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Questions tagged [pronunciation]

Questions regarding the pronunciation of Latin words or syllables, or the history of Latin pronunciation. The desired time period for the pronunciation in question should be added.

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5 votes
1 answer
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English pronunciation of Ancient Greek names

Are there any rules for converting Ancient Greek names into an English (borrowed) pronunciation? I'm imagining an algorithm of Ancient Greek letters → English IPA that would work in 90% or 80% of ...
Simon Branch's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
930 views

Precise pronunciation of b, d and g

I'm a native speaker of Catalan and Spanish, so for me it is way more natural to pronounce b, d and g as [β], [ð] and [ɣ] between vowels, instead of as [b], [d] and [g]. For example, is nobis ...
Agente 156's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
61 views

How to indicate a diphthong?

In a previous question of mine, What diphthongs are available are Unicode ligatures?, Joonas Ilmavirta commented: If you want to indicate a diphthong, there are other means than using ligatures. We ...
richardIII's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
179 views

When is ‘ae’ pronounced /ae/?

I like the idea of using ligatures like ‘æ’ and ‘œ’ for diphthongs in Latin, so that the spelling is closer to one letter/character per sound. However, it would not work to write ‘æ’ for everything, ...
richardIII's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
617 views

(Ancient and Modern Greek) Pronunciations of ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’

I asked this question in an online forum, but did not get a response, so I thought I would try it here. It is about the proper pronunciation of the letters ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’ in Archaic/Ancient Greek,...
Zwing's user avatar
  • 71
2 votes
1 answer
105 views

How to pronounce a syllable that is heavy by nature and heavy by position

There are several sources that stress the distinction between the a syllable and a vowel, saying that in the word arma, for example, in the syllable ar - which is heavy by nature - we should be not ...
d_e's user avatar
  • 11.1k
5 votes
3 answers
832 views

Which form of Latin pronunciation is most widely taught?

There are two popular versions of Latin pronunciation currently: the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation and the Classical Pronunciation. EP follows the rules of Italian pronunciation (has soft c and g) ...
Akshat Goswami's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
158 views

Are there any speakers that use the Classical Latin pronunciation for Romance languages in informal purposes? [closed]

From what I researched, in Classical Latin, there was a shift of pronounciation, called palatalization which happened during the fall of Rome. This led to the creation of Ecclesiastical Latin which ...
Akshat Goswami's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
644 views

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek sigma as voiced [z] before voiced consonants

Throughout the development of Ancient Greek, was σ ever pronounced as [z], perhaps when before a voiced consonant, as in ἄσβεστος?
user67637's user avatar
  • 314
3 votes
1 answer
281 views

How to define a long or a short vowel in Latin words?

If there appears no macron on a vowel, which is part of a monophthong, then how can I define whether it is a long vowel or a short vowel?
Qiushuang Feng's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
669 views

Was the "U" in Urbs pronounced as "ʊ" in classical pronunciation?

I noticed that on Wiktionary and on Wikipedia it says that the "U" in Urbs was pronounced as "ʊ". I thought that Latin didn't have these kinds of lax vowels? Wouldn't it be ...
Nomad1004's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
547 views

How are the sounds of E (ε) and H (η) different in classical Greek pronunciation?

In Athenaze, the pronunciations of E (ε) and H (η) are given as comparable to the English words get and bed, respectively. Other than H (η) being held longer, in my American English pronunciation ...
Adam's user avatar
  • 8,592
5 votes
2 answers
417 views

Hypothesis for Umbrian letter ers pronunciation

Umbrian epichoric alphabet (that is, locally adapted from Etruscan alphabet) has a consonant 𐌛, called ers in Unicode Old Italic scripts references. You can see an example of usage of such letter in ...
Charo's user avatar
  • 2,092
4 votes
1 answer
395 views

What would the general pronunciation of Latin be like in the 600s CE?

In other words what changes from Classical Latin definitely were mainstream by that time: vowels, consonants, regional divergences? I'm aware of certain changes, but not exactly timewise when these ...
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
230 views

What is the correct Italian Latin pronunciation of "projicias" and "sacrificium"?

When singing Italian music of the 17th century that sets Latin texts, we use an Italian Latin pronunciation. If "projicias" and "sacrificium" were Italian words, then we would not ...
Elizabeth Anderson's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
161 views

In Latin, is there a difference between C and Q? [duplicate]

In Latin, what is the difference of sounds made by C and Q? The almost sound the same to me. Is there something, I'm missing here
Akshat Goswami's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
179 views

How am I supposed to pronounce the "ct" in Church's latin

for example, the word "fructus": should I say fruCTus or just fruTus?
hellofriends's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
71 views

Any scholarly views about how someone like Ovidius might have pronounced Greek words?

