Questions tagged [verbs]

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9
votes
3answers
863 views

Dropping “to be” and other verbs in Latin?

Some languages, like Indonesian, can drop the verb to be when the meaning is obvious. They are zero-copula languages. I heard that some Latin authors wrote some sentences with this feature. Do you ...
4
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0answers
52 views

Why does “urgueo” exist as a variant of “urgeo”?

The rule I learned for the pronunciation of the digram "gu" before a vowel in Latin was /gw/ after "n", vs. g + vocalic u anywhere else. But I just discovered the exception urgueo /urgweoː/. This is a ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Gerundial arguments selected by verbs taking Genitive: e.g., “Memento moriendi”? “Me paenitet vivendi”?

As a follow-up of two previous questions on Latin grammar, I was wondering if examples like Memento moriendi (cf. Memento mori) and Me paenitet vivendi (cf. Me paenitet vivere) are also attested. ...
3
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0answers
61 views

Non-deponent intransitive verbs in Ablative Absolute constructions and other dominant participle constructions?

As is well-known, intransitive deponent verbs can enter into Ablative Absolute constructions (e.g., Cicerone mortuo, Cicerone nato, etc.) and in (other) dominant participle constructions (e.g., ante ...
7
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2answers
147 views

How can I find a verb root in ancient greek?

If I have a verb in ancient greek, how can I find its root? For instance, if I have λείπω νέω ἔμαθον μανθάνω how can I do to know that, respectively, these verbs have λιπ-/λειπ-/λοιπ- νευ- (<*...
5
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2answers
122 views

What is the correct etymology of ignōscō “pardon”?

The verb ignōscō, with the meaning "pardon, forgive", is explained in some sources as coming from the negative prefix in- and (g)nōscō. For example, Lewis and Short says "lit., not to wish to know, ...
4
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2answers
819 views

Was there ever a difference between 'volo' and 'volo'?

The words "I want" and "I fly" are both volō. Was there ever any difference in pronunciation in the classical era or later? I expect such differences to be more likely in vulgar Latin. The rest ...
2
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1answer
74 views

Did Latin lack a denominal verb directly from 'patria'?

According to Etymonline and OED (below), Latin had repatriare, but English 'patriate' wasn't allegedly coined by Lester B. Pearson until 1966. This tardive coining suggests a lack of a denominal ...
4
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1answer
123 views

What is the grammatical “logic” of ablative case in «Tuā et meā māximē interest tē ualēre» (Cic. Fam. 16.4)?

Assuming that ablative case is always a semantic case (see the typical lists of its associated meanings in Latin grammars), I was wondering if Latin speakers could still assign a synchronic more or ...
3
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1answer
210 views

Are there linguistic arguments for the claim that “Odi et amo” in Catullus (LXXXV) cannot be translated as 'I hate and I love'?

On the basis of literary arguments, Arkins (2011) THE MEANING OF ‘ODI ET AMO’ IN CATULLUS 85 came to the interesting conclusion that Odi et amo in the following famous poem by Catullus (LXXXV) cannot ...
2
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1answer
81 views

What is the grammatical “logic” of impersonal constructions like “Me non solum piget stultitiae meae sed etiam pudet” (Cic. De Dom. 29)?

What is the grammatical "logic" of the impersonal construction with psychological verbs like pudet, piget, paenitet, taedet, miseret? (here is a short descriptive characterization of so-called “psych ...
8
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2answers
715 views

Did the Vulgar Latin verb “toccare” exist?

According to the Royal Spanish Academy dictionary, the word tocar 'touch' has its origin in the toc toc onomatopoeia. Something similar is registered in Etymonline for the English verb touch: from ...
7
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1answer
142 views

Are Latin verbs of motion satellite-framed or verb-framed?

Are Latin verbs of motion satellite-framed, verb-framed, both, or neither? Native English verbs of motion are said to be satellite-framed: the verb usually indicates the manner of motion and a "...
1
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2answers
62 views

“ferro se petentem”

Valete, I have this sentence (written by Ulpianus in Digest 9.2.5) : Sed et si quemcumque alium ferro se petentem quis occiderit But if someone (quis) killed anyone else (quemcumque alium) when ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Are there Latin verbs with Greek cognates in all four conjugations?

Off the top of my head, I can think of a few Latin verbs with obvious Greek cognates: pherō~ferō "to bear", pheugō~fugiō "to flee". But all the words I can think of are in the third conjugation. Are ...
4
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3answers
100 views

Why there are several words for swimming?

