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43

It appears that -que was treated much like a word. Especially Ovidius does not treat it as an enclitic, but more as an independent word. This becomes evident in quotes, where -que is outside the quote but the word it is attached to is inside. Take a look at this question on a specific instance of this (for the version -c) and this list for a number of ...


17

SPD is likely an acronym for Salutem Plurimam Dicit. When used in the phrase [Person X] salutem plurimam dicit [Person Y] it literally becomes Person X sends many greetings to Person Y Person X would be the sender/writer of the letter, and Person Y would be the recipient. For more on Latin letter-writing, see this page.


15

Yes, Cappelli is basically right (which is perhaps not surprising, he being an authoritative figure in the field of palaeography). Every third word is probably above average, but in most documents one seldom finds a sentence without any abbreviations. Parchment was not cheap, nor was scribal labour. The same applies to manuscripts in any European language, ...


14

I'll just expand slightly on @HDE226868's excellent and correct answer and say that the literal translation of salutem plurimam dicit is "says very much health." Another version you're likely to see is SQPD, which stands for salutem quam plurimam dicit, or "says as much health as possible." Another set of abbreviations that crops up often is SVBEEV or ...


14

The consensus seems to be that SPQR means Senatus Populusque Romanus, but there is also the theory that SPQR did not mean Senatus Populusque Romanus. It could also may have been Senatus Populus Quirites Romani. I've read this in the entry for Quirites in the dictionary Langenscheidt Großes Schulwörterbuch Lateinisch-Deutsch which I unfortunately don't ...


11

It's also – more commonly, I believe – given as Q. D. B. V. = quod Deus bene vertat, 'May God cause this to turn out well'/'May God grant this success.' This use of verto is under definition 18 in the Oxford Latin Dictionary: 18 (esp. w. advs.) To turn the course of (affairs) to a specificed (favourable, etc.) outcome. Two example of dissertations that ...


11

You can find the abbreviations for Lewis & Short in the Latin Lexicon 'Numen' online: http://latinlexicon.org/LNS_abbreviations.php First you will find the abbreviations of ancient authors and their works; then those of commonly used words and signs; last a catalogue of modern authors and their works referred to in the dictionary. Here are the ...


10

h.e. = hoc est ad h.l. = ad hunc locum


10

The proportion of abbreviated words in a medieval manuscript depends on the time when it was written and also the individual scribe, but could generally be quite high. I believe that the estimate by Cappelli cited in the question is rather conservative. As an example, consider the following excerpt from an 11th century manuscript, containing verses 137 to ...


10

I agree with brianpck's comment: I don't understand why you're reading this glyph as a Q. In isolation, it might look like a Q, but considering the context, it appears to be a variant of M (it's not that unusual I think for capital M to have a closed bottom in certain handwriting styles). Have you ever seen this glyph used for Q in this text? The symbol I ...


9

In Classical Latin the Genitive and Dative, first declension are -ae but in Medieval Latin, -e. So this is the abbreviated form of ecclesie. "of the church." Not all through-strikes have the same significance: though per and pro in this passage might originally have had / and - strikes. Johannes persona ecclesie de EVERESHOLT dat domino Regi dimidiam ...


9

There are two Unicode blocks in particular filled with mediaeval abbreviations, if you (and your readers!) have the appropriate fonts. The Combining Diacritical Marks Supplement (chart) provides combining characters, which can be inserted after a letter to add a mark above or below. These are the most versatile, but don't always look good if the font ...


9

Cappelli is the most reliable source in the field of Latin palaeography. What he says in the description of the signs of truncation also matches my experience. So there are hardly any different connotations at all, except that some of the signs are used more frequently to indicate that certain specific letters have been omitted. Quoting Cappelli: The ...


8

The source referenced in a Wikipedia-entry: SPQR är en förkortning för Senatus Populusque Romanus, [se'na:tus popu'luskwe ro'ma:nus], vilket betyder "senaten och det romerska folket". Eller Senatus Populus Quiritium Romanus Romerska riket, senaten och det kviritisk-romerska folket.[1] Where the reference [1] refers to a blog post by "maximuxz" in 4th of ...


8

First of all, the history of the ampersand (deriving from a ligature of a cursive et) is too short to be relevant to Classical Latin as @JoonasIlmavirta points out. Wikipedia lists ZC (zetera et cetera) or ZE (zetera) as abbreviations of et cetera for classical Latin. However, as @Marc points out, the American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy doesn't ...


