Questions tagged [vulgar-latin]

For questions about the Latin that was commonly spoken, rather than written (i.e. classical) Latin. Note that this does not refer solely to profanity, but any non-standard, spoken dialect of Latin.

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Lanius non laneo. Evolution

I am trying to do the evolution from Classical Latin to Vulgar Latin of this word: Lanius non laneo. Could someone help me? What are the changes that occur? I was thinking of a diphthongation but I'm ...
Anna's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
556 views

Do we ever see mixing of B and V word-initially?

In later Latin, /b/ between vowels merged with /w/, eventually leading to forms like modern Italian avere from Latin habēre. This only happened within a word: illa bucca became Italian la bocca, not *...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Does Latin have minced oath interjections?

Does Latin have minced oath interjections analogous to English's Jeez (< Jesus), Gosh (< God), gee whiz (< geewhillikins < Jerusalem)? cf. Christianity StackExchange question "Do ...
Geremia's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
547 views

What academic evidence is there of the pronunciation of gn as ɲn in Vulgar Latin?

I've come across a fairly frequent claim that gn was pronounced as ɲn in vulgar Latin. However, I haven't been able to find any kind of academic sources to back that up. I've found a few sources (and ...
Lind's user avatar
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0 answers
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Possibility of Vulgar Latin or Old Romanian origins of "Akoldo" and "Dir" in medieval Primary Chronicles of Kievan Rus

The names "Akoldo" (that's how he was called for the first time, and later he is mentioned as Askold) and "Dir" are mentioned as the first Varangian rulers of Kiev in the medieval ...
Damir's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
246 views

Parallel examples of the change of Apothēca to boutique?

French boutique, Spanish bodega etc. are by etymology said to be from Latin apothēca (REW). Are there other cases of word-initial a- being lost in Romance languages? From the top of my head, words ...
vectory's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
65 views

When do the demonstratives ille, illa, illud become reduced definite articles?

More specifically, what are the first attestations of the nascent reduced forms of the definite articles in Latin (or Proto-Romance) e.g. Latin illam > la?
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
369 views

Is the word "pitikkus" (meaning small) attested in Vulgar (or other) Latin?

Being interested in the obscure etymology of popular Romanian word "pitic" (n.m. "dwarf", adj. "of small stature") I have oddly concentrated only on a possible Greek-...
cipricus's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
298 views

Is the ancient word Greek πῐ́θηκος / píthēkos ("monkey") attested with the meaning "dwarf" more than once?

I am interested in the obscure etymology of popular Romanian word "pitic" (n.m. "dwarf", adj. "of small stature"). It might have a connection with the Latin line that led ...
cipricus's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
104 views

How did Latin's inchoative verb endings (-sco) get very productive in the Romance languages?

How did this particular suffix scheme get so common in the daughter Romance languages? Take Latin: finire, finio Then look at Spanish: fenecer, fenezco Italian: finire, finisco French: finir, je finis ...
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
101 views

What is the modern day pronunciation of v in Latin as in van or as a w? And is the c soft as in cellar or hard as in cat?

What is the modern day pronunciation of v in Latin (as in van) or as a w sound? And is the c soft as in cellar or hard as in cat?
Sarah's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
112 views

From what date do we find spellings with V for B?

In late Latin, there was frequent confusion between B and V between vowels (a position where the distinction was eventually lost throughout the Romance languages), and even at the start of words (...
Asteroides's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
642 views

Sources for Roman graffiti of Pompeii and Herculaneum

I'm beginning to learn about vulgar latin and I came across the following verses which is one of the graffiti preserved by the lava. Quisquis ama valia, peria qui nosci amare. Bis tanti peria ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
409 views

The classical Latin speakers called Vulgar Latin sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, and sermo plebeius, but what did plebeians call their language?

The elite and the educated, the classical latin speakers, called Vulgar Latin sermo vulgaris, sermo vulgi, and sermo plebeius, but what did plebeians and the other non elite Ancient Romans call Vulgar ...
Ana Maria's user avatar
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0 answers
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How did sedeo, sedere supplant some forms of sum, esse in Vulgar Latin?

I had learned that the Romance languages' copulas come from Latin's sum verb obviously, but not all of its forms transferred over. Specifically the verb's present subjunctive forms seem to have been ...
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
16 votes
1 answer
890 views

Is there a relationship between the phonology in Old Latin and later Vulgar Latin?

