Questions tagged [pronunciation]

Questions regarding the pronunciation of Latin words or syllables, or the history of Latin pronunciation. The desired time period for the pronunciation in question should be added.

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8
votes
1answer
674 views

What can we say about the pronunciation of Z?

The letter Z was borrowed into the Latin alphabet in order to transcribe Greek loanwords, along with Y. Presumably, educated Latin-speakers pronounced it like its source, Greek zeta. However, Greek ...
7
votes
1answer
406 views

Does CUM EŌ EO mean I go with them?

If so, the pronunciation of the long vowel Ō is really important?
5
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0answers
53 views

Can a same poet use both U/V (vowel/consonant) variants of the same stem?

There are some words that poets use in more than one way. For example the word deorsum, usually 3 syllables (dĕ-or-sum), but sometimes the poets allowed themselves some freedom, and had it as 2 ...
15
votes
1answer
813 views

Was avē truly pronounced with an “unspelled /h/”?

According to the etymology at Wiktionary, avē derived from a Punic word with an initial /h/, and was pronounced as such in the Classical period even though the word was spelt without. Is this claim, ...
2
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1answer
156 views

Pronunciation of intervocalic EV in Greek words in Roman Ecclesiastical

For example evangelium, which in Greek, and hence in Classical, has an ambisyllabic1 [w:], giving [ɛw:a]. How are this and similar words pronounced in (preferrably sung) Roman Ecclesiastical? Is it as ...
5
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2answers
905 views

Evidence about pronunciation of ευ and αυ in Homeric Greek?

In modern Greek, a word like ευχαριστώ is pronounced like "ef-." The combinations ευ and αυ sometimes have the upsilon pronounced like β and sometimes like φ. (I'm not sure how variable it ...
10
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1answer
763 views

How to pronounce “Roterodamus”?

The adjective roterodamus means “of Rotterdam” (the city in Holland). To lovers of Latin, unless they entertain an unusual interest in Dutch geography, the word is familiar probably primarily because ...
6
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4answers
520 views

How close is modern Italian pronunciation of sounds to Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciation?

I know that Ecclesiastical Latin uses Italianate pronunciation. My question is if there are any significant differences between pronunciation of modern Italian sounds vs. pronunciation of ...
9
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2answers
753 views

Is the 'i' in 'videt' long or short?

I am currently reading Ørberg’s Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata, where he thankfully makes use of the macron to distinguish long vowels form short ones. However, and I have seen this elsewhere as well,...
10
votes
1answer
167 views

What is the earliest example of the monophthongisation of 'oe'?

Salvete amicae amicique, I have read lots of sources that state that in the 3rd Century AD. people started pronouncing the diphthong 'oe' as /e:/. However, I can't find any evidence - what I am ...
4
votes
1answer
135 views

Pronunciation of “Bethlehem” in “Adeste Fideles”

Pavarotti Fischer Adeste fideles laeti triumphantes Venite, venite in Bethlehem Natum videte regem angelorum Venite, adoremus, Venite, adoremus, Venite, adoremus, dominum! In the first link above ...
5
votes
1answer
211 views

Changing tones (?) in Classical Latin

When I heard Classical Latin for the first time on Horatii carmina quae voce canora Thomas Nudipes pronuntiat, I was surprised to hear what I will describe as changing tones! The reason why I was ...
6
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1answer
102 views

Is there a dictionary for pronunciation explanations?

All dictionaries I have seen that state vowel quantities simply state them but do not explain how the quantity of each vowel was determined. The same goes for the distinctions between vocalic and ...
6
votes
1answer
373 views

Pronunciation of “quoniam”

Is the "i" in "quoniam" a vowel or a consonant? Just based on the spelling it makes sense as a vowel (quo.ni.am), but at the same time etymologically as "quom + iam" it ...
5
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0answers
91 views

How did Jerome pronounce the Latin language?

Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) lived between the 4th and 5th centuries. He translated the Bible into Latin as the Vulgate (Biblia Vulgata). How would he have pronounced the Latin language? In ...
3
votes
1answer
336 views

Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciation of “excelsis”: /e/ or /ɛ/?

My question is about pronunciation of both e's in the word excelsis in Ecclesiastical Latin. Here is an excerpt of a previous question in this site: A final postscript: although what I've heard is ...
2
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0answers
74 views

Ut syllabās gravēs verbōrum didicimus?

