I will split this answer in two halves, for two different kinds of date expression.
On November 4
The traditional Roman calendar, whose system is still in use in some festive occasions, is based on three special days in each month:
Kalendae (first day of the month), Nonae (fifth or seventh), and Idus (13th or 15th).
The later options (7 and 15 instead of 5 ...
In addition to the familiar September–December, there were two more numerically named months before they were renamed in early imperial era: Quintilis and Sextilis.
These should definitely go to your slots 5 and 6.
In English you could call these Quintile and Sextile.
You seem to have slightly misanalyzed the ending.
What you add to the end of a ...
In classical times the seven-day week was unknown; obviously, there could be no named days of the week to use as reference points. Months at least were of specified lengths, but the actual date was described by a clumsy method which depended on three datum points within the month itself. These points were the Kalends, Nones and Ides, which occurred in that ...
There are three major holidays that come to mind when considering "eve": Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve, and Halloween (All Hallows' Eve). When one looks up those holidays in the Morgan and Silva Furman University Lexicon, you get the following:
Christmas Eve = pervigilium Natalis Christi
New Year's Eve = perviligium anni novi
Halloween = ...
As for the Gregorian calendar, the source is indeed (Ecclesiastical) Latin:
Deinde, ne in posterum a XII Kalendas Aprilis æquinoctium recedat, statuimus bissextum quarto quoque anno (uti mos est) continuari debere, præterquam in centesimis annis; qui, quamvis bissextiles antea semper fuerint, qualem etiam esse volumus annum MDC, post eum tamen qui ...
They did to a certain extent. I'm not aware of general holiday greetings, but at least for Saturnalia, they used the phrase Io, Saturnalia! Compare Martial 11.2.5:
Clamant ecce mei 'Io Saturnialia' versus
et licet et sub te praeside, Nerva, libet.
For Brumalia, they would greet each other with vives annos,1 although it's uncertain how early this ...
The source of the image states that the person died the 17th of September. The inscription says instead that he died the 15th of October. What is KAL. to do with it? Is some sort of calendar correction?
This is how the Roman calendar works.
The day is ante diem quintum decimum Kalendas Octobres, "on the fifteenth day before the first of October".
With the ...
Holidays were festivals and marked by an adjectival form in the neuter plural. Based on similar festivals, it would probably be patralia. Compare similar examples:
Saturnalia, the festival of Saturnus
Parentalia, the festival commemorating your ancestors
Parilia, founding date of Rome
As fdb mentioned in a comment on another question, Tibullus references the planetary days in the first century BCE:
Aut ego sum causatus aves aut omina dira,
Saturni sacram me tenuisse diem.
I made excuses [not to leave]: birds, or dire omens, or that I held Saturday sacred.
(I.3.15, translation mine)
So even in late ...
You know, I wasn't expecting to find a wide variety of answers to this question in my search, but in just the Morgan and Silva Furman University Lexicon there are a good number of answers. Let's take a look at them:
parasceve, -es f. = a day of preparation, the day before the Sabbath (Note: the Sabbath is Saturday in the Jewish tradition)
dies parasceves = ...
The festival days for the birth of Rome was, at least in the late Republic, the Parilia.
Wikipedia has more:
By the end of the late Republic, the Parilia became associated with the birthday of Rome. Numerous accounts of the founding of Rome exist, but the particular one related to the Parilia is described by Ovid in the Fasti. According to this myth, ...
For reference, this is what the OED has to say:
Etymology: < Anglo-Norman dat, Anglo-Norman and Middle French date
(Middle French datte ; French date ) regnal year (1230 or earlier),
date (specified on a document) (1281 in Old French), date (more
generally) (1314 or earlier) < post-classical Latin data (6th cent.;
frequently from 11th cent. ...
Although the English word 'eve' is often used poetically for 'evening', it is in fact fairly common and far more usually means 'the [whole] day before'; I suspect that its use to mean 'vigil', or something similar, is now almost wholly archaic — or, at most, confined to religious occasions.
In newspapers we might (seasonally!) read of what the Queen did on ...