After some reading and research, I can't help but notice many similarities between Old Latin and what would become the Romance Languages. For example, the case endings for the nominative and ...
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
475 views

Intonation pattern in Classical Latin that is the same intonation pattern Dora Marquez of Dora the Explorer does at times when she is speaking English

Listening to Classical Latin literature I have noticed that Thomas Bervoets launches into the same intonation pattern that Dora Marquez of Dora the Explorer does when she is speaking English at times! ...
Ana Maria's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
239 views

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī? The word is at the 5:06 mark of this video! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdQawsU2RFg&t=308s
Ana Maria's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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What is the meaning behind "calcostegis" from the Appendix Probi?

I saw this entry from the Appendix Probi and can't seem to decide what it is exactly and what it means? From looking at it, it has something to do with walking from the 'calco' part, but not sure ...
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
249 views

Informal ways of expressing gratitude (and replying to the same) in Latin?

Background, modern examples Most people who learn Latin and who want to gain some oral proficiency, will early on learn the phrase Grātiās tibī/vōbīs agō, and simply a Grātiās! to match English Thanks!...
Canned Man's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
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Latin Perfect Tense and romance languages particularly Portuguese

How did the perfect tense evolve in each romance language? For example is the Preterito Perfeito functionally equivalent to the Latin Perfect Tense? Heri dormivi. Ontem dormi. Ayer dormi. Hier j'ai ...
George Ntoulos's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
215 views

recordings of eras of Latin

I'm not sure if this question is allowed here or not but are there recordings of eras of Latin (Old Latin, Late Latin, and Vulgar Latin) and also African Latin that are recited as perfectly as ...
Ana Maria's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
202 views

Euler passage translation (Latin in 18th century)

I would like to include a translation of a brief passage from Euler's music text Tentamen novae theoriae musicae (1739) in an article I am writing, but find the original somewhat tricky to work with. ...
Thomas Nicholson's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
349 views

Why is *salāta feminine? What was the original noun it is modifying?

OED traces the "salad" family of words (Portuguese salada, Fra. salate, Spa. ensalada, Ita. insalata etc.) to spoken Latin *salāta, from the verb salāre. One notices that salāta as well as ...
melissa_boiko's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

Which modern language out of French, Italian, and Spanish is most similar to classical latin?

Since Spanish, Italian and French languages are all Romance Languages, which one of them is the most similar one to Classical Latin? I found this Diagram of the Romance Languages on Wikipedia.
Nabla's user avatar
  • 365
2 votes
1 answer
232 views

Was there a standard accent in Latin in the Roman era?

I know that the standard language was Classical Latin and that the average person spoke Vulgar Latin, but was there a standard dialect or pronunciation for Latin? Like the way it was spoken in Rome?
user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
252 views

How could Dalmatian "anca" derive from Latin "hanc hodie"?

The semantic derivation from hanc hodie "this here day" to "also", "even" etc. does make no sense to me. The editor who added the etymology to wiki/anca and a many other languages, that share this ...
vectory's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
157 views

Pronunciation of "Formulæ"

What is the pronunciation of Formulæ in Latin ? Is there any difference (in pronunciation) between classical and vulgar Latin ? The answer can be in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) format.
Laurence R. Ugalde's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
227 views

What evidence is there for volēre over volere?

In this answer, fdb mentions the Classical verb volō, velle transforming into *voleō, volēre in Vulgar Latin. The main evidence for this is a form volendi in Augustine and reflexes like voglio, volere ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Was there ever a difference between 'volo' and 'volo'?

The words "I want" and "I fly" are both volō. Was there ever any difference in pronunciation in the classical era or later? I expect such differences to be more likely in vulgar Latin. The rest ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Latin expression for "carrying something on one's back"

In Spanish, the word cuesta is nowadays used as slope. Nonetheless, the etymology of the word indicates that it comes fom Latin costa, ae meaning "a side" but also "a rib". In fact, an old meaning for ...
Charlie's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
79 views

What semantic notions connect 'fold' with 'plight' = predicament?

Of the two noun homonyms 'pledge', I'm asking merely about that derived from Latin. For the other homonym from Proto-Germanic , please see this. Etymonline for 'plight (n.1)' : "condition or ...
user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is the superlative of ipse?

In later Latin, as ipse started to lose its force, Petronius uses ipsimus for emphasis: Tamen ad delicias ipsimi [domini] annos quattuordecim fui. Nec turpe est, quod dominus iubet. Ego tamen et ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
243 views

Can "ave, vire" be used colloquially as "hey, bro"?

There's a Spanish webcomic called ¡Eh, tío!, an expression that can be translated into English as hey, man or maybe as hey, bro. The webcomic had some time ago a story arc set in an alternate universe ...
Charlie's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
92 views

Could the vulgar verb "toccari" have existed in Vulgar Latin?

