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9
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0answers
66 views

Why is “porticus, porticūs” a feminine fourth-declension noun?

The fourth declension was one of the less common inflection pattern for Latin nouns, and the vast majority of fourth declension nouns are masculine nouns ending in the deverbal abstract noun suffix -...
9
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1answer
305 views

The opposing meanings of the word donec?

I saw that "donec" might mean: "as long as", but it also can mean "till". In a sense those are opposing meanings. let's consider this example: I'm happy as long as there is daylight outside I'm ...
8
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116 views

edere panem vs. comedere panem

Consider the following minimal pair: edere panem 'to eat (the) bread' comedere panem 'to eat up the bread' When a resultative prefix is present (e.g. com- in comedere), panem is necessarily understood ...
8
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0answers
145 views

Is “oppido” (adverb) related to “oppidum”(noun)?

According to L&S, the etymology of oppido (adverb) is adv. etym. dub. where I imagine "dub" stands for something like "dubious". In any case, what can we speculate about the etymology of this ...
8
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0answers
198 views

Received pronunciation in Ancient Greek

As S. Teodorsson argues in his work on the phonemic system of the Attic dialect, there is evidence that already in the IV century BC, 'popular' Athenian speech underwent changes such as the merger of ...
8
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0answers
66 views

What is the most helpful dictionary for post-medieval works of philosophy and mathematics?

I need Latin for my natural-language artificial intelligence research, and I've been at it for enough years that I can read Latin well, but need extensive practice with composition. Thus I have ...
7
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0answers
178 views

Is “Every new beginning comes from some other beginning's end” correctly attributed to Seneca (the younger)?

The quote is a fairly well know lyric in the 1998 song Closing Time by Semisonic. In the Wikipedia entry for the song, it claims "The song ends with a quote attributed to Roman Stoic philosopher ...
7
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0answers
77 views

Is there a pre-Christian Roman story of “coming to faith”?

Is there a story in the Roman literature of someone previously not believing in the traditional Roman gods or a specific deity within their pantheon but later, after a vision or another experience, ...
7
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209 views

How do you call your aunt's or uncle's spouse?

In Latin, a paternal aunt is an 'amita', a paternal uncle is a 'patruus', a maternal aunt is a 'matertera' and a maternal uncle is an 'avunculus'. However, how do you call each of these people's ...
7
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177 views

Greek: unattainable wishes about the present

This is a question about how a specific type of unattainable (counterfactual) wish about the present is expressed in Greek. I'm looking for a good way of translating sentences like the following into ...
7
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106 views

When did acronyms first appear?

Acronyms are abbreviations that are read as whole words rather than letter by letter — or in other words, they are words formed from initials of a phrase. "NATO" and "laser" are two examples. I ...
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106 views

In Confessions I.18, does Augustine clearly indicate the physical death of an enemy?

In Augustine's Confessions, I.18, he writes: et certe non est interior litterarum scientia quam scripta conscientia, id se alteri facere quod nolit pati. quam tu secretus es, habitans in excelsis ...
6
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0answers
59 views

Was deliberately bad grammar ever used for emphasis in Latin?

In English, we can sometimes use deliberately incorrect grammar for effect in speech. The first example that comes to mind is a more colloquial example: I ain't never going to do... When I hear this ...
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54 views

Does the indefinite pronoun/determiner “quă” only exist as an enclitic?

I recently learned that there is an indefinite determiner and pronoun quă used in the feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative/accusative plural with the sense "any(one)" (...
6
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130 views

On the syntax of some datives in a beautiful Ciceronian structure

I was wondering if you would like to share your thoughts on the grammar of the datives in the following texts from Cicero. The second example is a very interesting one provided by Kingshorsey in an ...
6
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71 views

What was the use and frequency of use of Latin “mactāre”?

In What are the key differences between the main Latin verbs meaning "to kill"? we saw a lot of verbs meaning "to kill" and the differences between them. The fun part of it is that ...
6
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176 views

How old is Ecclesiastical Latin Pronunciation?

Salvete, I have trying to research how old the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation of Latin is. To be more precise, I mean the Italianate pronunciation, called 'La Pronuncia Scolastica' in Italian. Many ...
6
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111 views

How does Homer say “finger” and “leg?”

