Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [proto-indo-european]

The tag has no usage guidance.

5
votes
1answer
63 views

Are vestiges or influence of the instrumental case in any way identifiable in Latin and Greek?

I believe the instrumental case was absorbed by the ablative in Latin and by the dative in Greek. Is there any way at all in which influence of the old instrumental can be seen in Latin or Greek?—...
3
votes
2answers
541 views

How can you tell whether prefixed ‘in-’ is the preposition ‘in’ or Indo-European ‘in-’?

Background The verb īnsum has the prefix in-. Prefixing in/in- to words, changes their meaning to ‘in’, ‘on’ et sim., or ‘un-’, ‘non’ et sim. (ɔ:¹ negation).² However, according to Wiktionary, the ...
9
votes
1answer
228 views

Does mentula (“penis”) derive from the same root as mens (“mind”), and if so why?

The Latin word mentula isn't properly defined in the Lewis & Short dictionary, but it does show up on Latin-Dictionary.net and Wiktionary. Both those dictionaries define mentula as "penis". But ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

Does the Latin nosco come from Greek?

Does the Latin verb nosco come from Greek, or did the shared root (cf. γιγνώσκω) end up in Greek and Latin separately? According to Wiktionary, it seems to be the latter case, as the free dictionary ...
7
votes
1answer
245 views

Why does “inferus” have /f/ rather than /d/?

I found various sources indicating that the Latin word inferus (or infer) comes from a Proto-Indo-European form like *n̥dʰer, the source of English “under” and Sanskrit adhara, adhas. (The Sanskrit ...
8
votes
1answer
228 views

Was there ever dual conjugation in Latin?

Latin effectively lost its dual number. It left behind some remnants, most notably duo and ambo. However, all examples or relics of the dual number in Latin I have seen are in declension. I would ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Is ῥύομαι cognate with rescue?

I couldn't help but wonder, while reading this verse from the Lord's Prayer, whether ῥύομαι might be cognate with the English verb rescue. καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ...
13
votes
2answers
615 views

How do the verbs do and δίδωμι come from *deh₃-?

I was a little surprised to find that the PIE root of do and δίδωμι is *deh₃-, not *do-. How did we get the "o" vowel sound from eh₃? I don't actually know how to pronounce h₃, but I'm assuming that *...
6
votes
1answer
92 views

Are λαλέω and λέγω related?

Every now and then, I'm reminded that λαλέω means "to say or speak", especially when reading the New Testament. It seems possible that λαλέω derives from the same PIE stem as λέγω through ...
9
votes
1answer
165 views

How are εὔχομαι and voveo cognates?

The verb εὔχομαι means "to pray", and it shows up before the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9-13) as προσεύχεσθε. I was curious to learn more about this word, so of course I looked it up in Wiktionary, and ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

What underlying semantic notions connect the stem '-festus' to the PIE root *gu̯hedh- ('to ask, beg, wish for')?

Pokorny Etymon: gu̯hedh- 'to ask, beg, wish for' Semantic Field(s): to Ask, Request, to Will, Wish [...] Italic Latin:   -festus   [suffix]   hit   W7 What semantic ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'mēnsa' to the PIE *me-?

[U Texas :] Pokorny Etymon: 3. mē-, m-e-t- 'to measure' Semantic Field: to Measure [...]   Italic:   Latin:   mēnsa [ Wiktionary : ] a table a table of food; meal, course, ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'campus' to the PIE root *kam-p- (to bend)?

Univ. Texas's page on kam-p-   'to bend' states: 'Semantic Field: to Bend'. Then I saw campus (plain, campus, open field) listed, but what semantic notions underlie it and 'to bend'? I can ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

What semantic notions underlie 'paene' to the PIE root 'pē(i)-' (to hurt, scold, shame)?

Reading the etymology of fiend propelled me to read Univ. Texas's page on the PIE etymon     pē(i)-, pī-     'to hurt, scold, shame', whose Semantic Fields are stated as: to ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'luctor' to the PIE root *leug ‎(“bend, twist”)?

[ Wiktionary :] From Proto-Indo-European *lugsos, from *leug ‎(“bend, twist”). Cognates include Ancient Greek λύγος ‎(lúgos), Lithuanian lugnas, and Old Norse lykna. Etymonline does not expose the ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'sī' to the PIE root *se (to Own, Possess)?

Preface: Wiktionnaire's etymology supports U Texas's below, but Wiktionary's assigns sī to a different PIE root: *só. I am conjecturing that Wiktionary is incorrect. [70% down the page] sī conj if ...
6
votes
1answer
61 views

What underlying semantic notions connect 'strēnuus' to stiffness and rigidity?

[Wiktionary :] From Proto-Indo-European *ster- ‎(“stiff”). [...] Etymonline's entry for 'strenuous' (adj.) references Etymonline's entry for 'stern' (adj.) which states the same PIE root as above. ...