Hanc rēgulam didicī dē verbīs: Sī syllaba paenultima brevis est, syllaba antepaenultima gravis fit. Sī autem longa est, ipsa gravis fit. Ut hanc rēgulam didicimus? Ex grammaticīs? Quō tempore haec ...
6
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2answers
1k views

The pronunciation of Eta (η)

I have visited some sources and I can't finally understand that Eta (η) in Ancient Greek pronounced like 'eɪ' (delay), or like 'eə' (hair). In fact, should we say an 'ɪ' at the end of pronouncing η, ...
10
votes
1answer
563 views

Verbum Hispānicum “mientras” significat “-m” fīnāle prōnūntiātum esse?

In Was the final “-m” a “full-featured” consonant?, cēnsēbant "-m" fīnāle prōnūntiātum nōn esse, sed faciēbat nāsāle vōcālem praecēdēns. Sed invēnī verbum Hispānicum "mientras" ex ...
6
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1answer
148 views

Variation between syllabic and non-syllabic V: in what contexts is it possible?

Allen's Vox Latina, 2nd edition (1988) metions that there is occasional "poetic interchange" in Latin of syllabic [u] and non-syllabic [w], mentioning trisyllabic silua and disyllabic genva ...
6
votes
1answer
354 views

Is U between NG and a vowel always a consonant?

Is the letter U (whether spelled as U or V) between NG and a vowel always a consonant? It is at the very least a useful rule of thumb, but I wonder if there are counterexamples to this rule (or ...
6
votes
1answer
164 views

What is the etymology of 'cuius' and is it different from 'quis'?

'cuius' (and 'cui') is an interesting word in that it stands out as different from the other terms in the declension of 'quis'. It seems to be pronounced differently. 'quis' is /kwis/ but 'cuius' is /...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Stress of presbyterum, presbytero

Salvete, Where is the stress in the various forms of presbyter? Would I be correct with the following? (I have placed the apostrophe before the stressed syllable.) Gratias vobis ago Paulus nom. '...
5
votes
1answer
307 views

Does G ever visibly assimilate in voice?

According to Allen's Vox Latina, /b/ regularly becomes voiceless before a voiceless consonant. This shows up sometimes in writing: for example, we see forms of ob-sideō written occasionally as opsideō....
9
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2answers
1k views

Why is Antirrhinum written with two 'r'?

According to Wikipedia Antirrhinum (Dragon flower) is derived from ἀντί anti "against, like", and ῥίς rhis "nose". Therefore, I would expect it to be pronounced Anti-rrhinum (with ...
5
votes
1answer
179 views

Correct pronunciation of full Latin dates

What is the correct Latin pronunciation of modern full dates, where the word 'anno' is omitted e.g. 'die 24 Augusti 1954 nata'? In which case stands the numeral of the year? Is the word 'anno' ...
4
votes
1answer
107 views

When did genuine and spurious diphthongs merge?

In Ancient Greek, the diphthongs ει and ου were sometimes considered "genuine" (they descended from ε+ι or ο+υ or the like), and sometimes "spurious" (they descended from ...
1
vote
2answers
82 views

Pronunciation of genitive proper-name epithets, e.g. Euonymus fortunei

What customs do the various Latin pronunciations have for pronouncing species epithets that are the genitive form of someone's name, e.g. Euonymus fortunei, named for Robert Fortune? In the English ...
1
vote
2answers
107 views

Does trisyllabic laxing occur in Latin words like 'decision' before entering English?

There's a phenomenon called Trisyllabic laxing where the vowel in a stressed syllable is shortened if two (or more) syllables follow. If the stressed vowel is in at least* the penultimate syllable (...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Vowel hiatus and non-diphthong vowel pairs (compared to Romance languages)

Classical Latin's 6 major diphthongs are clear-cut, phonologically speaking. We know ae is pronounced as one phoneme, such as in [ˈsae̯.pɛ], "saepe." However, we often come across words that have 2 ...
6
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0answers
238 views

How old is Ecclesiastical Latin Pronunciation?

Salvete, I have trying to research how old the Ecclesiastical Pronunciation of Latin is. To be more precise, I mean the Italianate pronunciation, called 'La Pronuncia Scolastica' in Italian. Many ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Why does Ecclesiastical Latin pronounce “au” as written?