Μετᾰμορφώσεις In this word, as can be seen, there is a pitch accent on ω, and also it is generally accepted (per Allen, Vox Graeca) that φ was an aspirated P (pʰ), not a fricative (f). Are there any ...
mike rodent's user avatar
  • 1,051
4 votes
1 answer
507 views

Carmina Burana pronunciation?

How do you pronounce the first syllable of the title? My IPA is sketchy. I have seen both on the inter webs and the last time I performed it the majority opinion was accept on the first syllable. ...
Eric Grimes's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
1k views

Traditional English pronunciation of "dives"?

In the traditional English pronunciation of Latin—the one that gave us Caesar /siːzɚ/, Jupiter /dʒuːpɪtɚ/, epitome /əpɪtəmiː/, felix /fiːlɪks/, and virus /vaɪɹəs/—what should be the pronunciation of ...
Tim Pederick's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
1k views

Ancient Greek: how worried do I need to be about "long" and "short" accents?

I've been learning for a couple of months now, from a rather ancient book, which blissfully ignores all questions of accents. But I recently found out about them (with help from Luke Ranieri among ...
mike rodent's user avatar
  • 1,051
5 votes
1 answer
194 views

Short vs long i in inest vs īnsunt

Why is the i in inest short, while the i in īnsunt is long? As far as I know (see for example https://glosbe.com/la/en/insum, or LLPSI), the conjugation of this verb in the present tense goes like ...
Florianus's user avatar
  • 443
7 votes
1 answer
214 views

Recitation of the Iliad

I'm a beginner in Ancient Greek trying to learn about pronouciation. I'm particularly interested in Homer's Iliad. I'm aware that this is a controversial topic, to put it mildly, so I don't expect ...
rmdmc89's user avatar
  • 599
0 votes
1 answer
263 views

Pronunciation of sedes

I typically pronounce sedes as SED-ays. However, I recently noticed that the "Holy See," meaning the bishopric of the Vatican, comes from Sancta Sedes (the Holy Seat), so if this is being ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 7,001
-3 votes
1 answer
120 views

Which letters of celebrētur are trilled in this Bervoets recording

Which letters of celebrētur are trilled in this recording? https://www.stilus.nl/ce-geluid/PlinMinEp-VI-16.htm? Bervoets doesn't just trills both R's but the letters near the two R's too! I've noticed ...
Ana Maria's user avatar
  • 123
9 votes
1 answer
321 views

Knowing the two quantities of 'est'

There are several forms of ĕsse and ēsse (= edere) that only differ by the quantity of the initial vowel, perhaps the most common one being ĕst/ēst. How do we know this difference in quantities? ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
266 views

S at the end of Present Active Participle Pronunciation

I've noticed that we tend to pronounce the "s" at the end of present active participles (e.g. navigans) as /z/. But in ancient Roman times, would it really have been pronounced this way, /...
user67637's user avatar
  • 314
10 votes
2 answers
717 views

Minimal pair for hidden quantity

Is there an example where the quantity of a vowel makes a difference in a syllable that is heavy by position? For a concrete example, this does happen in Finnish (where long vowels are written as ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
75 views

When pronouncing latin taxonomy names is there a rule when the letter p is voiced?

Pterodactyl -- Is the p voiced? tero- dactyl Pteridology -- Is the p voiced? teri- dology Dyropteris (genus name) - Is the p voiced? Dryo- pteris
KeithSmith's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
578 views

Why are some sounds differently pronounced to how they are written?

I am trying to start learning Latin because it sounds like a fun language to learn. It will also help me with English words and prefixes, among other things. This means that I know literally nothing ...
Jack William's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
126 views

Does the pronunciation of 'gn' depend on the environment?

I have heard different pronunciations of 'gn': [ŋn], [gn], [ɲ:]. Given a fixed era and dialect, is 'gn' always pronounced the same way or does the pronunciation depend on the environment? My ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
343 views

When did "ae" become [e]?

