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7

No, these are all unrelated. Κηφάς is, as you note, Semitic. Κεϕαλή is Indo-European, from a PIE root like ghebhel, and is cognate with "gable." Πέτρα/πέτρος has no known etymology, according to Beekes. I assume the motivation for this question has to do with Saint Peter, and therefore edited the question to reflect this. But I don't see any reason ...


4

There seem to be three possible options for syntactically connecting the ἐξ οὗ δή clause to what precedes: connecting to ἄειδε (Hartsock): "Sing the wrath ... [long relative clause, and parenthetical "Zeus's will was being accomplished"] ... starting from the time when" connecting to προΐαψεν and τεῦχε (Cowper, Anthon in the commentary ...


0

For this self-answer, I'm surveying nine online audio recordings of Homer. Eight are of the same material (the opening lines of Iliad 1), while Zinsstag is a different book of the Iliad. While I was at it, I checked what people were doing with ε and η as well. Some of these people are doing an Erasmian pronunciation, others a restored one. All of them seem ...


8

This is known as correption, and in particular Attic correption, which displays this more frequently than Homeric verse. From Halporn, Ostwald, and Rosenmeyer (a great little student reference guide) p.5: The first syllable of a word like πέτρος is counted either short or long; the treatment of the combination of a mute (γ, β, δ, κ, π, τ, χ, φ, θ), with a ...


9

It does not actually state that. It says that when they're used as prefixes: When the prepositions ἐν and σύν are used as prefixes, they retain these forms when the verb begins with a vowel. When the verb begins with a consonant, they ASSIMILATE with this consonant. So ἐν βουλῇ is right, because ἐν is a preposition. But take ἐν, add it to βόλος, make it a ...


5

Greek word order is fairly free, so other orders are possible, but I think the most natural choice would be μάρμαρος μέλας Αἰγύπτιος.


3

Αἰγύπτιος μέλας μάρμαρος sounds good to me. 'Egyptian marble that is black'. I could not find any ancient use of this term. Edit: Initially I offered definitive forms here but I cannot find such examples, and none of my grammars have examples of definitive nouns with multiple adjectives. (Forms like ὁ μάρμαρος ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ὁ μέλας would indeed sound clumsy.)


7

Straightedge = κανών /ka:no:n/ Compass = διαβήτης /diabe:te:s/ These are etymologically the same as English “canon” and “diabetes” (the disease) respectively, so if you want an “English” pronunciation just follow that of the two English words.


1

I don't have an answer to your question, but I decided to go to look for the pronunciations in one of my Ancient Greek grammars, An Introduction to Ancient Greek: A Literary Approach by C.A.E Lusching, written about 1975. It recommends differing vowel qualities for long and short α and ι, apparently treating them somewhat like the pronunciation of Latin ...


2

I mainly collected these simply by paging through Cunliffe. I also tried to think of body parts as conceptualized by English speakers, and I consulted a thesis by Camagni, Manchester, 2017, https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/86865466/FULL_TEXT.PDF . The frequency counts are total occurrences in the Iliad and Odyssey. For inflected forms that ...


0

Here's a self-answer addressing four things: Actually, it turns out you don't have to use dative pronouns. You can also use possessive pronouns. When the dative pronouns are used, they are not ethical datives. How one describes pain in a body part. Whether one always needs to identify the owner of the body part, as in English. It turns out that you can, ...


0

As pointed out in the answer by cmw, there is a form ῥηΐδιος that is used in homer. Adverb ῥηϊδίως. Comparatives ῥήϊστος, ῥηΐτατος. There are also qualitatively different, shorter adverbial forms ῥέα, ῥεῖα. Beekes discusses these under ῥᾶ and connects them to ῥῆα. Example: τῷ μὲν ἔπειτ’ ὀδύσαντο θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζώοντες, καί μιν τυφλὸν ἔθηκε Κρόνου πάϊς· - Iliad 6....


8

Unfortunately, we just don't know. There is no clear Greek etymology for it, not just the initial Lake- part, but the whole word. This is from Beekes' etymological dictionary: Λακεδαίμων, -ονος [f.] town and country on the river Eurotas (ll.). <PG?> .DIAL Myc. ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo /Lakedaimnios/ and [ra-]ke-da-mo-ni-jo /Lakedaimonios/, cf. Lejeune RPh. ...


3

Your first three examples illustrate what is commonly called the dativus ethicus, here specifically in its use to indicate that a noun or pronoun in the dative case identifies the owner of a body part. This construction is very common not only in ancient languages but also in many modern languages; e.g. French “je me lave les mains”, or German “ich wasche ...


2

There's immense variation in modern pronunciations of Greek for a variety of reasons, not least that many classicists don't know or care much about phonetic accuracy and basically just use whatever system they happen to have been taught. So, though I don't know the answer to your question about frequency, it may not matter that much for your purposes -- ...


4

I've found a plausible answer in Chantraine, Grammaire homérique pp. 31-2. He says: La forme ᾔδη peut partout être lue (ϝ)είδη sans augment. That is, the suggestion is that the Homeric form was really (ϝ)είδη, and that the reading ᾔδη is presumably due to later scribes replacing this with the Attic form they were familiar with. Since this wouldn't affect ...


2

Ἤ corresponds to Latin's aut (exclusive disjunction). St. Jerome uses aut to translate ἤ in Mt. 19:25. Εἴτε corresponds to Latin's vel (inclusive disjuction).


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