Bennett's New Latin Grammar (this link will take you to appropriate section) offers several helpful rules of thumb for the agreement of an adjective with multiple nouns.
Although I recommend reading the above entry, which is fairly short, the basic principles are:
Attributive adjectives agree with the nearest noun in both gender and number, e.g. "Filius ...
I'll try to answer my own question, if I may. After a bit of research I discovered that no more than 300 years ago the meaning of Spanish actual was actually the same as English actual, as seen by this definition found in a Spanish dictionary from 1726:
ACTUAL. Lo que real y verdaderamente existe al tiempo que se dice, ò enuncia.
Translated: "what is ...
I have found three ways of referring to the age of wine, the first of which is the most common and simplest:
An adjective such as anniculus, bimus etc.
quadrimum Sabina, o Thaliarche, merum diota
fetch the four-year old wine from the Sabine jar, o Thaliarchus
Horace, Odes, 1.9
ponite turaque bimi cum patera meri
set down incense and a bowl with two-year ...
Certainly there are differences between the three, which I hope the following will demonstrate with sufficient clarity.
The roots of universus indicate 'turned into one', which describes a group formed from [objects] for a single purpose; homines universi in servitium ducti sunt, 'the whole population was led into slavery'.
Derived from coniunctus,cunctus ...
As brianpck mentioned, the English suffix "-able" is borrowed from Latin. The rules for applying it in Latin are more transparent than the English alteration between "-able" and "-ible". EDIT: And are actually even easier, now that I think about it.
First, choose your stem.
If the verb has a fourth principal part (supine) ending in -tus, remove the -tus ...
Well, interesting is actually quite Latin, given that it comes (I believe) from interest, which means (among other things), "it matters" or "it is of concern." So one way to do it would be to say meá interest ("it matters to me, it makes a difference to me"), but that doesn't have the positive connotations that "interesting" has.
Another way to say it—and ...
All forms of se, including suus, normally refer to the subject of the main clause of the sentence. Eius, however, normally does not refer to this subject, but to someone else. So the two words have different meanings.
Sextus Tarquinius crudelis est. Lucretia praevidet mortem suam.
"S.T. is cruel. Lucretia foresees her own death."
Sextus Tarquinius ...
Others pointed out the dictionary definition of iuvenis, but it would help to have a solid example. In Livy book 21.50, Ti. Sempronius met with Hiero at Syracuse.
statum deinde insulae et Carthaginiensium conata exposuit pollicitusque est, quo animo priore bello populum Romanum iuvenis adiuvisset, eo senem adiuturum; frumentum vestimentaque sese legionibus ...
In general, the -osus ending indicates plenty. Lacrimosa isn't just "teary-eyed," but weepy. Same with nivosa. Niveus is often used with mountains to describe the snow-topped peaks, and from the quality of snow (i.e. whiteness), it is used to describe things in English we'd describe as "snow-white" - teeth, milk, togas, fleece (as in the old nursery rhyme). ...
Using nimis (or related words) before an adjective strengthens it, but in a specific direction: nimis frigidus is "too cold", not "very cold".
You can also reach a similar tone with comparative: frigidior can mean "too cold".
I suggest four ways to emphasize an adjective in the order of my preference:
There is a verb fatīscō, fatīscere, —, ???, meaning to fall apart or collapse. (Sometimes it also acts like a deponent verb, fatīscor, fatīscī, with the same meaning.) But it's practically nonexistent in the past tense, and doesn't have a proper perfect system.
Fessus could be considered a perfect participle for fatīscō, with the inchoative -isc- ...
All three of those adjectives are used of persons in classical Latin, in both prose and poetry. (In my own reading, though, I'm accustomed to seeing altus and procerus much more often in this context than longus.)
(Definitions and attestations are from Oxford Latin Dictionary.)
1 Having great extension upwards, lofty, tall
... (of persons or ...
I think you are right that sanus more correctly describes a healthy state, whereas saluber/salubris seems to be preferred to describe those things which bestow health. Some examples:
ex saluberrimis Galliae et Hispaniae
after the very healthy [climate]* of Gaul and Spain
Caesar, Civil War, III.2
*climate is implied because the contrast ...
I believe the cursory etymology you stated is inaccurate. Here is what my research shows:
Medieval Latin meaning of trivium / trivialis
In the Middle Ages, the liberal arts were divided into the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) and the quadrivium (music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy), but this was hardly a relationship of easy and difficult.
Let me mention some things to complement your and TKR's lists.
First, the adjectives iuvenis and senex have the irregular comparatives iunior and senior.
These comparatives are rarely (if ever) used in neuter.
