Questions tagged [vocabulary]

This tag is for questions concerning the meaning and usage of individual words or a few words in conjunction with each other.

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7
votes
1answer
391 views

Classical words for spelt

The Latin Wikipedia article about spelt mentions two ancient Latin names for spelt: spelta and scandala. I have found spelta used in more recent Latin, but nothing ancient. I have never seen scandala &...
4
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1answer
119 views

Resources that classify words/definitions by period in Latin history?

I'm trying to develop a stronger sense of what/how Latin vocabulary was used at different points in the history of the language. In looking around Google and archive.org, I've found dictionaries from, ...
5
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1answer
210 views

When were trivialis and quadrivialis introduced?

The seven liberal arts were divided into trivium and quadrivium. The easier half, trivium, gives rise to the adjective trivialis, which has connotations of simplicity and vulgarity. The adjective ...
7
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0answers
254 views

Size of Latin vocabulary by period

What is the size of attested (or accepted) Latin vocabulary by period (Old, Classical, Late etc.)? I am specifically interested in the Classical period, but I have added the other ones to the ...
6
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2answers
130 views

What does “condó” mean in this sentence?

In the odds and ends section of Ephemeris, a Latin news site, a recent article tells the story of a cat whose owner accidentally put him in the mail along with some DVDs. (Happily, Cupcake survived.) ...
9
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3answers
392 views

Semantic differences between verbs of thinking

Latin has lots of verbs which can be translated as "think", including puto, opinor, arbitror, existimo, reor, censeo, cogito, and doubtless many others. How might one get a handle on the semantic ...
12
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3answers
2k views

What is the correct way to say “Noctis Avem”?

I'm looking to use "Night bird" as a name or title for something. I don't know which, if any, of the following would be correct: Noctis Avem Avem Noctis Avis Noctem Avem nox etc. What rules come ...
16
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1answer
799 views

What are the key differences between the main Latin verbs meaning “to kill”?

I'm a student and my class laughs when we learn a new verb for "to kill". Just to list some of them: necare interficere extinguere There are of course many others. What are the key differences ...
10
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3answers
435 views

What is “user account” in Latin?

I was thinking about expanding our help page in Latin, and I realized I don't know a good expression for "user account" in Latin. A "user" can be reasonably translated as usor, but "account" is harder....
10
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2answers
4k views

Is there a plural of Jesus in Latin?

The name Iesus has peculiar declension in Latin. The declension of this word in every source that I have seen only gives singular forms. However, I can imagine situations where a plural is needed: a ...
6
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1answer
214 views

Why is “paeniteo” considered more correct than “poeniteo”?

Through answers to another question, I came across Lewis & Short's definition of paeniteo, which begins: paenĭtĕo (less correctly poen- ) L&S say that it comes from the Greek ποινή, which ...
18
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2answers
3k views

What is the distinction between gaudium and laetitia when both denote “joy”?

Both gaudium and laetitia denote joy, but appear to be used differently depending on the circumstances. What is the distinction between the two (or more) Latin words for joy?
6
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1answer
167 views

Meaning of “cepeo”

What does cepeo mean? According to Google Translate, this means "onions". Are there any connotations, other words that carry the same meaning, or anything else specifically related to it?
8
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2answers
370 views

DVCITIS, DUCITIS, DŪCITIS

Are all three of these valid spellings and have I listed them in the chronological order they would have been used? DVCITIS DUCITIS DŪCITIS Would the C have been pronounced with a hard 'K', or a 'CH'...
2
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1answer
488 views

What is the Latin translation for “showcase”?

I need the Latin translation for the word "showcase". I should use it in a blog, replacing the English word to indicate a collection of products or things to be shown to all the visitors.
7
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1answer
978 views

“Fighting with someone” and the different uses of “with” in Latin

I am learning latin on my own and I came across this (quite comical) picture. When looking up the word "with", I found the following translations: apud, cum, per, and qum. But I am unsure of what the ...
17
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1answer
1k views

How can I use “quippe” properly?