The English-Greek dictionary by Woodhouse translates finger as "δάκτυλος." However, the Homeric dictionary by Cunliffe doesn't have this word, and searching in the text of Homer doesn't seem to turn ...
6
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1answer
292 views

“Middle constructions” in Latin?

I was wondering how so-called "middle constructions" like the English ones exemplified in (1), which are typically translated with a reflexive verb in Romance languages (e.g., see the Catalan examples ...
6
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0answers
94 views

What is the etymology of Ἁμαδρυάς (Hamadryas)? Is the second alpha actually long?

I am trying to find more information about the formation and pronunciation of the Greek noun Ἁμαδρυάς, taken into Latin as Hamadryas. L&S transcribes the second a of the Latin form with a macron: ...
6
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68 views

Latin name of “Roman Dodecahedron”?

There are some 200 archaeological finds known under the name "Roman dodecahedron". There is no accepted or convincing explanation about their purpose and they have not been identified in any text. ...
6
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0answers
66 views

παντοκράτωρ - a matter of power or authority?

παντοκράτωρ, pantokrator is generally translated as "almighty," interpreted as a matter of power. I.e. the bible talks about one infinite God, El shaddai. But im curious if we may have been ...
6
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0answers
76 views

What does Geryon have to do with singing?

One of the Labors of Heracles involved a three-headed giant named Geryon (Γηρυών). I've never seen an explanation for this name, but at first glance it would seem to be connected to γηρύω "to sing" (...
6
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114 views

Did Alexander the Great change the meaning of “Hellenes”?

The Hellenistic era was launched by Alexander the Great, and his death is usually defined as the starting point. The Greek word Hellenes (Ἕλληνες) was in use before, during, and after the Hellenistic ...
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96 views

About Sappho Edmonds 69 Lobel-Page 54 Campbell 54: why the emendation of the participle?

The manuscript tradition for the fragment in the title gives us: ἔλθοντ' ἐξ ὀράνω πορφυρίαν ἔχοντα προϊέμενον χλάμυν For reasons of meter, deleting the ἔχοντα is basically mandatory. However, why ...
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498 views

How did “glutaeus/gluteus” come from Greek “gloutos”? Would “glutiaeus” be more correct?

In anatomy, the muscles of the buttocks are referred to collectively as the "glut(a)eal muscles" in English, and are individually given the following Latin names: glut(a)eus maximus, glut(a)eus medius ...
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602 views

What is the word for “reason” and what resonance does it have in Roman culture?

I find it interesting that the French expression avoir raison shares an etymology with the English words "reason" and "rational". In a post-truth political era, it is refreshing that the French ...
6
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0answers
208 views

Reviewing the evidence of the spirantization of β (betacism) in Greek

I originally submitted this question to the Linguistics beta site, and those users recommended that I ask anything related to Greek here. Although I understand that it is impossible to assign a ...
6
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0answers
139 views

About l. 13 of Sappho 31 Campbell / 2 Edmonds

I was updating the critical note to my blog post on this poem and inspecting Bergk's huge critical note when I saw that, concerning this line, he proposes «ἀ δέ μ' ἴδρως κακχέεται», maybe even «ἀ δὲ ...
6
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59 views

What is this extra source for Sappho 31 Campbell / 2 Edmonds?

I just noticed that Campbell, listing sources for Sappho 31 Campbell / 2 Edmonds, besides Longinus, mentions also P.S.I. (v. fr. 213B). I looked on PSI online, but nothing with the number 213 in its ...
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175 views

Etymology of “ingeniōsus” and “ingenuus”

Can someone please explain how these two words, ingenuus ingeniōsus both deriving from gignō, come to mean what they respectively do? BACKGROUND According to Wiktionary, ingenuus is made of in- +‎ ...
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98 views

A stone with the incomplete inscription “IH”, how old is it?

I have this stone with the incomplete inscription "IH". I think it could be the IHS Christogram but I am not sure. The height of the fragment is about 10cm, the material seems terracotta. The stone ...
6
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189 views

“Purissimum penem” in Suetonius's Life of Horace

Suetonius, in his Vita Horati, reports that the emperor Augustus jokingly referred to Horace as a purissimus penis: Praeterea saepe eum inter alios iocos purissimum penem et homuncionem ...
6
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84 views

How common was synizesis in classical poetry?

