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20 votes
Accepted

When did 'ph' start to be pronounced like 'f'?

It's impossible to pinpoint an exact date, but there is evidence. As usual, Vox Graeca or Sihler's New Comparative Grammar is where to look. The earliest inscription we have of a Greek phi ...
cmw's user avatar
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17 votes
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Were 'th' and 'ch' aspirated in classical Latin?

W. Sydney Allen, not unexpectedly, has the answer in Vox Latina, 26–27: The digraphs ph, th, ch represented aspirated voiceless plosives—not unlike the initial sounds of pot, top, cot ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
15 votes
Accepted

Were voiceless stops (p, t, c, qu) aspirated in Classical Latin?

W. Sydney Allen, Vox Latina, 12–13, contends that the voiceless plosives in Latin were, compared to English, "relatively unaspirated," but that some aspiration may have been tolerated. First, ...
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
13 votes

When did 'ph' start to be pronounced like 'f'?

I'd like to add some interesting data I found in Weiss 2009. He mentioned Purnelle 1995, Les usages des graveurs dans la notation d'upsilon et des phonèmes aspirés: Le cas des anthroponymes grecs ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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12 votes

How to read αἱμύλιος or when to aspirate

If a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing sign is written over the second vowel letter. "Haimylioi" is correct.
fdb's user avatar
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8 votes
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Is there a difference between ΚΘ and ΧΘ?

Here is Allen, Vox Graeca (15): Allen and Sturtevant (Pronunciation of Greek and Latin) both argue, based on the rarity of misspellings of the type *κθών, that the first consonant in such clusters ...
TKR's user avatar
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6 votes

How to read αἱμύλιος or when to aspirate

fdb is absolutely correct (+1), but to address this part of your question: does ἱ after α affect the pronunciation? The answer is, yes, it absolutely does! In (most dialects of) Ancient Greek, ...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes
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Is rough vs smooth breathing predictable?

I'm not sure whether you meant for it to go without saying, but here are some basic facts about the distribution of the rough and smooth breathing marks in polytonic Greek orthography. The rough ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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4 votes

When did 'ph' start to be pronounced like 'f'?

Based on discussion by Latin grammarians such as Diomedes and Priscian, plus interchange between "PH" and "F" in spelling (nicely summarized by the graph in Alex B.'s answer) it ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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3 votes
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How to read αἱμύλιος or when to aspirate

All words beginning with a vowel are marked with a 'breathing.' This looks like a single inverted comma. When the breathing is 'rough' (aspirate) it is c shaped < ;when the breathing is 'smooth' ...
Hugh's user avatar
  • 8,693

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