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12
votes
3answers
339 views

Help with Latin translation from a 17th century ecclesiastical Latin book

The book is Panoplia Clericalis, and the passage I'm having difficulty with (which I suspect is much easier than I think) is, from page 602: De colorum mixtione, qui differunt, ex varia eorum ...
12
votes
1answer
2k views

Were 'th' and 'ch' aspirated in classical Latin?

I have been taught that 'th' and 'ch' were pronounced just like 't' and 'c' in classical Latin, with no aspiration. The answer to this earlier question confirms that 't' and 'c' had indeed little or ...
12
votes
1answer
898 views

Where do the plurals of locus come from?

The word locus is masculine in the singular, but it can be masculine or neuter in the plural. Geographical places are loca, but places in a text are loci. As far as I know, this is the only Latin word ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

Does the “re” in emails have an ancient origin?

The Latin ablative re has become a word in English, meaning "regarding" or "with reference to" or something along those lines. This is also used in emails as an automatically generated prefix "Re:&...
12
votes
3answers
271 views

What does “angelorum planta agmini” mean?

I at least partially understand all the invocations in Litaniae in omni tribulatione, but one stays mysterious: "Angelórum planta ágmini" It's quite Google-proof, a quoted search for it returned only ...
12
votes
3answers
983 views

What is an Adverbial Accusative?

In book II, line 141 of Vergil's Aeneid (shown at the end of the question), my notes describe the first word 'quod' as an 'adverbial accusative', but no explanation as to what that means. So my ...
12
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2answers
731 views

How do I use gerundives of obligation for deponent verbs?

(Inspired by the comments on this answer.) The gerundive of obligation is a wonderful little idiom in Latin, as in Cato's famous mantra Carthāgō dēlenda est "Carthage must be destroyed" In this ...
12
votes
1answer
644 views

Is there a John or Jane Doe in Latin?

In English, John Doe or Jane Doe is understood not to be an actual name of a person, but to be some kind of a placeholder name or mean an average citizen. There are many variants of this name in ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Old vs Classical latins

In my research I found something about an old latin and that that is where the locative case comes from. So I clicked on the old latin page, and surprise, it's just an older version of latin. So is ...
12
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2answers
4k views

What's the difference between nam and enim?

Both nam and enim are generally defined as meaning "for," the only difference between them being that nam comes first in a clause and that enim is postpositive (i.e., it comes second). Is there a ...
12
votes
2answers
685 views

Does mentula (“penis”) derive from the same root as mens (“mind”), and if so why?

The Latin word mentula isn't properly defined in the Lewis & Short dictionary, but it does show up on Latin-Dictionary.net and Wiktionary. Both those dictionaries define mentula as "penis". But ...
12
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2answers
365 views

Did the Romans confuse a long vowel with two short ones?

Consider the words sūs and sŭŭs. The former has one long u, the latter has two short ones in two syllables. For another similar pair with a different vowel, consider īmus and ...
12
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1answer
330 views

Understanding the grammar: «illis Evangelii nuntiandi praebens mandatum»

The following is the Latin text from the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC), Prologue, Chapter 1, Section 2: 2 Ut haec vocatio in toto resonaret orbe, Christus Apostolos misit, quos elegerat, ...
12
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2answers
842 views

The lowest form of humor

Many Ancient Greek jokes are preserved in the Philogelos, ranging from wordplay to stereotypical foreigners to utter nonsense. And certain epigrams from Lucillius and Argentarius contain excellent/...
12
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2answers
1k views

How to use immo?

What does the word immo really mean and how can I use it? I read this and this dictionary entry, and I was left confused. Some of the uses I can understand, but some I cannot. Either I do not have ...
12
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2answers
1k views

Is llama lama or glama?

I went to a zoo today, and I noticed that the scientific name of llama is Lama glama. It seems to me that both lama and glama are latinized versions of "llama". Why were two different versions of the ...
12
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1answer
132 views

'Quae pars anterior quae posterior jure habeatur in toto genere non liquet': taxonomical description of Antarctissa denticulata (Ehrenberg 1844)

In one of his 1844 manuscripts, C. G. Ehrenberg described the radiolarian species Lithobotrys(?) denticulata (now known as Antarctissa denticulata) and, as it was customary at the time, did so in ...
12
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1answer
392 views

Why does Latin not have an instrumental case?

