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13

In a recent paper (included in The Latin of the Grammarians), I have made the point that Latin grammarians, unlike their Greek predecessors, did not expressly stress the uninflectional nature of adverbs, and this may be due to the fact that they observed some sort of declension in some types of adverbs (not only those derived of adjectives -doctus > docte-, ...


11

forte (from fors, fortis, chance, luck etc.) simply means 'by chance'. fortasse (sometimes fortassis) is a contraction from forte an sit, 'as it might chance to be', usually translated as 'perhaps', 'as it may be' etc. Also found are fors sit an (often as one word) and its contraction forsan; and occasionally forsit (from fors sit). Larger Latin-English ...


9

I have run a quick analysis using data from latinlexicon.org. I included adverbs ending in -ter (about 820). Most end in -iter (the rule). A good number end in -nter (which as you know are formed with syncopation regularly when the base adjective/participle ends in -nt). The remainders are a mix of declinables and indeclinables (e.g., propter is indeclinable ...


9

This seems to be a mystery. I haven't found any good explanation yet; I don't know if this is because the subject has been neglected so far, or if it's because the very occurrence of the phenomenon is still controversial and so nobody has attempted to give an explanation for it. The idea that Latin adverbs (and certain other words) were stressed or ...


8

An important note about my sources: A question has been raised by another user re: sources in my answer. Anyone can easily check the accuracy of my statements and sources. Dr. Stotz is an expert in Medieval Philology (i.e. post-Classical Latin); he is a professional linguist. Obviously, he has provided necessary bibliography about all the sources in his ...


8

The word sic means "thus" and is not tied to written contexts. If you want to say "thus it was said", a simple and analogous option is to say sic erat dictum. The underlying verbs are scribere (to write) and dicere (to say). If you only use the short form sic as is typical, it is valid for both contexts. Side note: In fact, sic erat scriptum is pluperfect, ...


8

As far as I can see, the Roman grammarians did not consider the adverbial -e to be a case ending. On the other hand, from the standpoint of historical linguistics most Latin adverbs are indeed fossilised case forms of adjectives. The “adverbial -e” is in fact of two-fold origin. i-stem adjectives like facilis use the accusative singular neuter as an adverb (...


8

You can find it under the solus dictionary entry in Lewis and Short: Strengthened by modo, and joined with it in one word, sōlummŏdo (only late Lat., for the true reading, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 92, is unam tantum, Jan. Detlef.; “whereas tantummodo is class.): de exercitore solummodo Praetor sentit,” Dig. 4, 9, 1, § 2: “pretii solummodo fieri aestimationem,...


7

You're right that there are some tricky sections in this passage, but your translation captures the sense very well. Concerning your questions: 1. What are the syntactic functions of τινι καὶ in the first clause? τινι and καὶ should not be construed together. We rather have two separate parts here: παραστήτω δέ τινι and καὶ τόδε. παρίστημι + X (dat.) + Y (...


7

(will add examples later) Obviously, immo had several different uses in Classical Latin. Hannah Rosén (Rosén 2009) classifies it as a connective particle used for juncture and separation. She proposes four different uses of immo: supplemental: contrasting: adjoining+contrasting: adjoining+correcting (substituting): She also argues that immo is not “...


7

Lewis & Short say -tus in intus is an old ablative ending or suffix, related to the Greek adverbial ending -τός as in ἐντός: intus, adv. [1. in and the abl. termination -tus; Sanscr. -tas; cf. ἐντός]. Most of the words on -tus in your list seem to contain the same suffix. A suffix -tus often turns into -sus, as in ordinary past participles like ...


7

First of all I have to point out that the word “quod” in book II, line 141 of Vergil's Aeneid is not an adverbial accusative, but simply a causal conjunction introducing the causal clause with the verb “oro”, as you can read in the literal translation at the foot of my answer. Your notes describe “quod” as an 'adverbial accusative' because the causal ...


6

It seems that Saint Augustine in your quote is describing the same phenomenon that we can see consistently marked in later Latin. While trying to read Marracci's 'Refutatio Alcorani' (https://books.google.nl/books?id=ye40VChDL6gC and https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_-KZEAAAAcAAJ), I noticed that certain words were written with an accent grave on the vowel ...


6

Ramshorn's Dictionary of Latin Synonyms, pg. 113, has a helpful entry on the four related terms certe, certo, profecto, and sane: Certe: certainly, of a thing; at least, if it applies to a given case; Si Deus scit, certe illud eveniet. Cic. Quod eæ nostris literis certe scire potuistis. Id. Homines mortem vel optare incipiant, vel ...


6

There are three main ways to turn an adjective into an adverb in Latin. In decreasing order of popularity: Use a special adverb-forming suffix: first/second adjectives get -ē, while third adjectives get -ter. This can be done freely to pretty much any adjective (famōsē, rubrē, calidē, velociter, prūdenter). Use the neuter accusative form. This is also quite ...


