16

It's impossible to pinpoint an exact date, but there is evidence. As usualy, Vox Graeca or Sihler's New Comparative Grammar is where to look. The earliest inscription we have of a Greek phi transliterated as a Latin 'F' comes from Pompeii in the first century CE, where the name Daphne was inscribed on a wall as Dafne. This might not have been monolithic, ...


15

W. Sydney Allen, not unexpectedly, has the answer in Vox Latina, 26–27: The digraphs ph, th, ch represented aspirated voiceless plosives—not unlike the initial sounds of pot, top, cot respectively. They were indeed aspirated, and this is due to Greek influence. They were not found in the oldest inscriptions (p, t, and c sufficed), and initially, ...


14

W. Sydney Allen, Vox Latina, 12–13, contends that the voiceless plosives in Latin were, compared to English, "relatively unaspirated," but that some aspiration may have been tolerated. First, evidence for a lack of aspiration can be seen in Greek transcriptions of these letters: π, τ, κ were used for p, t, and c/qu ("e.g., Καπετωλιον, Κοιντος for Capitolium,...


12

If a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing sign is written over the second vowel letter. "Haimylioi" is correct.


8

I'd like to add some interesting data I found in Weiss 2009. He mentioned Purnelle 1995, Les usages des graveurs dans la notation d'upsilon et des phonèmes aspirés: Le cas des anthroponymes grecs dans les inscriptions latines de Rome. Liège: diff. As you can see from the title, Gérald Purnelle studied how Greek proper nouns were transliterated in Roman ...


8

Here is Allen, Vox Graeca (15): Allen and Sturtevant (Pronunciation of Greek and Latin) both argue, based on the rarity of misspellings of the type *κθών, that the first consonant in such clusters really was aspirated, i.e. this was not just a spelling convention.


5

I'm not sure whether you meant for it to go without saying, but here are some basic facts about the distribution of the rough and smooth breathing marks in polytonic Greek orthography. The rough breathing is thought to have represented aspiration (possibly a consonant phoneme /h/, but there are more complicated suggestions for its phonemic representation) ...


5

fdb is absolutely correct (+1), but to address this part of your question: does ἱ after α affect the pronunciation? The answer is, yes, it absolutely does! In (most dialects of) Ancient Greek, there were fourteen vowels (*): α, ε, η, ι, ο, ω, υ are written with single letters αι, ει, οι, υι, αυ, ευ, ου are written with double letters The vowels in the ...


3

All words beginning with a vowel are marked with a 'breathing.' This looks like a single inverted comma. When the breathing is 'rough' (aspirate) it is c shaped < ;when the breathing is 'smooth' the inverted comma is reversed > . In the case of αἱμύλιοι the aspirate, the rough breathing, has been placed over the second letter of the vowel pair αἱ. The ...


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