Seeing so many similarities in grammatical structure between Sanskrit and Latin, why is it that Latin does not have an instrumental case as Sanskrit does?
12
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1answer
305 views

Why is it “dare” and not “dāre” when most first conjugation verbs spell like “amāre”?

Why does dō conjugate differently from other first conjugation verbs in that you find a short a where otherwise you might expect a long ā? BACKGROUND Examples: amāre (dare), amārī (darī), ...
12
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1answer
3k views

How do you say “perhaps” or “maybe”?

I have a very good guess about how to say "perhaps" or "maybe". But I suspect there are several ways of saying it, with varying degrees of certainty. I wanted to get a better idea. ...
12
votes
1answer
994 views

“All-forgiving” expressed with the omni- prefix

The English language has a handful of words starting with omni- to express all-: omniscient all-knowing omnipotent all-powerful omnipresent present everywhere How would one express all-forgiving ...
12
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3answers
409 views

How to resolve ambiguity with reflexive pronouns

A comment to an answer of this question mentions that ambiguity can arise with a reflexive pronoun when both the independent clause and the clause with the reflexive pronoun have third-person subjects....
12
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2answers
1k views

What is the Latin name for the Romani people?

The Romani (aka Gypsies, though some consider that a slur) are nomadic people who dispersed across Europe about a thousand years ago. In other languages they have exonyms like tzigane, gitan, and ...
12
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1answer
262 views

How can one predict the length of theme vowels in verbs?

The theme vowels a, e, and i in infinitives are long. But, in other forms of those verbs, they can be short. But when, exactly? What are the rules for this? And how about the suppletive vowels used ...
12
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1answer
436 views

Is the Spanish translation of the “Exultet” chant literal?

I am reading the Exultet, an ancient Christian chant. The first two lines are: Exultet iam angelica turba caelorum, exultent divina mysteria In the Spanish translation, these two lines are: ...
12
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2answers
816 views

Representing medieval latin abbreviation symbols in Unicode

I'm trying to understand a paragraph from the 1806 transcription of latin legal texts from 1331, while being proficient at neither law nor latin. An example: which is from page 78 of Placita de quo ...
12
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1answer
243 views

Did the Romans have a Latin name for their domestic peristylia?

A typical upper- and probably also middle-class Roman house in the classical age contained a peristylium or peristylum, or so I was told. I wonder why they used a Greek word for such a standard Roman ...
12
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2answers
360 views

What is the origin of the “veneration” meaning of dulia?

The word dulia comes from the Greek doulia (meaning "slavery" or "servitude"). But in Catholicism, the word has taken on a theological meaning, as described in the Catholic Encyclopedia, "signifying ...
12
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1answer
132 views

apud + place name vs. locative

What is the difference, if any, between using apud with the name of a town, and using the locative form of that name? Reading Suetonius Tiberius 40, I noticed this usage: statimque reuocante ...
12
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1answer
3k views

Roman uses of diacritical marks

In what circumstances did Romans use diacritical marks, like macrons, in their writing? In particular how common was it to use diacritics in naming letters?
12
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1answer
387 views

Parsing “quod Deus optime vertat”

I want to understand a diploma text: DIPLOMA QVOD DEVS OPTIME VERTAT EX LEGIBVS VNIVERSITATIS JYVÄSKYLÄENSIS ATQVE EX DECRETO FACVLTATIS (…) If I consider Diploma as a ...
12
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1answer
318 views

Do Possessive Pronouns Always Agree with the Thing Being Possessed?

I recently came across this sentence (a practice sentence with no given answer) in my Latin textbook: mare nostrum plurimos portus habet I translated this as 'The sea has most of our harbour.' ...
12
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1answer
170 views

Do different truncation signs have different connotations?

I'm continuing reading Cappelli's The elements of abbreviation in medieval Latin paleography, and early on he discusses medieval truncation signs. There are three types used: An interpunct (first ...
12
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2answers
2k views

What does this damaged inscription in a church say?