I know about the differences between Reconstructed and Church pronunciation. I have wondered when they arose. I have already researched it on StackExchange where "V" had already become [v] ...
Blazkovitz's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
621 views

Littera Canina in Classical Latin and Old Latin

Ancient Romans called the letter R littera canina as the R in Classical Latin was trilled to sound like a growling dog! Was the letter R trilled to sound like a growling dog when the ancient Romans ...
Ana Maria's user avatar
  • 123
7 votes
9 answers
1k views

Resources for pronouncing Greek

Similar to our question about the pronunciation of Latin, I believe it would be very useful for users to have a single question to reference for resources for pronouncing Greek. Greek, as with Latin, ...
-3 votes
1 answer
160 views

how would Caeser say "hodiē iānuae domuum sunt ātrae"?

this post has been editted to use macrons, using html eg ā is & amacr ; without the spaces as html, similarly the other vowels. But this trick cannot be used in comments. I suppose what you can do ...
Commenter's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
2k views

How did Caesar pronounce Latin overlined vowels?

I am a beginner with Latin and am confused about the overlined vowels. The textbook I have explains these via vowels of English words, but I think that is unsatisfactory, because when learning other ...
Commenter's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
239 views

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī?

What is the name of the thing that the tongue does on the trī part in the word patrī? The word is at the 5:06 mark of this video! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OdQawsU2RFg&t=308s
Ana Maria's user avatar
  • 123
4 votes
2 answers
220 views

Pronunciation of aspiration in ἔδεισεν δ᾽ ὁ γέρων

This example occurs in Iliad 1.33. In running speech, when there are no pauses between words, I'm able to articulate this as "edeisend ho." However, I would imagine (possibly just because I'...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
239 views

Pronunciation in medical terminology

I have been arguing about this with quite a number of people and it seems we all cannot find the answer (med students, duh😅) My question is: Where should the stress on words like mastoideus and ...
Kiril Shahamov's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
494 views

What was the most common pronunciation of the interjection "io" in Classical Latin?

Wiktionary lists two pronunciations for io: /ˈi.oː/, [ˈioː] Was one more common than the other? And just so I'm clear, the first would sound something like ee-oh in English, and the second yo?
Adam's user avatar
  • 8,592
5 votes
3 answers
208 views

Frequency of conventions regarding whether to pronounce ω more open than ο, more closed, or the same

<boring background> I've been doing some recordings of language drill in Homeric Greek (1, 2, 3), in which my pronunciation has been chosen based on a certain set of criteria: (1) They're meant ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
605 views

How has the pronunciation of the letter "c" developed?

I'd like to know how the pronunciation of the letter 'C' has developed in Latin. All I know so far is that it has changed through the centuries, but I'm interested in specifically what those changes ...
Gail's user avatar
  • 31
7 votes
0 answers
435 views

When does the diphthong υι occur in Greek, and when it is pronounced as [yː]?

I'm a bit confused by the information I've seen online about ancient Greek υι: it seems an original diphthongal pronunciation was replaced at some point in Attic Greek by a monophthongal pronunciation ...
Asteroides's user avatar
  • 29.3k
2 votes
0 answers
60 views

Arnold and Conway, earlier change of pronunciation of aspirates?

Describing the pronunciation of Greek in schools in the UK, Allen says that a pamphlet by Arnold and Conway, "The Restored Pronunciation of Greek and Latin," pretty much set the standard ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
342 views

Why do I find it hard not to palatalize the /g/ in digitus?

In latin words such as digitus, I found it hard to pronounce correctly the consonants /k/ or /g/ followed by /i/. I think that this happens especially if these sounds are in the same syllabe. Is it ...
SarruKen's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
311 views

Is it possible to make sense of the classical words and pronunciation in Dune, by Frank Herbert?

Dune is a classic science fiction novel by Frank Herbert. There have been attempts to film it, including an upcoming movie version covering the first half of the book. A lot of the names and ...
user avatar
13 votes
0 answers
186 views

the kiskis and kankan debate: primary sources

There's a very famous story about how in the middle of the sixteenth century the Sorbonne University filed a legal claim to the Parlement de Paris re: the correct pronunciation of qu- in Latin, viz. ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
  • 11.7k
1 vote
1 answer
131 views

Pronunciation of the syllables that are long by position

I have a question about pronunciation of long/heavy syllables: Should we lengthen the syllable that is long by position (e. g. septem) Also, should we lengthen the syllable which contains diphtong (...
Dachi Pachulia's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
187 views

How were τὰ φυσικά, φυσικός, and φύσις pronounced in Aristotle's time?

This question occurred to me in the context of a previous question of mine, which concerned the etymology of 'physics'. τὰ φυσικά is 'the collective title of Aristotle's physical treatises' (OED). ...
linguisticturn's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
228 views

Syllabification of "anhelo"

I'm setting some writing of St. Augustine to music, and it includes the word anhelo ("I long for"). I'm wondering whether an-he-lo or a-nhe-lo is the preferred way to divide it into ...
Mirlan's user avatar
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