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Questions tagged [pronunciation]

Questions regarding the pronunciation of Latin words or syllables, or the history of Latin pronunciation. The desired time period for the pronunciation in question should be added.

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6 votes
5 answers
4k views

How to pronounce 'que' and 'angeli'?

I came along these in a Latin song our choir is singing. How to pronounce them? I guess I can absorb an international phonetic alphabet transcription. Update after reading some answers: I should ...
33 votes
3 answers
3k views

Are there exceptions to the Latin stress rules?

Do the Latin stress rules (antepenultimate if penultimate is light, penultimate if heavy) have any known exceptions? If so, what are the exceptions, and what evidence is there in the grammatical ...
11 votes
2 answers
939 views

How to pronounce "Roterodamus"?

The adjective roterodamus means “of Rotterdam” (the city in Holland). To lovers of Latin, unless they entertain an unusual interest in Dutch geography, the word is familiar probably primarily because ...
5 votes
1 answer
652 views

English pronunciation of Ancient Greek names

Are there any rules for converting Ancient Greek names into an English (borrowed) pronunciation? I'm imagining an algorithm of Ancient Greek letters → English IPA that would work in 90% or 80% of ...
7 votes
1 answer
930 views

Precise pronunciation of b, d and g

I'm a native speaker of Catalan and Spanish, so for me it is way more natural to pronounce b, d and g as [β], [ð] and [ɣ] between vowels, instead of as [b], [d] and [g]. For example, is nobis ...
26 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why is 'r' often rolled in modern classical Latin?

During my Latin education (using classical pronunciation), I was taught that 'r' should be 'rolled', making a sort of growling sound. For example, the r's (more the second than the first set) in ...
0 votes
3 answers
61 views

How to indicate a diphthong?

In a previous question of mine, What diphthongs are available are Unicode ligatures?, Joonas Ilmavirta commented: If you want to indicate a diphthong, there are other means than using ligatures. We ...
3 votes
1 answer
179 views

When is ‘ae’ pronounced /ae/?

I like the idea of using ligatures like ‘æ’ and ‘œ’ for diphthongs in Latin, so that the spelling is closer to one letter/character per sound. However, it would not work to write ‘æ’ for everything, ...
3 votes
1 answer
617 views

(Ancient and Modern Greek) Pronunciations of ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’

I asked this question in an online forum, but did not get a response, so I thought I would try it here. It is about the proper pronunciation of the letters ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’ in Archaic/Ancient Greek,...
2 votes
1 answer
105 views

How to pronounce a syllable that is heavy by nature and heavy by position

There are several sources that stress the distinction between the a syllable and a vowel, saying that in the word arma, for example, in the syllable ar - which is heavy by nature - we should be not ...
7 votes
0 answers
434 views

When does the diphthong υι occur in Greek, and when it is pronounced as [yː]?

I'm a bit confused by the information I've seen online about ancient Greek υι: it seems an original diphthongal pronunciation was replaced at some point in Attic Greek by a monophthongal pronunciation ...
21 votes
3 answers
4k views

When did 'ph' start to be pronounced like 'f'?

I learned from Nathaniel's answer to my previous question that 'ch', 'th' and 'ph' were aspirated voiceless stops in classical Latin. In my experience many contemporary speakers of Latin pronounce 'ph'...
11 votes
1 answer
4k views

Did the Romans pronounce ph like the letter f or the letter p?

I'm wondering – how would the Romans have pronounced ph if these letters were together in a word like "triumphantes"? Would it be pronounced like the letter f or the letter p? Did the Romans even ever ...
8 votes
2 answers
718 views

What is the rationale for modern pronunciation of Latin in music?

I'm not particularly versed in musical tradition, but I've been aware for some time now that the modern de-facto standard for pronouncing Latin in singing is what is commonly referred to as the "...
5 votes
3 answers
832 views

Which form of Latin pronunciation is most widely taught?

There are two popular versions of Latin pronunciation currently: the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation and the Classical Pronunciation. EP follows the rules of Italian pronunciation (has soft c and g) ...
-2 votes
2 answers
158 views

Are there any speakers that use the Classical Latin pronunciation for Romance languages in informal purposes? [closed]

From what I researched, in Classical Latin, there was a shift of pronounciation, called palatalization which happened during the fall of Rome. This led to the creation of Ecclesiastical Latin which ...
6 votes
1 answer
643 views

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek sigma as voiced [z] before voiced consonants

Throughout the development of Ancient Greek, was σ ever pronounced as [z], perhaps when before a voiced consonant, as in ἄσβεστος?
3 votes
1 answer
281 views

How to define a long or a short vowel in Latin words?