In synizesis two vowels that would normally be pronounced separately are pronounced as one without any change in spelling. This happens sometimes in Latin poetry and it can be recognized from the ...
6
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0answers
228 views

Why is pronunciation different in Turku than the rest of Finland?

In Finland ae and oe are both typically pronounced as /e:/ when they belong to the same syllable. In (and near) Turku the pronunciations are /ai/ and /oi/. (This excludes, for example, aer and poema; ...
6
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2answers
391 views

How can I intensify a phrase?

In everyday English, obscene words like "fuck" and "hell" have been somewhat semantically bleached into intensifiers. For example, "fucking ridiculous" and "weird as hell" are common idioms that aren'...
5
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0answers
49 views

Are there ever separate number and case markers in Latin?

It seems to me that in Latin the case endings in singular and plural have very little in common. For an example of singular–plural pairs: puella–puellae, puellam–puellas, puellae–puellarum, puellae–...
5
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0answers
130 views

When did “si” become the standard word for “yes” in the Italian peninsula?

I am aware that classical Latin did not have words for "yes" and "no" in the same sense that English does. I know that they could express the idea of "yes" by either ...
5
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0answers
56 views

“From beyond the grave”

When someone does something after death — such as causing harm by their will — they can be said to act "from beyond the grave". Is there a similar idiom in Latin? Any era will do, although ...
5
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1answer
55 views

What is the meaning of “positive acceptus” in Gauss' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae §131?

From Gauss' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae §131: Sī p est numerus prīmus fōrmae 4n+1, erit +p, sī vērō p fōrmae 4n+3, erit -p residuum vel nōn-residuum cuiusvīs numerī prīmī quī positīvē acceptus ipsīus ...
5
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0answers
65 views

Why do some sources give the principal parts in a different order, or include an extra, fifth principal part?

Many online sources state categorically that ordinary (non-deponent, non-defective) Latin verbs have four principal parts. It is often also implied that they have a fixed order (1st pers. sgl. ...
5
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0answers
51 views

How do I access the PHI 5.3 corpus through CLTK?

CLTK (the Classical Languages ToolKit) seems to contain several tools to work with the Packhum Latin corpus. However, the actual setup process seems to require the use of several different tools, none ...
5
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0answers
80 views

Well, well, well

How to say this expression in Latin!? Expressing surprise: Well, well, well! It is here (when smth lost and found)! Expressing sarcasm: Well, well, well... And what now!? Expressing begining: Well, ...
5
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0answers
78 views

Did the Romans ever distinguish between present perfective and past aoristic?

The Latin "perfect" forms are a combination of two different tense-aspect combinations: past aoristic ("I ate"), and present perfective ("I have eaten"). The two are generally indistinguishable, but ...
5
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0answers
104 views

Infinitive clause constructed via plural noun

I stumbled upon this sentence and I am quite perplexed. I would translate as the first example I'll show, but I'd like to be sure. "Cum ista ex militum cognitione toti Galli intelligant esse ...
5
votes
1answer
246 views

effeminare = evirare (?)

Assuming that (i) the meanings of vir and femina are indeed opposite and (ii) the meaning of the prefix ex- is quite transparent, why are the verbs evirare and effeminare then synonymous? Are there ...
5
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0answers
51 views

nu + coronis at the beginning of homeric verses?

I need help understanding a passage from Chantraine's Grammaire Homérique (chapter XVIII, p. 222). Chantraine talks about the Ζῆν and Ζῆνα forms of the name Zeus. According to Chantraine, the aedes ...
5
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0answers
54 views

Old illustrated books showing daily life in ancient Greece or Rome

When I was learning French, I found it very helpful to work on my vocabulary using a picture book called First Thousand Words in French. For example, it would have something like a full-page picture ...
5
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0answers
144 views

Why does “urgueo” exist as a variant of “urgeo”?

The rule I learned for the pronunciation of the digram "gu" before a vowel in Latin was /gw/ after "n", vs. g + vocalic u anywhere else. But I just discovered the exception urgueo /urgweoː/. This is a ...
5
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0answers
81 views

How did the Romans salute the Republic?

Are there any known phrases that were used by Romans to celebrate or cheer for the Republic? Something like Ave Res Publica ? Or maybe they'd cheer for something else, like for the Senate or for the ...

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