5

This usage strikes me as strange, so I will make the case for that. I would be happy if another answer corrects me! There are 12 matches in the Packhum corpus database for tunc tantum: there are no cases of it being a temporal/conditional conjunction. The vast majority are coordinated with temporal conjuctions (tunc...cum / ubi / dum), one is used alone to ...


5

I always read immo as signifying emphatic denial, though what this means in different contexts may differ: Is he alive? NO! He's very much dead! Or: So you hate him? NO! I make sacrifices every night for the earth to gape open and swallow him whole!


5

You've already hit upon all the words I would use except ad as a preposition. For example, Cicero uses ad quadriginta natus esse as a synonym for fere. But in general, circa and circiter both work. To my ears, paene would mean "almost, but not quite" rather than "around that neighborhood." Others are all general idioms for "approximately." I wouldn't, for ...


5

Magis is a comparative adverb (of magnopere?) meaning in higher degree, as seen in such expressions as magis magisque, more and more. Plus is the comparative of the adjective multus, much, and usually refers to quantity, when it's used as if it were a neuter noun, as in plus plusque, more and more [of something]. It's also, of course, the comparative of ...


5

As a first note, I have been unable to find a classical work where posthinc is treated as one word. The two Vergil citations in the L&S entry you mentioned actually have post hinc: post hinc digressus iubeo frondentia capris arbuta sufficere et fluuios praebere recentis, (V. G 3:300-301) and post hinc ad nauis graditur sociosque reuisit. (V. A 8:...


5

Ita est, saltem in Latina post-mediaevali, ubi saepe hoc verbum "fere" in sensu indicato invenitur. Verum quoque est quod cnread dixit, hoc verbum scil. frequenter (etsi non semper) non ante, sed post verbum quod modificat poni. Alia verba idem fere significantia sunt "paene" ("paene dixi" "I almost said"), "prope" ("prope nihil" "nearly nothing"), et "...


5

It appears that, yes, digne is an adverb. We can often take an adjective and give it an -e ending in order to obtain a corresponding adverb. See this Did grammarians consider the adverbial -e a case ending?


4

Extra means 'on the outside' (opposite of intra 'on the inside'), whereas ultra means 'on the other side' (opposite of citra 'on this side'). The difference may be made clearer by looking at their composite parts. For example, extra is a contracted feminine ablative of the adjective exter, extera, exterum (i.e., extera [via]), which in turn is an adjectival ...


4

I don't think any comparison is implied. I would read quam Karus as "(just) like Karus", as in the translation you give. L&S says that quam can be used with an elliptic tam (II.A.2). In this reading quam does not seem to differ much from sicut. That is, zelotypos quam Karus haberis ≈ tam zelotypos quam Karus haberis ≈ zelotypos haberis ...


4

The following extract from the Oxford English Dictionary, art. "plus", is perhaps of interest: The prepositional use (sense A. 1), from which all the other English uses developed, did not exist in Latin of any period. It probably originated in the commercial language of the Middle Ages (see discussion at minus prep., n., adv., and adj.). The signs + ...


4

According to L&S: H. To connect an idea as either homogeneous or complementary to that which precedes, and so too, and also, and moreover, and at the same time; too, also, likewise (hence, often in Liv., Curt., and late Lat., rarely in Cic., = etiam; cf. Anton. Stud. pp. 26-69; Krebs, Antibarb. p. 420) And according to Gildersleeve: ...


4

The "slow" meaning came first. The Latin adjective is tardus -a -um (with adverb tarde), and its origin is unknown. But it definitely was used for "late" or "slow" in Latin (hence "tardy", "retardation"), and I've never seen it used for "afternoon". The verb tardāre/tardar is indeed related, but it seems to have come from the adjective, not the other way ...


4

Yes, it is indeed an adverb here. There is also another form of dignus that looks similar, namely the masculine singular vocative. The vocative has a short -e, the adverb has a long one. Using a vocative adjective referring to the God or someone else one is praying to is possible, but does not fit this context. Many see the adverb as a derived separate word,...


4

The Latin word order is quite free, but not irrelevant. The proposed semper bonus esto sounds just perfect to me; starting with semper gives the adverb emphasis and it all sounds natural. The choices of words are also good. Moreover, this word order has the additional benefit of fitting in hexameter, as in: Care soci, do consilium: semper bonus esto! ...


3

(Caveat lector: This "answer" was based on a misreading of the question and addresses the pejorative force of the pronoun istic, not the adverb. I will leave for now because it is tangentially related.) As a first point, I should mention how exactly istic is derived from iste: it is iste + -ce. This -ce is an "inseparable strengthening demonstrative ...


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