As a follow-up of the previous interesting question (Did the Vulgar Latin verb "toccare" exist? ), could the vulgar Vulgar Latin verb toccari (in the sense of the deponent verb masturbari) ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
914 views

Did the Vulgar Latin verb "toccare" exist?

According to the Royal Spanish Academy dictionary, the word tocar 'touch' has its origin in the toc toc onomatopoeia. Something similar is registered in Etymonline for the English verb touch: from ...
Charlie's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
1k views

How would Marcus Aurelius have pronounced his Latin?

It is my understanding that Julius Caesar, Cicero, Octavian (Augustus) would have pronounced Latin in a manner that is decidedly Classical, characterised by: "v" as /w/ "c" and "g" always hard (i.e., ...
Noldorin's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
83 views

Do we have evidence of clipped words in Latin?

In English, it's common for words to be clipped down to their first couple syllables: "brother" becomes "bro", "university" becomes "uni", "doctor" becomes "doc", "veteran" becomes "vet", and so on. ...
Draconis's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
2k views

What do we know about Vulgar Latin pronunciation?

Nowadays, most Latinists learn the "reconstructed classical" pronunciation: an attempt at reconstructing the way Cicero, Caesar, or Vergil might have spoken in formal settings. However, it seems ...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
133 views

Is *rīcus attested?

The word for "rich" in most Romance languages looks something like, well, "rich". It declines like a first/second declension adjective, and seems to go back to Germanic *rīkijaz (possibly through ...
Draconis's user avatar
  • 66k
12 votes
2 answers
1k views

What would a 5th-6th century learned Latin pronunciation have sounded like?

Is there any information on the status of learned pronunciations from the late imperial period up to 1000 CE? I am wondering because the Classical Latin reconstruction seems to make clear that by the ...
Andonis Neilous's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
512 views

Is there support for claiming -gn- was pronounced as /ŋ/ in classical Latin?

According to what I have learned, -gn- was commonly pronounced /ŋn/, e.g. [ˈmaŋ.nʊs] (magnus). However, this excerpt from Encyclopædia Britannica had me wondering: The sound represented by ng (...
Canned Man's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
464 views

When did the infinitive of purpose arise?

In Classical Latin, purpose would normally be expressed with ut, or ad with a gerund, or a supine with a verb of motion, or numerous other ways. However, in later and vulgar Latin (most notably the ...
Draconis's user avatar
  • 66k
3 votes
0 answers
169 views

Is the suffix -izo, -izare, -izavi, -izatum formal?

The suffix -ize (or similar) are used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives in several Romance languages. Wiktionary suggests that this stems from the vulgar latin -izo, -izare, -izavi, -izatum, ...
Henricus V.'s user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
560 views

How did '-met' + 'ipse' + '-issimus' compound to mean <the same> (in *metipsimus)?

[ Wiktionary for *metipsimus :] Etymology [0.] From -met (emphatic suffix) + ipse (“himself”) + -issimus (superlative suffix). Adjective *metipsimus (feminine *metipsima, neuter *metipsimum); first/...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
112 views

What semantic notions underlie <the same> (in *metipsimus) and <even> (in 'même')?

[ Wiktionary for 'même' :] Etymology [3.] From Middle French mesme, from Old French mesme, earlier meïsme, [2.] from Vulgar Latin *metipsimus [= the same], [1.] from Latin -met [emphatic suffix] ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
294 views

Appendix probi: "cannelam nun canianus"

Appendix probi was a book written in 3rd-4th century AD to correct people's written Latin. It consists of lines of the form "xxx non yyy", meaning that people commonly wrote yyy, where xxx is the "...
Leaky Nun's user avatar
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11 votes
5 answers
4k views

How did Latin sound?

Does anybody know how normal Latin dialog sounded — not the oratory or ecclesiastical versions? Are there any audio files that you recommend?
Valugi's user avatar
  • 219
1 vote
1 answer
154 views

What underlying semantic notions connect the Latin for '(from then) to this hour' to the French « encore »?

[ CNRTL : ] Du lat[in] vulg[aire] *hinc ha (c) hora ou *hinc ad horam; la forme a[ncienne] fr[ançaise] uncore, oncore est due à l'infl[uence] de onque, onc*. This thread redirects you to the ...
user avatar
14 votes
1 answer
389 views

Did word order have any function in colloquial Latin?

In Latin, word order is mostly free. This is used intensively by poets and other authors to achieve a desired rhythm or rhetoric figures like chiasms. However, this does not apply to regular, spoken ...
Wrzlprmft's user avatar
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