The words nō, natō, adnō are all verbs which means to swim. They have their own conjugation respectively. Maybe there are not only three, but I'm not sure. I wonder why there are several words in ...
3
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1answer
108 views

Did the Romans create any irregular verbs?

Most newly-formed Latin verbs were put into the nice, regular first conjugation: both deriving from existing words (dīcō, -ere > dīctō, -āre) and with borrowings (Graecissō, -āre). English is mostly ...
3
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1answer
87 views

On the interpretation of “ipse” in anticausative constructions

After having answered a question on "ipse" from a very different perspective (a philosophical one: [Does 'ipse' truly mean change? ), I return to linguistics: now I was wondering if ipse must ...
3
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0answers
147 views

How things change in Latin

After having provided an answer to Draconis’ question ( Did Latin have any ergative verbs? ), I was wondering about the (very subtle?) meaning differences involved in triads like {aperit/se aperit/...
6
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2answers
581 views

Prodigo = pro + ago?

According to Wiktionary, prodigo is a verb which etymology comes from "pro + ago". The same is suggested by L&S. However, I cannot see how ago fits here. The conjugation of this verb seems at odds ...
3
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2answers
83 views

Difference between “immergo” and “summergo”

In Spanish we have the verb sumergir, coming from Latin: sum-mergo (subm-), si, sum, 3, v. a., I. to dip or plunge under, to sink, overwhelm, submerge, submerse. Nonetheless, some related ...
1
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2answers
78 views

Do contracted perfects have long or short vowels?

Many verbs have a suffix -v- in the perfect tense, which tends to disappear (or "contract" or "syncopate") before the ending: amā- > amāvisti > amāsti "you loved", audī- > audīvisti > audīsti "you ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Understanding “audieritis” in Psalm 94

Consider the following excerpt from Psalm 94 in the Vulgate. Hódie, si vocem eius audiéritis, nolíte obduráre corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatióne secúndum diem tentatiónis in desérto: ubi ...
1
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2answers
69 views

Understanding entries in Latin dictionary [duplicate]

I started learning Latin yesterday by myself using the Wheelock's Latin textbook My question was why are there 4 variations given of a word but only one translated meaning? What do these words mean?
3
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2answers
47 views

How to do indefinite person with verbs

In English you can conjugate like so: I eat You eat He/she/it eats We eat You all eat They eat But you can also conjugate with a variety of “indefinite” pronouns: One eats Everyone ...
3
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0answers
48 views

Verbal Adjective of Necessity vs. Possibility

Greek distinguishes between verbal adjectives ending in -τέος and verbal adjectives ending in -τός. The latter (according to Smyth) express either possibility or the perfect passive participle (e.g. '...
5
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3answers
288 views

How accurate is the typical definition of a deponent verb?

Deponent verbs are often (always?) defined as verbs that have passive forms but active meanings. But how accurate is this typical definition/generalization? It seems clear that this definition applies ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Which Latin verb was closer to the current meaning of English “solve”?

Nowadays the English verb solve means: Find an answer to, explanation for, or means of effectively dealing with (a problem or mystery). The etymology of the word indicates that it comes: from ...
4
votes
3answers
144 views

Choosing a “wait” - exspecto, opperior or maneo

I hope that my question won't seem too flippant or strange... I'm not any sort of Latin scholar or student, but I am trying to coin a term based on Latin. I've been trying through several routes to ...
4
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2answers
253 views

'plecto, plectere, plexi', -tor/-sor form (agent noun)

How would one add the agent noun suffix (normally -tor) to the verb 'plecto' (I weave/twist)? It's been a few years — about 10 — but if I recall correctly, verbs whose stem ends in 't' ...
5
votes
4answers
245 views

Could “essentia” be understood in Latin as “the act of being”?

Almost every verb has a noun that implies "the act and effect of" whatever the verb is. So, an existence is the act of existing. Nonetheless, the most simple verb, to be seems to lack such a noun, at ...
8
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1answer
254 views

aret = aridus est?

Is there any semantic or aspectual difference between aret and aridus est (cf. rubet/ruber est; calet/calidus est, candet/candidus est, i.a.)? Ager aret. (Col. 2.8.5) Ager aridus erat. (...
4
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2answers
106 views

How is the subject of the verb identified in this verse of the Vulgata?

In 2 Kings 4:4 we read: Erat autem Jonathae filio Saul filius debilis pedibus : quinquennis enim fuit, quando venit nuntius de Saul et Jonatha ex Jezrahel. Tollens itaque eum nutrix sua, fugit : ...
6
votes
1answer
162 views

Is there a Latin 'studiare'?

