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Does ὅδε (hode) refer to what follows or what precedes?

Learn to Read Greek by Keller says on p100: οὕτος [houtos] and ὅδε [hode] are both translated “this” in the singular and “these” in the plural. ὅδε [hode] however points more emphatically to people ...
Tim's user avatar
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"One" as pronoun in Latin? [duplicate]

How can we express the pronoun "one" in Latin when it's impersonal or indefinite? Any example: "what's your house? The white one" I know that we can use "is qui" when way ...
Antônio Silva's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
864 views

Why "quod" and not "quo" is used here?

In chapter XXII of Lingua latina per se illustrata: Colloquia Personarum, I have read the following sentence (emphasis mine in the word I find difficult to understand): Hic anulus ex auro puro factus ...
Charo's user avatar
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4 votes
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Why "ipse hic" is used here and not "ipse tu"?

Lines 105–107 of chapter XXIV of Lingua latina per se illustrata. Familia Romana reads (emphasis mine): Cēterum facile tibi est frātrem tuum reprehendere, dum ipse hīc in mollī lectulō cubās. Tūne ...
Charo's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
140 views

Position of reflexive pronouns

In Allen and Greenough all the examples of reflexive pronouns have them come before the verb, but Pliny the Younger in e.g. letter 6.20.11 has 'non moratus ultra proripit se effusoque cursu...' and ...
G. Lewis's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
132 views

Why is dative used in this sentence?

The following sentence appears in lines 12-14 of chapter XX of Lingua latina per se illustrata. Familia Romana: Sī māter īnfantem suum ipsa alere nōn potest sīve non vult, īnfāns ab aliā muliere ...
Charo's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
416 views

Why is "ad eum" and not a dative pronoun used in this sentence?

This is a sentence in lines 153-154 of chapter XVIII of Lingua latina per se illustrata. Familia Romana: Cum pater tuus abest, oportet tē epistulās ad eum scribere. Is there any reason why ad eum (...
Charo's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
644 views

Why "suam" and not "eius" is used in this sentence?

In lines 63-70 of chapter XVIII of Lingua latina per se illustrata. Familia Romana, one reads: Discipuli magistro tabulās suas dant. [...] Magister suam cuique discipulō tabulam reddit, prīmum Sexto, ...
Charo's user avatar
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4 votes
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What is the role of "ipso" in this quote from Cicero?

Following on from Q: Why is accusative pronoun "te" used in this construction?, in this quote from Cicero: "nihil necesse est mihi de me ipso dicere, quamquam est id quidem senile ...
tony's user avatar
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Usage of pronouns in chapter VIII of Lingua latina per se illustrata

This excerpt comes from lines 138-139 of chapter VIII of the 2003 edition of Lingua latina per se illustrata:       Quis saccum portat? Servus saccum portat. Quī servus? Servus quī saccum portat est ...
Charo's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
198 views

Gender of antecedent of "hoc" in phrase "hoc quod"?

In the construction "hoc quod", can the antecedent of "hoc" (neuter) be indifferently a masculine, neuter, or feminine noun; or must the gender agree (i.e., the antecedent be ...
Geremia's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What does suffix -dem mean?

Keller's Learn to Read Latin says: The adjective Idem, eadem, idem is formed by the addition of the suffix -dem to the demonstrative adjective is, ea, id. What does suffix -dem mean? I couldn't find ...
Tim's user avatar
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5 votes
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How can you best teach possessive pronouns to English-speaking students?

Background Latin and Germanic languages such as German, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, and probably several more, have a specific word to denote possession: As Latin says suus, sua, suum, I as a ...
Canned Man's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
242 views

First Declension Singular, Gen or Dat?

I'm learning the first declension and I am confused on how the word "terrae" is used as a genitive but can be used as a dative. How do I translate if I am given just the word "terrae?&...
Evans's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
229 views

What is the difference for these words for "which"?

There are three main choices for expressing the idea of "which" in Latin: qui quinam quisnam How do you choose which one to use in which situation? So, I am asking both for interrogatives ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Oblique cases and 'si quis'

It is convenient to formulate conditions with si quis, for example: Si quis me audiet canentem, non gaudebit. If anyone hears me singing, they will not enjoy it. Here the same unnamed person is the ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
174 views

Usage of quidquid: "dominetur piscibus aquatilibus ... et quidquid in terra movetur"

In Gen. 1:26 by Sebastian Castellio: ita fatur: Faciamus hominem ad imaginem nostram, nostri similem, qui dominetur piscibus aquatilibus, volucribus aereis, pecudibus, denique toti terrae, et ...
d_e's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the relation and history of 'si' and 'sic'?