Salvete, Ecclesiastical Latin, by which I mean here the Italian Traditional Pronunciation seems to have preserved some characteristics of rustic Roman pronunciation despite the spelling remaining ...
9
votes
1answer
362 views

Latin pronunciations in a choir's rendition of the anthem of the European Union

I've never studied Latin, but I have this understanding of its pronunciation: In classical Latin the "soft c" and the "soft g" do not exist. In modern Vatican Latin, words are pronounced the way they ...
5
votes
1answer
203 views

More details on the Appendix Probi

Does the Appendix Probi specifically talk about what correct "pronunciation" should be (of the day), or correct "spelling"? Does "Idem non ide" mean that you shouldn't say "ide" or write it? An ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Can I conclude something about pronunciation from I/J and U/V variation?

I reread the inscription in this question about the abbreviation D. O. M. dated to 1749: The variation between I and J caught my eye. It seems to me that: J is used in all consonantal positions. J ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Pronunciation of ngi in Italianate Pronunciation

Salvete, Does anyone know how people schooled in the Italian style of pronunciation would pronounce diphthongi, the plural of diphthongus? I have seen some examples of books printed circa 1700 where ...
9
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3answers
418 views

An example sentence for Latin pronunciation

Latin pronunciation varies between times and locations, and to some extent individuals. If I want learn a new kind of pronunciation, make sure I have properly switched to a new pronunciation, or want ...
7
votes
1answer
137 views

Ecclesiastical Pronunciation of the word Monachus, Monachi etc

Salvete, Does anyone know of a good dictionary that shows the ecclesiastical pronunciation of Latin words? I am confused by this example: a monk = monachus, pl. monachi, which I have seen written ...
4
votes
1answer
135 views

Pronunciation of Jehovæ

The Tremellius and Junio's Bible in Is. 60:1-2 renders the Hebrew name of God (יהוה) as Jehovæ. how is this word properly pronounced in Latin? Thanks!
4
votes
1answer
220 views

Does /l̥/ in reconstructed Latin represent a voiceless (alveolar) lateral approximate or something else?

Latin facultās presumably developed from an original *faklitāts (via *fakl̥tāts > *fakiltāts > facultās) . . . —Merriam-Webster Does the /l̥/ in *fakl̥tāts represent a voiceless (alveolar) ...
4
votes
3answers
226 views

A good source for macrons et apices?

I try to learn Latin vocabulary with macrons. But online dictionaries, either don't give the diacritic, or give them only for the nominative, have some errors, or give only macrons, and no apices. ...
5
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0answers
152 views

Why does “urgueo” exist as a variant of “urgeo”?

The rule I learned for the pronunciation of the digram "gu" before a vowel in Latin was /gw/ after "n", vs. g + vocalic u anywhere else. But I just discovered the exception urgueo /urgweoː/. This is a ...
1
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1answer
136 views

How were vowels u and i discerned from consonants v and j?

If in original texts there were no means of distinguishing whether u and i were consonants or vowels, how then do we now know which ones were which? The easy ruleset I learned in high school is that ...
2
votes
1answer
152 views

On vowel lengths in Latin

This question originates from this thread upon suggestion of Joonas Ilmavirta. Q. How do we know all the vowel lengths in Latin? It would be of interest to me if we manage to collect a list with ...
6
votes
2answers
364 views

Doubt on pronunciation of verbs (stressing)

I have recently heard somebody (quoting Virgil) saying "Timèo Danaos...". This sounds awkward to me, but I confess I have not studied Latin for ages. I remember that timeo is a verb like moneo, II ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

Pronunciation of “Formulæ”

What is the pronunciation of Formulæ in Latin ? Is there any difference (in pronunciation) between classical and vulgar Latin ? The answer can be in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) format.
2
votes
0answers
56 views

What evidence is there of a short vowel in the first syllable of “vallum”?

Two sources that I've come across indicate a long vowel /aː/ in the first syllable of the word vallum 'palisade wall' (that is, vāllum). This form is given in The Latin Language, by Charles E. ...
5
votes
1answer
189 views

Thematic, genred concepts in Ancient Greek?

Trying to come up with magical 'schools' for a game, and my goal is to: Use Ancient Greek, Koine if absolutely necessary Have words of generally the same length and number of syllables (not like, ...
6
votes
1answer
649 views

Pronunciation style used in Hans Ørberg's Lingua Latina

In his book, Hans Ørberg uses macrons to show longer vowel sounds, but it's not clear to me if this is reconstructed, ecclesiastical, something else, or if there are even differences between those ...
5
votes
1answer
189 views

What is the evidence for a long vowel in χριστός “anointed” and Latin Christus?

The Greek word χριστός, used as a translation of Hebrew משיח "messiah", and meaning something like "anointed" (Liddell and Scott), apparently has a long vowel in the first syllable....