Lewis & Short gives the following definition: surely, certainly, to be sure, by all means, indeed, in fact certainly, indeed, forsooth for, for in fact for, because, inasmuch as for ...
11
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1answer
2k views

Evolution of the meaning of sacramentum

I am interested in the development of the word sacramentum, from the classical to the current ecclesiastical usage. The Lewis & Short entry lists the following meanings: I A. Jurid. t. t., the ...
8
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3answers
3k views

What is the meaning and use of the word 'Duco'?

I want to confirm my understanding of the word duco. According to Wiktionary, it is a third conjugation, irregular short imperative. The examples are: I lead, guide I draw, pull I think, consider I ...
7
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1answer
254 views

What are some examples of “subicio” being used to mean “submit, subject, present”?

In English, the epigraph of A Christmas Carol reads I have endeavoured in this Ghostly little book, to raise the Ghost of an Idea, which shall not put my readers out of humour with themselves, with ...
8
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2answers
857 views

What does “eo” mean in this passage of Hyginus?

In his account of Œdipus, Hyginus writes: [Œdipus] fortissimus præter ceteros erat eique per invidiam æquales objiciebant eum subditum esse Polybo, eo quod Polybus tam clemens esset et ille ...
7
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1answer
94 views

Can “simultas” simply mean “task,” or does it always connote hostility?

In his tale of Æetes, Hyginus writes Itaque Æeta Jasoni hanc simultatem constituit: Si vellet pellem auratam auferre, tauros æripedes … jungeret … Lewis & Short gives this ...
10
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2answers
2k views

Why is there no word meaning firearm in contemporary Latin?

I noticed that there is no word meaning firearm according to this site.Why is this? I've tried synonyms such as gun and pistol but none work. Has no one gotten around to making one?
12
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1answer
633 views

When did *discere* come to mean “to teach”?

In Anselm's Cur Deus Homo, 1.9.12, he writes: Verbum autem quod positum est, didicit, duobus modis intelligi potest. Aut enim didicit dictum est pro: alios fecit discere, aut quia, quod per ...
10
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1answer
210 views

meaning of “non omnínó”

Omnínó is defined in Lewis Elementary as altogether, wholly, entirely, utterly, at all [with numerals] in all, altogether, only, but, just by all means, indeed, doubtless, yes, certainly,...
7
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1answer
100 views

Why does Parthenope refer to Naples?

Vergil's tomb bears the inscription: Mantua me genuit; Calabri rapuere; tenet nunc Parthenope; cecini Pascua, rura, duces. Why does "Parthenope" refer to Naples?
20
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3answers
2k views

What did Romans call their language?

I was taught that Latinus is an adjective related to the area of Latium. Latin would be called lingua Latina, "the language of Latium", never merely Latina. There is a single-word expression referring ...
15
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3answers
547 views

Was the plural future imperative ever used?

In Latin today, we ran across the word "esto", which our teacher told us is the future singular imperative of "sum, esse". When I half-jokingly asked what the plural was, he thought for a few seconds ...
11
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4answers
2k views

What's the Latin word for “jade”?

I'm trying to write a short thing about a jade statuette that my family has had for roughly forever, but when I looked up "jade", I found... nothing. Well, I found plenty of results, but there was ...
7
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1answer
57 views

What nuances distinguish statuó, cónstituó, and ínstituó?

I'm asking mostly in the context of living Latin and trying to figure out how to say things like "I decided," "I started a blog," "I set up an organization," "I instituted a policy," and so on, for ...
13
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2answers
3k views

What does “quidem” REALLY mean?

The Lewis Elementary Latin Dictionary (via latinlexicon.org) gives the following definitions: quidem [expressing emphasis or assurance] assuredly, certainly, in fact, indeed [in answers] certainly, ...
12
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3answers
4k views

What is the definitive definition of rem?

The word rem seems to mean all sorts of things depending on the context — sometimes it means "the thing", sometimes "it", and sometimes rem can be entirely omitted from the English translation. ...
8
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1answer
143 views

When is/was *vesper* second declension, and when third?

