Questions tagged [vulgar-latin]

For questions about the Latin that was commonly spoken, rather than written (i.e. classical) Latin. Note that this does not refer solely to profanity, but any non-standard, spoken dialect of Latin.

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What is the modern day pronunciation of v in Latin as in van or as a w? And is the c soft as in cellar or hard as in cat?

What is the modern day pronunciation of v in Latin (as in van) or as a w sound? And is the c soft as in cellar or hard as in cat?
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2 votes
1 answer
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From what date do we find spellings with V for B?

In late Latin, there was frequent confusion between B and V between vowels (a position where the distinction was eventually lost throughout the Romance languages), and even at the start of words (...
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1 answer
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Sources for Roman graffiti of Pompeii and Herculaneum

I'm beginning to learn about vulgar latin and I came across the following verses which is one of the graffiti preserved by the lava. Quisquis ama valia, peria qui nosci amare. Bis tanti peria ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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The classical Latin speakers called Vulgar Latin sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, and sermo plebeius, but what did plebeians call their language?

The elite and the educated, the classical latin speakers, called Vulgar Latin sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, and sermo plebeius, but what did plebeians and the other non elite Ancient Romans call Vulgar ...
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How did sedeo, sedere supplant some forms of sum, esse in Vulgar Latin?

I had learned that the Romance languages' copulas come from Latin's sum verb obviously, but not all of its forms transferred over. Specifically the verb's present subjunctive forms seem to have been ...
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15 votes
1 answer
685 views

Is there a relationship between the phonology in Old Latin and later Vulgar Latin?

After some reading and research, I can't help but notice many similarities between Old Latin and what would become the Romance Languages. For example, the case endings for the nominative and ...
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2 votes
2 answers
370 views

Intonation pattern in Classical Latin that is the same intonation pattern Dora Marquez of Dora the Explorer does at times when she is speaking English

Listening to Classical Latin literature I have noticed that Thomas Bervoets launches into the same intonation pattern that Dora Marquez of Dora the Explorer does when she is speaking English at times! ...
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1 vote
3 answers
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What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī? The word is at the 5:06 mark of this video! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdQawsU2RFg&t=308s
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4 votes
2 answers
153 views

What is the meaning behind "calcostegis" from the Appendix Probi?

I saw this entry from the Appendix Probi and can't seem to decide what it is exactly and what it means? From looking at it, it has something to do with walking from the 'calco' part, but not sure ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Informal ways of expressing gratitude (and replying to the same) in Latin?

Background, modern examples Most people who learn Latin and who want to gain some oral proficiency, will early on learn the phrase Grātiās tibī/vōbīs agō, and simply a Grātiās! to match English Thanks!...
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Latin Perfect Tense and romance languages particularly Portuguese

How did the perfect tense evolve in each romance language? For example is the Preterito Perfeito functionally equivalent to the Latin Perfect Tense? Heri dormivi. Ontem dormi. Ayer dormi. Hier j'ai ...
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1 answer
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recordings of eras of Latin

I'm not sure if this question is allowed here or not but are there recordings of eras of Latin (Old Latin, Late Latin, and Vulgar Latin) and also African Latin that are recited as perfectly as ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Euler passage translation (Latin in 18th century)

I would like to include a translation of a brief passage from Euler's music text Tentamen novae theoriae musicae (1739) in an article I am writing, but find the original somewhat tricky to work with. ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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Why is *salāta feminine? What was the original noun it is modifying?

OED traces the "salad" family of words (Portuguese salada, Fra. salate, Spa. ensalada, Ita. insalata etc.) to spoken Latin *salāta, from the verb salāre. One notices that salāta as well as ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Was there a standard accent in Latin in the Roman era?

I know that the standard language was Classical Latin and that the average person spoke Vulgar Latin, but was there a standard dialect or pronunciation for Latin? Like the way it was spoken in Rome?
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2 answers
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How could Dalmatian "anca" derive from Latin "hanc hodie"?

The semantic derivation from hanc hodie "this here day" to "also", "even" etc. does make no sense to me. The editor who added the etymology to wiki/anca and a many other languages, that share this ...
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Pronunciation of "Formulæ"

What is the pronunciation of Formulæ in Latin ? Is there any difference (in pronunciation) between classical and vulgar Latin ? The answer can be in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) format.
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2 votes
1 answer
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What evidence is there for volēre over volere?

In this answer, fdb mentions the Classical verb volō, velle transforming into *voleō, volēre in Vulgar Latin. The main evidence for this is a form volendi in Augustine and reflexes like voglio, volere ...
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4 votes
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Was there ever a difference between 'volo' and 'volo'?

The words "I want" and "I fly" are both volō. Was there ever any difference in pronunciation in the classical era or later? I expect such differences to be more likely in vulgar Latin. The rest ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Latin expression for "carrying something on one's back"

In Spanish, the word cuesta is nowadays used as slope. Nonetheless, the etymology of the word indicates that it comes fom Latin costa, ae meaning "a side" but also "a rib". In fact, an old meaning for ...
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What semantic notions underlie 'fold' with 'plight; predicament'?

Of the two noun homonyms 'pledge', I'm asking merely about that derived from Latin. For the other homonym from Proto-Germanic , please see this. Etymonline for 'plight (n.1)' : "condition or ...
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10 votes
2 answers
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What is the superlative of ipse?

In later Latin, as ipse started to lose its force, Petronius uses ipsimus for emphasis: Tamen ad delicias ipsimi [domini] annos quattuordecim fui. Nec turpe est, quod dominus iubet. Ego tamen et ...
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3 votes
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Can "ave, vire" be used colloquially as "hey, bro"?