The numbers are ordinals in the singular masculine ablative.
They modify the word anno, having its form.
In Latin you say literally "on the 2019th year", which is anno bis millesimo undevicesimo.
You can of course add Domini or ante Christum natum or some such phrase if you want, but it is often clear enough in context — just like in English.
In classical mode this is rather complicated, but would be abbreviated to a.d. VI Id. Iun. A.D. MMX, literally short for 'the sixth day before the Ides of June in the Year of the Lord 2010'.
In more modern writings this might be more simply expressed VIII. IUN. MMX.
Take your pick!
The best indication is Ovid's Fasti, I, 63 et seqq.:
Ecce tibi faustum, Germanice, nuntiat annum / Inque meo primus carmine Ianus adest. / Iane biceps, anni tacite labentis origo, / solus de superis qui tua terga vides / . . .
The festival itself was Kalendae Ianuariae, the very day which we call New Year's Day. Earlier, at Fasti I.39, Ovid explains that ...
According to H.H. Scullard (Festivals & Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (Thames & Hudson, 1981), there were at the end of the Republic 66 official festival or ceremonial occasions, occupying 136 days in all; the practical extent to which these were observed is doubtful. This did not include such special occasions as triumphs, ovations and funeral ...
First point, the meaning of the Latin dates was never forgotten but traded continously (e.g. by the Roman Catholic church) into our times.
A second point is that we are able to verify some dates referring to astronomical events (e.g., solar eclipses) independently. Using such methods helped in falsifying the Phantom time hypothesis (aka Erfundenes ...
The Romans counted backwards from one of three datum days,and included both the datum and the day itself. KAL is short for Kalendis, the first day of the month, so 15 KAL indicates 13 days between the 1st October,and the day itself, giving us the 17th September. This inscription appears to be unusual in two ways.
First, it's usual to find A.D. before the ...
Christianity traditionally marks out from the calendar the week (Sunday to Saturday) before Easter Sunday. We call it Holy Week, hebdomada sancta. The Sunday before Easter Sunday and the three days immediately preceding it are particularly important : Palm Sunday, on which the entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem is celebrated; Holy, or Maundy, Thursday, on ...
This is going to be an unsatisfying answer, but I'll post what I've found anyway.
The usual best source for Latin etymologies is De Vaan. Unfortunately, he only covers developments from Proto-Indo-European to the start of Latin; since september was derived within Latin itself, he mentions it only in passing.
Tucker's (significantly less modern) ...
There seems no reason to doubt that the English 'date' and similar words in other languages derive from the perfect participle of dare.
A very plausible origin is as a a relic of litterae datae which was used to indicate the date on which a letter was handed over to a courier. This is also shown in the singular form [epistola] data quoted in the extract ...
This started out as a comment to comments made to Sam K's answer above but it ran away from itself a little so I'm posting it here!
Just to clarify, parasceve does refer to preparations for the Jewish Sabbath (and hence, Friday) but also to preparations for the Jewish Pesach/Passover, which can fall on any day of the week. Indeed, New Advent notes, “the ...
*EDIT: Please see my comments below to clarify what I see as the difference between small-e eve and capital-E Eve.
For what it's worth, I think both answers above (those of Sam K and Tom Cotton respectively) are correct depending on what kind of "night before" you mean.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, eve is indeed a derivation of evening. ...
I've found mentions of Christi nativitas (Christ's birth) in Tertullian and Cyprian (late 2nd to mid-3rd century), but Christmas was not widely celebrated before the 4th century (source), and it was called Christ's dies natalis. Augustine calls it dies natalis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, or simply dies natalis Domini. Later mentions of it, e.g. by Pope Leo, ...
For the sake of completeness, I have seen lots of Ecclesiastical Latin dates written in the form: [die] roman numeral day (from I to XXXI)/[mensis] month in genitive/[anni] roman numeral year.
Just to cite two official examples (one recent, one more than 100 years old):
Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die XV Maii An. MDCCCXCI, Pontificatus Nostri Decimoquarto ...