If there appears no macron on a vowel, which is part of a monophthong, then how can I define whether it is a long vowel or a short vowel?
5 votes
1 answer
669 views

Was the "U" in Urbs pronounced as "ʊ" in classical pronunciation?

I noticed that on Wiktionary and on Wikipedia it says that the "U" in Urbs was pronounced as "ʊ". I thought that Latin didn't have these kinds of lax vowels? Wouldn't it be ...
9 votes
2 answers
513 views

Latin pronunciations in a choir's rendition of the anthem of the European Union

I've never studied Latin, but I have this understanding of its pronunciation: In classical Latin the "soft c" and the "soft g" do not exist. In modern Vatican Latin, words are pronounced the way they ...
4 votes
1 answer
545 views

How are the sounds of E (ε) and H (η) different in classical Greek pronunciation?

In Athenaze, the pronunciations of E (ε) and H (η) are given as comparable to the English words get and bed, respectively. Other than H (η) being held longer, in my American English pronunciation ...
5 votes
2 answers
417 views

Hypothesis for Umbrian letter ers pronunciation

Umbrian epichoric alphabet (that is, locally adapted from Etruscan alphabet) has a consonant 𐌛, called ers in Unicode Old Italic scripts references. You can see an example of usage of such letter in ...
4 votes
1 answer
395 views

What would the general pronunciation of Latin be like in the 600s CE?

In other words what changes from Classical Latin definitely were mainstream by that time: vowels, consonants, regional divergences? I'm aware of certain changes, but not exactly timewise when these ...
4 votes
1 answer
230 views

What is the correct Italian Latin pronunciation of "projicias" and "sacrificium"?

When singing Italian music of the 17th century that sets Latin texts, we use an Italian Latin pronunciation. If "projicias" and "sacrificium" were Italian words, then we would not ...
11 votes
2 answers
704 views

Are vowels long before "gn"?

Allen and Greenough, §10d, provide a general rule: A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long: as in cōnstāns, īnferō, māgnus [emphasis modified] This seems to agree with Priscian: 'gnus' quoque vel '...
-3 votes
1 answer
161 views

In Latin, is there a difference between C and Q? [duplicate]

In Latin, what is the difference of sounds made by C and Q? The almost sound the same to me. Is there something, I'm missing here
2 votes
1 answer
179 views

How am I supposed to pronounce the "ct" in Church's latin

for example, the word "fructus": should I say fruCTus or just fruTus?
26 votes
2 answers
5k views

How do we know how gn was pronounced in Classical Latin?

As far as I am aware, the classical pronunciation of -gn- (as in magnus) is not [gn] but [ŋn]. How do we know that this is in fact how -gn- was pronounced?
3 votes
0 answers
71 views

Any scholarly views about how someone like Ovidius might have pronounced Greek words?

Μετᾰμορφώσεις In this word, as can be seen, there is a pitch accent on ω, and also it is generally accepted (per Allen, Vox Graeca) that φ was an aspirated P (pʰ), not a fricative (f). Are there any ...
9 votes
1 answer
500 views

What do we know about Homer's pronunciation?

Nowadays, most classicists seem to teach a reconstructed Ancient Greek pronunciation, imitating how an Athenian would have spoken in the fifth century BCE. On top of that, there's solid evidence for ...
4 votes
1 answer
507 views

Carmina Burana pronunciation?

How do you pronounce the first syllable of the title? My IPA is sketchy. I have seen both on the inter webs and the last time I performed it the majority opinion was accept on the first syllable. ...
11 votes
5 answers
4k views

How did Latin sound?

Does anybody know how normal Latin dialog sounded — not the oratory or ecclesiastical versions? Are there any audio files that you recommend?
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Ancient Greek: how worried do I need to be about "long" and "short" accents?

I've been learning for a couple of months now, from a rather ancient book, which blissfully ignores all questions of accents. But I recently found out about them (with help from Luke Ranieri among ...
13 votes
1 answer
1k views

Traditional English pronunciation of "dives"?