There's a Spanish webcomic called ¡Eh, tío!, an expression that can be translated into English as hey, man or maybe as hey, bro. The webcomic had some time ago a story arc set in an alternate universe ...
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2 votes
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Could the vulgar verb "toccari" have existed in Vulgar Latin?

As a follow-up of the previous interesting question (Did the Vulgar Latin verb "toccare" exist? ), could the vulgar Vulgar Latin verb toccari (in the sense of the deponent verb masturbari) ...
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8 votes
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Did the Vulgar Latin verb "toccare" exist?

According to the Royal Spanish Academy dictionary, the word tocar 'touch' has its origin in the toc toc onomatopoeia. Something similar is registered in Etymonline for the English verb touch: from ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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How would Marcus Aurelius have pronounced his Latin?

It is my understanding that Julius Caesar, Cicero, Octavian (Augustus) would have pronounced Latin in a manner that is decidedly Classical, characterised by: "v" as /w/ "c" and "g" always hard (i.e., ...
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Do we have evidence of clipped words in Latin?

In English, it's common for words to be clipped down to their first couple syllables: "brother" becomes "bro", "university" becomes "uni", "doctor" becomes "doc", "veteran" becomes "vet", and so on. ...
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9 votes
2 answers
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What do we know about Vulgar Latin pronunciation?

Nowadays, most Latinists learn the "reconstructed classical" pronunciation: an attempt at reconstructing the way Cicero, Caesar, or Vergil might have spoken in formal settings. However, it seems ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Is *rīcus attested?

The word for "rich" in most Romance languages looks something like, well, "rich". It declines like a first/second declension adjective, and seems to go back to Germanic *rīkijaz (possibly through ...
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11 votes
2 answers
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What would a 5th-6th century learned Latin pronunciation have sounded like?

Is there any information on the status of learned pronunciations from the late imperial period up to 1000 CE? I am wondering because the Classical Latin reconstruction seems to make clear that by the ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Is there support for claiming -gn- was pronounced as /ŋ/ in classical Latin?

According to what I have learned, -gn- was commonly pronounced /ŋn/, e.g. [ˈmaŋ.nʊs] (magnus). However, this excerpt from Encyclopædia Britannica had me wondering: The sound represented by ng (...
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7 votes
1 answer
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When did the infinitive of purpose arise?

In Classical Latin, purpose would normally be expressed with ut, or ad with a gerund, or a supine with a verb of motion, or numerous other ways. However, in later and vulgar Latin (most notably the ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Is the suffix -izo, -izare, -izavi, -izatum formal?

The suffix -ize (or similar) are used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives in several Romance languages. Wiktionary suggests that this stems from the vulgar latin -izo, -izare, -izavi, -izatum, ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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How did '-met' + 'ipse' + '-issimus' compound to mean <the same> (in *metipsimus)?

[ Wiktionary for *metipsimus :] Etymology [0.] From -met (emphatic suffix) + ipse (“himself”) + -issimus (superlative suffix). Adjective *metipsimus (feminine *metipsima, neuter *metipsimum); first/...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What semantic notions underlie <the same> (in *metipsimus) and <even> (in 'même')?

[ Wiktionary for 'même' :] Etymology [3.] From Middle French mesme, from Old French mesme, earlier meïsme, [2.] from Vulgar Latin *metipsimus [= the same], [1.] from Latin -met [emphatic suffix] ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Appendix probi: "cannelam nun canianus"

Appendix probi was a book written in 3rd-4th century AD to correct people's written Latin. It consists of lines of the form "xxx non yyy", meaning that people commonly wrote yyy, where xxx is the "...
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10 votes
6 answers
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How did Latin sound?

Does anybody know how normal Latin dialog sounded — not the oratory or ecclesiastical versions? Are there any audio files that you recommend?
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2 votes
1 answer
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What underlying semantic notions connect the Latin for '(from then) to this hour' to the French « encore »?

[ CNRTL : ] Du lat[in] vulg[aire] *hinc ha (c) hora ou *hinc ad horam; la forme a[ncienne] fr[ançaise] uncore, oncore est due à l'infl[uence] de onque, onc*. This thread redirects you to the ...
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14 votes
1 answer
351 views

Did word order have any function in colloquial Latin?

In Latin, word order is mostly free. This is used intensively by poets and other authors to achieve a desired rhythm or rhetoric figures like chiasms. However, this does not apply to regular, spoken ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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Can the use of articles be traced back to Late/Vulgar Latin?

The Romance articles developed from Latin ille. Was ille already used in a way that resembles articles more than demonstratives in very late or Vulgar Latin? Or did it this use only emerge after Latin ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What underlying semantic notions connect 'studere' to 'to put in, put aside, spare, keep'?

[ Etymonline on 'etui (n.)' : ] 1610s, also ettuy, etwee from French étui, Old French estui (12c.) "case, box, container," back-formation from estuier "put in put aside, spare; to keep, shut up, ...
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20 votes
4 answers
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When did the consonant U (i.e., V) begin to be pronounced as the fricative [v] instead of [w]?

It's well established that the consonantal u (or v) was pronounced as [w] in Classical Latin (i.e., w as in wine). Of course, Romance languages developed voiced fricatives out of this u-consonant, ...
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4 votes
1 answer
128 views

What underlying notion connects "roll" (in "volvere") to "leap" (in "*volvitare")?

[vault (v.1) :]   [...] from Vulgar Latin *volvitare "to turn, leap," frequentative of Latin volvere "to turn, turn around, roll" (see volvox). [...] I ask not about the meanings "turn" or "...
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