Questions tagged [verbs]

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6
votes
1answer
116 views

What is the difference between sum and existo?

What is the difference between "sum" and "existo" verbs? Would "Cogito, ergo sum" be equivalent to "Cogito, ergo existō"?
2
votes
1answer
112 views

What is the uncontracted form of “κεῖμαι”? (Greek)

I got this word κεῖμαι while trying to learn ὑποκείμενον, found in this answer to another question. All the deponent verbs I've run across so far had an ο for theme vowel, as in: βούλομαι or ...
3
votes
0answers
87 views

When and how did the distinction between the gerund and the gerundive develop?

The gerund and the gerundive look similar and have similar meanings, but they are still distinct as any Latin grammar will tell us. But how did classical Latin come to have these two close but ...
9
votes
1answer
219 views

Understanding vowel quantity in fieri

The verb fieri has an unusual conjugation, and one of the weird aspects is the long I before many vowels: fīō, fīās, fīet… Why is the I long? Does the origin of ...
12
votes
1answer
276 views

Why is it “dare” and not “dāre” when most first conjugation verbs spell like “amāre”?

Why does dō conjugate differently from other first conjugation verbs in that you find a short a where otherwise you might expect a long ā? BACKGROUND Examples: amāre (dare), amārī (darī), ...
12
votes
2answers
291 views

Understanding the stem(s) of 'struere'

The present, perfect, and participle stems1 of the verb struere are stru-, strux-, and struct-. The -s- in the perfect stem and the -t- in the participle stem are nothing unusual, but they seem to ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

What verb is wine made with?

Which verb did the Romans use for making wine? I can imagine saying vinum facio/conficio/primo and maybe some other options as well. Different verbs might emphasize different aspects or steps of ...
5
votes
1answer
342 views

On the word order of “Sapere aude”

In putting together his dictum, Horace, as a native speaker of Latin, perhaps instinctively chose to put first the word "sapere," and then the word "aude," even if, strictly grammatically speaking, "...
8
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3answers
3k views

Alea iacta est, plural version?

I was thinking about the famous Phrase "alea iacta est", and I was wondering: how would be the plural version of it? I thought about ALEAS IACTA SUNT Because aleas needs to be in the accusative ...
11
votes
1answer
369 views

What is the difference between accusative and genitive with meminisse?

The verb meminisse can take an accusative or a genitive object. Also other constructions are possible (see the entry in L&S), but I want to focus on comparing these two in classical Latin. Are ...
9
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1answer
76 views

Natural translation of “… Herculaneum, a town near the mountain”

I have been given as an exercise this sentence to translate into Latin: "The soldier arrived in Herculaneum, a town near the mountain". I offered the translation of "Miles in Herculaneum pervenit, ...
6
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2answers
315 views

Does the perfect “faxit” have an optative sense?

A sentence in Corderii Colloquia 24, ille spiritus bonus faxit. is translated as: May that good spirit grant it. How does the pf ind come to have an optative sense here?
7
votes
1answer
254 views

What determines the conjugation of verbs borrowed from Greek?

I reread this old question about "touché", and I realized I'm not sure how to conjugate the suggested verb synchōrō. It was borrowed from συγχωρέω. Although I'm interested in this special case too, I ...
12
votes
1answer
237 views

How can one predict the length of theme vowels in verbs?

The theme vowels a, e, and i in infinitives are long. But, in other forms of those verbs, they can be short. But when, exactly? What are the rules for this? And how about the suppletive vowels used ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Dominus illuminatio mea

I am trying to understand this expression. According to Wikipedia, it is translated as "The Lord is my light". Before reading this article, I thought this meant "Lord illuminate me", perhaps in ...
6
votes
1answer
74 views

Can any verb which means “to go (to somewhere)” be used in a double-accusative construction?

Can any verb which means "to go (to somewhere)" be used in a double-accusative construction? Like dīcō? Can I use any particular verb for "to go" preceded by two accusatives and have the sentence be ...
6
votes
2answers
263 views

Is “ire” used correctly here? “Iosaphatum salutem ite.”