In the traditional English pronunciation of Latin—the one that gave us Caesar /siːzɚ/, Jupiter /dʒuːpɪtɚ/, epitome /əpɪtəmiː/, felix /fiːlɪks/, and virus /vaɪɹəs/—what should be the pronunciation of ...
13 votes
3 answers
335 views

How to transliterate 中文 in Mandarin pronunciation to Latin?

I am working on an art project that I would like to collect the hundreds of different transliterations of 「中文」 zhōng wén in Mandarin Chinese. (Pronunciation available here: https://translate.google....
5 votes
1 answer
194 views

Short vs long i in inest vs īnsunt

Why is the i in inest short, while the i in īnsunt is long? As far as I know (see for example https://glosbe.com/la/en/insum, or LLPSI), the conjugation of this verb in the present tense goes like ...
5 votes
2 answers
826 views

Why is no one pronouncing the final 'm' as a nasal vowel?

I've listened to about 30 modern Latin speakers and except for Luke Ranieri, none of them pronounce the final 'm' as it should be pronounced which is as a nasal vowel, at least during conversation. ...
7 votes
1 answer
214 views

Recitation of the Iliad

I'm a beginner in Ancient Greek trying to learn about pronouciation. I'm particularly interested in Homer's Iliad. I'm aware that this is a controversial topic, to put it mildly, so I don't expect ...
0 votes
1 answer
263 views

Pronunciation of sedes

I typically pronounce sedes as SED-ays. However, I recently noticed that the "Holy See," meaning the bishopric of the Vatican, comes from Sancta Sedes (the Holy Seat), so if this is being ...
-3 votes
1 answer
120 views

Which letters of celebrētur are trilled in this Bervoets recording

Which letters of celebrētur are trilled in this recording? https://www.stilus.nl/ce-geluid/PlinMinEp-VI-16.htm? Bervoets doesn't just trills both R's but the letters near the two R's too! I've noticed ...
9 votes
1 answer
321 views

Knowing the two quantities of 'est'

There are several forms of ĕsse and ēsse (= edere) that only differ by the quantity of the initial vowel, perhaps the most common one being ĕst/ēst. How do we know this difference in quantities? ...
10 votes
4 answers
421 views

Are there minimal pairs between the acute and circumflex accent?

Ancient Greek had two (*) different types of accent on long vowels: the "circumflex" accent indicates high tone on the first mora, and the "acute" accent indicates high tone on the second. (Short ...
3 votes
1 answer
266 views

S at the end of Present Active Participle Pronunciation

I've noticed that we tend to pronounce the "s" at the end of present active participles (e.g. navigans) as /z/. But in ancient Roman times, would it really have been pronounced this way, /...
10 votes
2 answers
717 views

Minimal pair for hidden quantity

Is there an example where the quantity of a vowel makes a difference in a syllable that is heavy by position? For a concrete example, this does happen in Finnish (where long vowels are written as ...
2 votes
0 answers
75 views

When pronouncing latin taxonomy names is there a rule when the letter p is voiced?

Pterodactyl -- Is the p voiced? tero- dactyl Pteridology -- Is the p voiced? teri- dology Dyropteris (genus name) - Is the p voiced? Dryo- pteris
5 votes
1 answer
578 views

Why are some sounds differently pronounced to how they are written?

I am trying to start learning Latin because it sounds like a fun language to learn. It will also help me with English words and prefixes, among other things. This means that I know literally nothing ...
11 votes
3 answers
4k views

When is "ei" a diphthong?

Many introductory Latin books will explain that Classical Latin has four diphthongs: ae and au are common, while oe and ei are rarer. (Eu and ui also show up, but if I understand right that's a Greek ...
6 votes
4 answers
437 views

A good source for macrons et apices?

I try to learn Latin vocabulary with macrons. But online dictionaries, either don't give the diacritic, or give them only for the nominative, have some errors, or give only macrons, and no apices. ...
7 votes
0 answers
524 views

How old is Ecclesiastical Latin Pronunciation?

Salvete, I have trying to research how old the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation of Latin is. To be more precise, I mean the Italianate pronunciation, called 'La Pronuncia Scolastica' in Italian. Many ...
5 votes
1 answer
239 views

Pronunciation in medical terminology

I have been arguing about this with quite a number of people and it seems we all cannot find the answer (med students, duh😅) My question is: Where should the stress on words like mastoideus and ...

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