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1

I looked up the Greek word in the etymological dictionaries of Chantraine and Beekes. They both say that your hypothesis #1 (an Oscan loan) was indeed proposed by Cuny in 1908, but that this was rejected by Niedermann in a 1917 Indogermanische Forschungen article, which can be viewed here. Niedermann says, if I understand correctly, that the specific meaning ...


5

Ἀστρεκδημίας αἰών : Astrekdemias aeon. (Means the age of out-travel to the stars.) Ἀστροκατασκοπῆς αἰών: Astrokataskopes aeon. (Means the age of star-muster ... the same word used for spying and inspection, though.) You may transpose the Eon before the qualifier, if you wish.


10

The etymology of ἀρά is unclear. There is an Arcadian inscriptional form καταρϝος which shows that it had a digamma (which actually confuses things further since if so, the Attic form should regularly be ἀρή). Various IE cognates have been proposed; a connection with Lat. ōrō seems not to be widely accepted, but there is a possible Hittite cognate aruwae- ...


6

The Greek word that means briny is ἁλμυρός and appears in both Homer and Hesiod. For example: Grant lovely song and celebrate the holy race of the deathless gods who are for ever, those that were born of Earth and starry Heaven and gloomy Night and them that briny Sea did rear. (Hesiod, Theogony, 106-108) However it doesn't appear as a description of the ...


15

You'll basically have to memorise them, yes, though there are patterns. Both the η- in ἠλευθέρουν and the ει- in εἶχον represent a contraction of ε + ε, but the former is much older than the latter. The ε + ε > η contraction dates to a time (prehistoric, as far as Attic is concerned) when η was still meaningfully the long version of ε, which is also when ...


5

Here's my translation of the French, though it's not strictly relevant to the answer: *ἐγγεινομαι (ἐγγείνωνται) to engender, generate, Hom. Il.19.26 - Verb formed by prefixing of the aorist stem γεν-, from γίγνομαι 'to be born', which undergoes metrical lengthening written γειν-. The prefix ἐν- gives the verb an active meaning, the semantics therefore ...


9

Yes, μαθητεία is a word that would certainly be understood in this context, though in practice it was usual to talk about someone being a μαθητής to someone rather than about μαθητεία in the abstract. This applies not just in the context of manual craftsmanship but for any τέχνη, including e.g. rhetoric.


4

It is from the same root as κοπάζω, and also from that of the more common verb κόπτω "hit, strike". Presumably it comes from the latter meaning, so that it originally meant something like "easy to hit" (the prefix εὐ- can mean "easy" as well as "good", as in e.g. εὐδιάβατος "easy to cross"), with a later ...


15

I would go further than Draconis's answer and say that we can be pretty certain that these diphthongs were indeed diphthongs in Homer's time. Here are some additional arguments: The Homeric poems took shape over centuries so there was likely some amount of temporal and other variation in the pronunciation of "Homeric Greek". But that process ...


8

Transcriptions into Latin While there are no transcriptions from the time of Homer (since the alphabet didn't exist yet), these provide good evidence that the change from [aw] and [ew] to [af] and [ef] happened after the Classical period. A brief search turns up examples like Autolycon, Baucus, and Caunus in the Metamorphoses, as well as borrowed words like ...


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