Can ire be used in this way? "Iosaphatum salutem ite." (I go to Iosephat for shelter.) Furthermore, is the two accusatives correct? This sentence is based on a Sanskrit construction, and I do not know ...
6
votes
1answer
259 views

Why is the past imperfect instead of the past perfect tense used here?

Take a look at this animation with four frames. I think I can understand the first three, but I am struggling with the last one. In case you cannot see the file, the yellow point moves from the top ...
4
votes
1answer
244 views

Is there any connection between “ave” (as in Ave Cesar) and “aveo”?

Ave, as in Ave Caesar, has the meaning of "hail". Yet, according to Wiktionary, it is also the "second-person singular present imperative of aveō". Now, aveō is a verb which means either "I desire", ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

A verb for networking

What would be a good Latin verb for networking? I don't mean the study of computer networks, but the verb "to network" in the sense of making new acquaintances for business or other purpose. In ...
12
votes
1answer
435 views

Is the Spanish translation of the “Exultet” chant literal?

I am reading the Exultet, an ancient Christian chant. The first two lines are: Exultet iam angelica turba caelorum, exultent divina mysteria In the Spanish translation, these two lines are: ...
11
votes
1answer
585 views

What's the difference between mutantur and mutamur?

A quote by John Owen: Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis. I was wondering if you could tell me the difference between mutantur and mutamur?
12
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1answer
291 views

When to use -ris vs. -re as a passive verbal ending

Anyone who has read Cicero's famous line, Quo usque tandem, Catalina, abutere patientia nostra? ...knows that the 2nd person singular passive personal ending "-ris" is often changed to "-re": ...
10
votes
1answer
538 views

Does 'verbum' mean both word and verb?

The word verbum means "word", but I want to find out whether it can also have the more specific meaning "verb" (as opposed to other kinds of words). Lewis and Short does not list "verb" among ...
8
votes
2answers
256 views

Do any Latin verbs use a temporal augment?

In Greek, past tenses are formed with "augmentation," e.g. present -> imperfect: λῡ́ω > ἔλῡον εὑρῐ́σκω > ηὕρῐσκον Since we know that certain Latin verbs preserve perfect reduplication, I wonder: do ...
8
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3answers
354 views

3rd Principal Part of *refero*

The Latin word for "report" is refero, referre, rettuli, relatus. At first, I thought that rettuli, with 2 t's, was a typo, but it actually appears that retuli, with just 1 t, is the uncommon form in ...
8
votes
2answers
156 views

Using cases with jubilare

I heard a song using the phrase jubilate Deo, and it seems that this phrase appears in a psalm as well. I assume the Deo/Domino is a dative. On the other hand, the L&S entry for jubilare also ...
8
votes
2answers
160 views

Do singular nouns connected by “and” require a plural verb? (Greek)

I'm translating another sentence from Plato's Republic, and I'm a little confused about why ἐδόθη (3rd sg aorist passive indicative) is not plural. μουσικὴ μὴν ἐκείνοις γε καὶ γυμναστικὴ ἐδόθη. ...
6
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1answer
129 views

Combining verbs with ecce or en

I am puzzled about the syntactical role of ecce and en. I feel comfortable using them with nouns (ecce camelopardalis meus, "here is my giraffe" or "look, my giraffe"), and I would like to know if ...
8
votes
1answer
123 views

Passives Without Accusatives

(Split off from my previous question about gerundives of deponent verbs.) For a transitive verb, it's fairly simple to convert a sentence from active to passive: X-nom VERB-active Y-acc = Y-nom ...
10
votes
1answer
613 views

How do I use gerundives of obligation for deponent verbs?

(Inspired by the comments on this answer.) The gerundive of obligation is a wonderful little idiom in Latin, as in Cato's famous mantra Carthāgō dēlenda est "Carthage must be destroyed" In this ...
9
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1answer
191 views

Borrowing Greek verbs without -ίζω

I was recently linked to this post on False Cognates, discussing different verb classes in Latin, Greek, and Germanic. One part caught my eye: Latin verbs of all conjugations are borrowed easily (...
8
votes
1answer
159 views

How did velle give rise to vel?

Some time ago I asked about the missing imperative of velle. The answer indicated an old imperative (or indicative) second person singular form, vel, and that this word became a conjunction. I am ...
10
votes
1answer
785 views

What is the imperative of velle?

