to be derived from the PIE plural instrumental case, which apparently still existed in Mycenaean Greek.
From Smyth's grammar (280):
-φι（ν) is often added to noun stems in Hom. to express the relations of the lost instrumental, locative, and ablative, both singular and (more commonly) plural; rarely to ...
The most important idea is already said by Draconis, but...
In case you are not familiar with declensions, nouns, adjectives and some pronouns in Latin change their ending depending on their grammatical function, in an analogous way as verbs in English end in -ed to signify they are in past tense.
In the example you give—Papam and dominum—, the ...
First of all, nothing provides a better brief on the semantics of these conjunctions than a good dictionary. L&S has quite exhaustive (if not exhausting) articles on et and ac/atque. You can supplement it with others at hand, for example, the Oxford Latin Dictionary, which is not available online.
In the present narrow context, both conjunctions mean ...
No, forms of address are always in the vocative and are syntactically independent - they are extraclausal (Pinkster 2015: 1224).
However, appositives agree with the head (in case, gender, and number), so they are syntactically dependent.
Naturally, appositives can precede or follow vocative forms of address. Appositives will be in the morphological form ...