8

According to Sandys's Latin Epigraphy: An Introduction to the Study of Latin Inscriptions, "D.D.P." stands for: decreto decurionum publice The last "P" is sometimes replaced with "P.P." or "PEC PUB": pecunia publica. A decurio was a public official who, among other things, collected local taxes and was responsible for certain public works. This is ...


8

In a word, yes. D.scat. means detur scatula (“let a box be given”) just like the following S. means signetur or scribatur (“let the following be prescribed”). It is also possible to interpret them as imperatives addressing the chemist: Da!, Signa!, ... Googling yielded this informative document from a Bulgarian University which clarifies all Latin ...


8

These triple dots appear to be serving two separate purposes. The passive -ur ending: In your first image, the word intended is perficientur, and the same triple dot is used on page 224 for cognoscentur. An interrogative sign: The first triple dot in your first image, and the succession of triple dots in your second, all seem to indicate that the preceding ...


8

Both, or either! Opus citātum and opere citātō are different inflections of the same phrase, depending how they're used in the sentence. If something comes from the cited work, for example, that would be ab opere citātō. If you want a reader to look at the cited work, on the other hand, that would be vidē opus citātum. In isolation (or in this case as an ...


8

It depends on context, I would say. Opere citato would mean "from the cited work" or "in the cited work" in the most relevant contexts. Opus citatum would mean "the cited work", where it could be subject or object or possibly something else. Operis citati would mean "of the cited work". If it is a Latin text, the phrase would be expected to follow ordinary ...


7

There is no significance to the word order, and both are perfectly acceptable in Latin. In fact, it is only in English translation that there is a difference felt. The genitive in Latin is perfectly at home come before or after the noun. For example, Lucretius wrote De Rerum Natura while Cicero wrote De Natura Deorum. I'm afraid that's simply all there is ...


7

The UK National Archive runs a two part course which gives immediate feedback and quickly introduces .1. dating of mss .2. different styles of writing (book script, private notes, .3. post classical grammar .4. some abbreviations. You'll whizz through that. For simply the Abbreviations also known as Sigla For manuscripts earlier than 850, including a ...


7

This is the "Versicle" character, Unicode 2123, "Versiculus", ℣ if your screen can display it. It is also possible that you may come across the "Response" character, U+211F, "Responsum", ℟, although this is much more common in the Liturgy of the Hours than in the Mass. (You will note that you have the word on your sample page, only slightly abbreviated).


6

As for what I can remember of my Latin and Roman History studies (some time ago) the Q (standing for que = and, as already explained in other answers and comments) was specifically introduced exactly to stress the union of the Senate and the People, but I cannot remember the occasion, or indicate a source for that.


6

Here is my transcription. I've edited a couple of words. The semicolon / z-like mark can be used for et/ed as well, as here. Abbreviations in square brackets. 1) Alcuinis . Quattuor modis op[er]atur deus. 2) Primo in u[er]bo .ii. in mat[er]ia informi .Un[de]. qui viv[it] in e- 3) ternum creavit om[n]ia simul .tercio. p[er] op[er]a .vi. dier[um] va- ...


5

Ainsworth revised Morrell 1783 has 20 pages Quarto, three columns each page, of Latin abbreviations. It does not show QSD with or without macron. So here are some near-misses. QS (also qs) is a standard abbreviation for QUASI, "sort of," "as if". But Q.S. (with stops) is a standard abbreviation for QVOD SUPRA "as above (previously)" And Q.S.S standard ...


5

There is one book that you would find more useful than any other, and that is a Latin Bible. The internet provides access to Manuscripts from the British Library, and the Beinecke (Yale), and the Parker Library (Cambridge) and several others. So, visit the British library, and tell them you want to read St Cuthbert's copy of St John, Add MS 89000 in half ...


5

A digitized version of Harper’s Latin Dictionary: A New Latin Dictionary founded on the Translation of Freund’s Latin-German Lexicon (a.k.a. Lewis & Short Lexicon) is also available at Internet Archive, albeit not as easily searchable as an HTML webpage. The beginning of the lexicon includes the: “Orthographical Index” on pages v–vi, “Abbreviations ...


5

In my experience, academic theses are defended in public with permission — and perhaps protection — of high university officials, and this is often indicated on the title page. Consider for example this dissertation (which contains a poem that I asked about). The title page says: D. F. G. ANIMADVERSIONES SUBITANEAE CIRCA PRINCIPIUM ...


5

In my opinion, you should not try to "improve" the text acciording to your own whims, but represent the text as it is. This means keeping the ampersands and accents as they are. To expand, the grave and the circumflex were used not primarily as length markers, but to provide some measure of grammatical disambiguation. In particular, although the ...


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