The conjugation tables of irregular Latin verbs that I have seen do not give any imperative forms for the verb velle. The verb nolle has the imperative forms noli and nolite, and they are fairly ...
6
votes
1answer
120 views

Are there other perfect imperatives than memento?

I learned from this previous question about the semantics of memento(te) that memento(te) is not morphologically a future imperative. It turned to be a perfect imperative (semantically present), as it ...
9
votes
1answer
519 views

'Credo' with dative problem

Here is a small problem with 'credo', there is an example in my dictionary saying that 'crede mihi (dat.)' means 'believe me'. Gildersleeve & Lodge gives credere under Dative with Intransitive ...
7
votes
2answers
152 views

Why is perfect passive participle from 'enuntio' - 'enunciatus'?

In my dictionary enuntio is first conjugation verb, enuntio, avi, are Now in Spinoza there came up this word - 'enunciatum', which is said to be (source - Wictionary) coming from enuntio, as ...
6
votes
4answers
196 views

Word for “fumo” but less thick, thin smoke

"Fumo" means "I smoke, steam or fume". But is there a word which indicates a thinner smoke or fume rises from me? I'm looking for a word that incense could say about itself.
7
votes
1answer
131 views

Comparing verto and vertor

Here I have two words: verto, vertere, verti, versum (versus) vertor, verti, versus sum, — (I assume it's deponent) They both mean "turn" according to the Cambridge Latin Course Book V, ...
5
votes
2answers
364 views

Why is there an exception when forming 3rd conjugation imperatives?

All of the affirmative singular imperatives of regular verbs are formed by dropping the -re from the second principal part. Why is it that, in the 3rd conjugation only, the affirmative plural ...
11
votes
2answers
321 views

Can a supine verb have arguments?

Consider the following line from the Aeneid, Book VI: nec credere quivi hunc tantum tibi me discessu ferre dolorem. Context: Aeneas has traveled into the underworld, and bumps into Dido, who he ...
14
votes
1answer
479 views

What did the Romans consider the “basic” form of a verb?

Many of us are used to using the (active present) infinitive form of a verb as a "label" or "basic form" or "representative" of the verb. By this I refer to uses like dictionary entries or grammatical ...
14
votes
1answer
443 views

What is the optative?

Some conjunctive forms end in -im (and -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -int), but this is rare. The examples I recall are sim, possim, velim, nolim, malim, and duim (alternative to dem). These forms are ...
10
votes
2answers
682 views

Why is there no predicate in “in vino veritas”?

The latin aphorism, penned by Alcaeus of Mytilene, in vino veritas does not contain any predicate. I assume that esse is implied but I haven't come across any other aphorisms leaving out verbs. Is ...
8
votes
1answer
374 views

Should the phrase “I often saw” use the imperfect or the aorist in Greek?

I'm translating a sentence in my textbook from English to Greek, and that sentence uses the phrase I often saw. For copyright reasons, I'm going to create a new sentence using this phrase. On this ...
7
votes
3answers
774 views

Imperatives of derivatives of facere, dicere and ducere

Three verbs are well known to have an irregular short imperative: fac, dic, duc. Do the imperatives remain short in the presence of a prefix? For example, which ones are correct out of effic/effac/...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

How did I misunderstand the Latin 'consisto' in interpreting 'X consists in Y'?

I am trying to understand the English phrase "X consists in Y" with help of and in comparison to the Latin verb consistere. In English, 1 means "X contains Y", but from the Latin point of view ...
11
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5answers
690 views

Verbing in Latin

Do we have any cases where the Romans intentionally conjugated a noun or adjective into a verb? This is common in English and other modern languages, so I'm assuming it is a natural concept. However, ...
9
votes
1answer
248 views

How does a computer crash in Latin?

I wrote up a lengthy question to ask here, but my computer crashed and I lost it. Instead of reproducing the question just now, I would like to know how to describe the situation in Latin. The only ...
12
votes
3answers
311 views

How do you show an infinitive for reason?

For instance, if you say, "I came here to eat," or "We want something good to eat," you are using the infinitive "to eat" to express reason or purpose. How do translate something like this in Latin?