I've been sent the following photo of an inscription in a Unitarian church. As best I can tell, it says: Templum hoc [re]novat[u]m est […]eribus denuo et inte[g]re[?] regnante serenissimo dono ...
12
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2answers
405 views

How to speak a language with a third declension adjective?

Most Latin adjectives related to names of countries and languages are of first and second declension: Latinus, Graecus, Anglicus… If I want to express that I speak in any such language, I will ...
12
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2answers
641 views

Is the usage of “id est” in Latin exactly like the usage of “i.e.” or “that is” in English?

There was a question a little while back on the English SE asking about the "plural form of i.e." (unfortunately, it got closed because the author didn't clarify what they meant). While I was trying ...
12
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1answer
271 views

How would a servus publicus be named - using the nominative or the genitive?

I was reading this encyclopedia entry on Roman naming, and it discusses the naming of Roman slaves. Originally, slave's name was the name of his master + "puer". During the age of the Roman Republic, ...
12
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1answer
3k views

The many forms of William?

In my genealogical research in England I have come across many different spellings of the name William in Latin documents: Gulielmus, Guglielmus, Wilhelmus, Willelmus, to name just a few. I know that ...
12
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1answer
212 views

How to form the plural of “noun plus noun in possessive case”?

I would like to know what are the rules to form the plural of a noun plus a noun in possessive case. I am not sure if this is a correct description of what I am interested in let me give an example. ...
12
votes
1answer
8k views

Why does “ut” mean such different things when it has a subjunctive verb vs. an indicative one?

We all know that ut, when paired with a subjunctive, is translated as "in order to" (purpose), "to" (indirect command), and, with some words, "that" (result/fear). However, ut with an indicative ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Why might “Philosophiae Doctor” (the source of “Ph.D.”) have been preferred over “Doctor Philosophiae”?

The English abbreviation Ph.D. comes from the Latin for Doctor of Philosophy, which I understand would be either Philosophiae Doctor or Doctor Philosophiae. I know word order is flexible in Latin, ...
12
votes
1answer
229 views

How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
12
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1answer
419 views

What is the difference between accusative and genitive with meminisse?

The verb meminisse can take an accusative or a genitive object. Also other constructions are possible (see the entry in L&S), but I want to focus on comparing these two in classical Latin. Are ...
12
votes
1answer
334 views

When to use -ris vs. -re as a passive verbal ending

Anyone who has read Cicero's famous line, Quo usque tandem, Catalina, abutere patientia nostra? ...knows that the 2nd person singular passive personal ending "-ris" is often changed to "-re": ...
12
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1answer
637 views

When did *discere* come to mean “to teach”?

In Anselm's Cur Deus Homo, 1.9.12, he writes: Verbum autem quod positum est, didicit, duobus modis intelligi potest. Aut enim didicit dictum est pro: alios fecit discere, aut quia, quod per ...
12
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1answer
179 views

Ūtāturne linguā Latīnā aliquis adverbō «ferē» velut linguā Anglicā verbō «almost» ūtimur?

Linguā Anglicā, saepe cum multīs adverbīs atque adiectīvīs, plūrima quōrum significātiōnēs absolūtās habent (exempla sunt «always» vel «everything» vel «nothing» vel «never», et cētera), adverbō «...
12
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2answers
379 views

Is there an exclusive word for octopus in Ancient Greek?

I was having the great "octopuses vs. octopi" debate with a scientist friend the other day, and decided to check the lexicon. The only entry I could find relates the word to measurement, either of ...
12
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2answers
526 views

Which common nouns have a locative?

I recently mentioned to someone the mnemonic I'd learned for the locative: "cities, towns, islands smaller than Rhodes, and domus and rus". In other words, only the names of cities, towns, and small ...
12
votes
1answer
480 views

What are New Latin's comma rules?

What are New Latin's comma rules? Specifically, where do New Latin's comma rules differ from modern English's comma rules (e.g., as documented in the 16th ed. of the Chicago Manual of Style §§6.15-6....
12
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2answers
447 views

General principles for translating non-Latin names into Latin

I am engaged in several translation projects on the side which often involve translating names that do not have a Roman equivalent. Certain names obviously come from or have obvious equivalents in ...

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