The Latin verb for studying is studere, but a number of descendants look as if they came from studiare. These include the Italian 'studiare', French 'étudier', and the Spanish 'estudiar'. Was there ...
10
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1answer
570 views

Why “dilatasti” instead of “dilatavisti” in Psalm 4:2?

(Psalm 4:2) cum invocarem exaudivit me Deus iustitiae meae in tribulatione dilatasti mihi miserere mei et exaudi orationem meam When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me: when I was ...
6
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2answers
225 views

The use of participle in “Ceres a generendo”

I'm trying to read this sentence, where Cicero finds Roman Gods in relevance to the Latin verbs: Saturnus quia se saturat annis, Mavors quia magna vertit, Minerva quia minuit aut quia minatur, ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

Where did the Latin language get its infinitive verb endings from?

Some time ago, a user in the Spanish language site asked if the Spanish verb endings -ar, -er and -ir had a special meaning. I then answered that the endings do not have any meaning by themselves, at ...
6
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1answer
36 views

Translating “order of protection and conservation”

An author friend recently asked me for help with a Latin name: in his book, a group calls itself the "order of protection and conservation", but in Latin to be pretentious (altum videtur…). My ...
8
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2answers
131 views

What does the verb “luere” mean in the Angilberti carmina?

Angilbert is asking what the women (the sisters and daughters of Charles the Great) might think of the return of their nephew/brother Pepin from Italy in the poem AD PIPPINUM ITALIAE REGEM by ...
4
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1answer
57 views

Why is dignetur used as if it were in the active voice?

For 2 Thessalonians 1:11, the Vulgata has the following: In quo etiam oramus semper pro vobis: ut dignetur vos vocatione sua Deus nosteret impleat omnem voluntatem bonitatis, et opus fidei in ...
5
votes
1answer
68 views

What sort of Greek words are regularly distinguished only by tone?

In the postscript to this answer, Varro comments: …the L&S entry for ἰχθυβολος shows two possible accents, a paroxytone ἰχθυβόλος for an active meaning, and a proparoxytone ἰχθύβολος for a ...
2
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1answer
64 views

future passive imperative of a verb + fuit (perfect active indicative of 'sum') =?

Just to give you some language background from my side, I have not learned the Latin language at all, and my mother tongue is neither English nor any other Indo-European language. I am reading ancient ...
10
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2answers
226 views

What is the difference between “novi” and “scio”?

Latin has at least two words that straightforwardly translate to English "know": novi (perf. of nosco) scio Plautus combines the two pleonastically: nec vos qui homines sitis novi nec scio Here'...
13
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2answers
1k views

Do plural names referring to a singular thing require a plural verb?

Another question related to my geography of the Roman Empire which I am writing has arisen: during the time of Trajan, 117 AD, there were several provinces which had names in the plural, especially ...
4
votes
2answers
306 views

Did Latin have any ergative verbs?

An "ergative verb" is a verb that can either take two nouns (a subject and an object) or only one (a subject), where the object of the two-noun form corresponds to the subject of the one-noun form. ...
6
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1answer
330 views

What forms are the verbs in “Omnibus rebus paratis, Caesar milites naves conscendere jussit”?

In "Omnibus rebus paratis, Caesar milites naves conscendere jussit", what forms are the verbs "paratis" and "jussit", and why? This sentence was taken from Gramática latina de Napoleão Mendes, from ...
6
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1answer
101 views

Ubī ūtar verbō “queō” prō “possum”?

The word queō ("I am able") is back-formed from nequeō ("I am not able") and, to the best of my knowledge, is equivalent in meaning to possum. When would one use queō over possum, or vice versa?
5
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1answer
768 views

What’s the difference between meminisse and memini?

I’d love to get a tattoo saying ‘remember’ in Latin, but would rather not use memento. Would it be possible to either use meminisse or memini? I’d like remember to be like a reminder for myself to ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Is there something like an “anti-deponent” verb in Latin?

Deponent verbs are those who are written (normally) in passive form but are active in meaning. loquor, loquī, locūtus sum is a common example in Latin. I wonder if the opposite exists, i.e. a verb ...
5
votes
1answer
83 views

Where does quire come from?

Where does the verb quire come from? L&S is unsure of the etymology but compares it to a Sanskrit word. Do we know more about the etymology of the verb? Is composed of ire ("to go") and another (...