Neither adjective has a superlative.
For senex, the superlative can be replaced by that of vetustus (vetustissimus).
For vetus, comparatives and ...
According to the Italian Wiktionary entry for the Italian word lunatico, lunaticus is actually a Late Latin expression and, in particular, a calque of the Greek σεληνιακός, seleniakos, and σεληνόβλητος, selenobletos, "epileptic, mad due to the influence of the moon", from σελήνη seléne "moon". This agrees with the description given by the Treccani vocabulary,...
The English interesting etymologically comes from Latin impersonal verb meā/tuā/nostrā interest, but in Latin it is a neutral way of saying it is of interest/concern/importance (for example, tuā et meā maxime interest, te valere Cic. Fam. 16, 4) and the expression does not have the vaguely positive connotations of English interesting (which can be applied to ...
From Lewis and Short:
Subst.: jŭvĕnis, is, comm., one who is in the flower of his or her age (mostly of persons older than adolescentes and younger than seniores, i.e. between twenty and forty years)
Lewis' Elementary Latin Dictionary says the same:
As subst m. and f one in the flower of age, a young person, youth (i.e. between twenty and forty years)
Philomen Probert (Wolfson College, Oxford) writes that
"[A] nominative/accusative dual ending in ω always has an acute, never a circumflex, if accented on the final syllable, regardless of contraction:
νόω > νώ (not *νῶ); ὀστέω > ὀστώ (not *ὀστῶ)
(Probert 2003, §112). This is a synchronic observation.
Other similar exceptions (to the normal rules ...
Per Lewis & Short:
actŭālis , e, adj. id.,
I. active, practical, Macr. Somn. Scip. 2, 17.—Adv.: ac-tŭālĭter , actively, Myth. Vatic. vol. 3, p. 181 ed. Bod.
So it wasn't particularly close to either the English or the Spanish word actual.
As an aside, the Oxford English Dictionary records usage of actual in English in the sense of (modern) actual ...
To add to Joel Derfner's suggestion of studium excitat:
Ovid Ex Ponto IV.3.35 Excitat auditor studium, "An audience stirs interest" (translation source).
See also on the title of the Lutheran journal Studium Excitare (source):
"Studium Excitare" is a Latin phrase that means "to arouse zeal." The phrase is often used in historic Lutheran writings.
If the adjective is plural and it refers to words of several genders, I seem to recall the masculine is used by default. But I believe a Roman author would indeed recast a sentence like this, especially because it also refers to a neuter word.
If the adjective is singular, it should agree with the last noun mentioned.
Ne perderetur quomodo sensus communicetur voce anglica foolproof, dicerem aliquid et(iam) stultis idoneum esse. Hoc et vel etiam addo, nam mea sententia foolproof recte dici potest anglice alteris verbis significare, "even an idiot could not mess this up, so a fortiori you, who are not an idiot" (et stultus hoc destruere nequit, itaque quanto magis ipse tu, ...
This is well-known and virtually all good grammars discuss this (as vowel syncope).
Genetivus singularis helps us reconstruct the original nom.sg. form (synchronically), that's why we learn nouns in Latin in two forms, nominativus singularis and genetivus singularis.
Type A. No change, the vowel was present in all forms.
Nom. sg. pueros > *puers > puer
Your translation is correct, apart from missing the word viri.
"The whole state was thanking" is indeed translated well with Tota civitas gratias agebat.
The expression gratias agere requires dative to indicate who is thanked.
Therefore if you want to thank "this man's brother" (frater huius viri), the dative expression you need is fratri huius viri.
Certainly. Allen and Greenough sec. 500:
The gerundive is sometimes used, like the present and perfect participles, in simple agreement with a noun:—
fortem et cōnservandum virum (Mil. 104), a brave man, and worthy to be preserved.
gravis iniūria facta est et nōn ferenda (Flacc. 84), a grave and intolerable wrong has been done.
Latin doesn't need any changes at all. Since there are no definite articles, there's no need for anything but using the adjective substantively. The only requirement is following normal grammar rules on case endings.
So, you could easily say both vir bonus and just bonus for "the good man." Same with participles, one of the most memorably lines from Livy is ...
There is a direct quote for this situation in the Satyricon, where Petronius just uses annus in the genitive plural:
Statim allatae sunt amphorae vitreae diligenter gypsatae, quarum in cervicibus pittacia erant affixa cum hoc titulo: FALERNVM OPIMIANVM ANNORVM CENTVM. Dum titulos perlegimus, complosit Trimalchio manus et: "Eheu, inquit, ergo diutius vivit ...