I've seen both, so obviously both were used, but are there circumstances that determine which option to use? Or is it something that changed over time?
17
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1answer
547 views

How can I say “undo” in Latin?

The question of how to express my username, Undo, in Latin recently came up in chat. As Ben Kovitz notes, Latin seems to lack the word 'defacio' or similar. How can I say my name, the verb "undo", in ...
17
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3answers
2k views

The best way to say *interesting* in Latin

It's sometimes difficult to convey some meaning in such an old language as Latin. I have trouble with the word interesting. I've heard someone say iucundus in this meaning, but it's not an accurate ...
11
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1answer
4k views

The word *quick* in Latin

There are many words, which are translated as quick. My initial search showed celer: swift , quick, rapid; in a bad sense, hasty, rash celox: swift , quick; f. as subst. a swift vessel, yacht citus: ...
9
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2answers
125 views

How is “quod” operating in this sentence of Hyginus?

The first sentence of Hyginus' Prometheus is: Hominés anteá ab immortálibus ignem petébant neque in perpetuum serváre sciébant; quod posteá Prometheus in ferulá détulit in terrás, hominibusque ...
10
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1answer
152 views

Apicius' “sp[h]ondyli vel fonduli”

Apicius' de re coquinaria (Roman recipe book believed to have been compiled in the 4th/5th century CE) contains, in the book 3 "cepuros" on vegetables, a paragraph (XX, recipes 115 to 121) entitled "...
10
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3answers
148 views

“To shed blood” – profundere or effundere?

In a 1957 encyclical titled Invicti Athletae, Pope Pius XII wrote: ... non solum profuso sanguine fidei nostrae testimonium Deo praebetur ... which the official translation renders ... not only ...
14
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3answers
852 views

How should I pronounce 'ait'?

I'm interested in the proper Classical pronunciation of the word 'ait'. I've been pronouncing it as 'ate', /eɪt/. Should it instead be pronounced as /a.it/ or even /aɪ.it/? What evidence is there ...
13
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2answers
15k views

What did the Romans use to close their letters?

As anyone who's written a proper letter knows, one begins with a salutation and ends with a valediction (or, in normal English, opens with "hello" and ends with "goodbye"). Right ...
17
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1answer
930 views

Are there feminine and neuter versions of “professor”?

From many verbs one can derive an agent noun for each gender: computare > computator (m), computatrix (f), computatrum (n) scribere > scriptor, scriptrix, scriptrum Some of these derivatives are ...
19
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3answers
249 views

What is the meaning of “suffragio” at the time of Calvin?

In the 1559 edition of Calvin's Institutes, he writes: Quare dum illam recipit, ac suffragio suo obsignat, non ex dubia aut alioqui controversa authenticam reddit Ford L. Battles renders it this ...
17
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2answers
6k views

What is the most neutral word for “shield”?

As you know, Latin language has several terms for what we call "shield", namely clipeus, scutum, parma, pelta etc. I'm just wondering which among them is the most "neutral" or "common" word that ...
9
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1answer
173 views

Difference between “hiems” and “hībernum”

The two words both translate to "winter" in English.1,2 Although information on Wikipedia is sparse, I gather that hiems is most commonly used as a noun, while hibernum is the noun form of the more ...
27
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2answers
6k views

What's the difference between vel, aut, -ve, et cetera?

So I see "vel", "aut", and "-ve" being used (mostly) interchangeably in the Latin I read. Is there any idiomatic difference, or can they be used interchangeably? For ...
18
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6answers
5k views

Difference between “Lacrimosa” and “Lacrymosa”

This movement from Mozart's Requiem is known as either "Lacrimosa" or "Lacrymosa" (see for instance the Wikipedia article, which uses both spellings). Why is there two different spellings and which ...
55
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5answers
6k views

Are “-que” and “et” equivalent?

I was taught that one can use the '-que' suffix to string together multiple words, in a similar way to putting 'et' between them. Are these two equivalent? Did one have a connotation in classical (...

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