Lewis and Short tell me that sic comes from si by adding the particle -ce. I can understand sice wearing down to sic, but I do not quite understand how I am supposed to understand the meanings of the ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
0 answers
116 views

Does the indefinite pronoun/determiner "quă" only exist as an enclitic?

I recently learned that there is an indefinite determiner and pronoun quă used in the feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative/accusative plural with the sense "any(one)" (...
Asteroides's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
640 views

What is the etymology of 'cuius' and is it different from 'quis'?

'cuius' (and 'cui') is an interesting word in that it stands out as different from the other terms in the declension of 'quis'. It seems to be pronounced differently. 'quis' is /kwis/ but 'cuius' is /...
Mitch's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
501 views

Interrogative pronouns about animals (Quis aut quid)

If I want to ask the question about the dog, whose name is Cerberus should I ask Quis est Cerberus? or Quid est Cerberus? Do we use quis or quae (according to gender) about animals or quid? What ...
Dachi Pachulia's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
423 views

When is quis used instead of aliquis?

I definitely remember that one usually says: si quis veniret … and not: si aliquis veniret. But the recent question about quo quisque est sollertior and similar forms brought the following rule from ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
406 views

The function of "quo" in "Quō quisque est sollertior, hōc docet īrācundius"

In A&G on indefinite pronouns there are two sentences of a similar structure: Bonus liber melior est quisque quō mâior. (The larger a good book is, the better.) Quō quisque est sollertior, hōc ...
d_e's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
182 views

Can 'quod' refer to the previous speaker?

It is quite common to start a Latin sentence with quod, referring to the matter discussed in the previous sentence. In a dialogue, can one use it to refer to the previous thing even if it was uttered ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
15 votes
4 answers
8k views

Meaning of "dies illa" from Dies Irae

The first verse from "Dies Irae" goes like Dies irae, dies illa I'm trying to understand what "illa" is referring to. According to the declension table for pronouns, "illa" corresponds either to ...
rmdmc89's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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Difference between αὐτός and οὗτος

In the sentence οὗτος λέγει ὅτι αὕτη τὸ βιβλίον γράφει translated by "He says that she is writing the book." would the meaning change if οὗτος was substituted by αὐτός thus forming the sentence αὐτός ...
Alexandre Daubricourt's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Confused about the use of "quae" as an interrogative word

Sometimes, I read that "quae" could be used, not only as a relative word, but also as an interrogative word. Sometimes I read that it's not like that in the correct usage. Quote, from a fellow Latin ...
Quidam's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
367 views

The Plural Forms of "Uterque"

Following on from "Uter vs Uterque"; it is clear that "'uterque' can be translated as 'both [of two]' but it might be better to think of it as 'each [of two]'. The reason is that 'uterque', like 'each'...
tony's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
155 views

Do imperatives trigger reflexive pronouns in Latin?

In English, imperative verbs have "invisible subjects": syntactically, they act like there's an invisible pronoun in the subject position. This is why we see look closely at yourself instead of *look ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
154 views

On the interpretation of "ipse" in anticausative constructions

After having answered a question on "ipse" from a very different perspective (a philosophical one: [Does 'ipse' truly mean change? ), I return to linguistics: now I was wondering if ipse must ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is ipsum/ipsa/ipse a third person pronoun, or can it serve other functions?

This question was inspired by a comment to an answer on this question: How would you say “same thing” in Latin? In which an answerer translated "Utinam idem sentires ac ipsa/ipse sentio!" as "If ...
Sola Gratia's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
349 views

Was the old ablative pronoun "med" or "mēd"?

In Classical times, the first singular ablative pronoun ("from me") was mē, with a long ē. However, the older form seems to have been med, with a final -d. Do we know whether this earlier form was ...
Draconis's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
123 views

How to express "the best myself" in latin?

I am currently trying to translate "May I forge the best me" "May I forge" seems easily translated as the present subjunctive first person "excudam". However, I can't find how to express the rest. I ...
rvcam's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
176 views

How do you address someone in a case other than the vocative?

Suppose I'm talking to someone directly, and use a pronoun to refer to someone. I would use tu or vōs with an appropriate case based on its role in the sentence: for example, sciō tē adesse, "I know ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
473 views

What do I do when a pronoun refers to both a male and a female?

I'm trying to refer to a couple (man and woman), with a pronoun. Specifically what I'm trying to write is: Consider a couple that comes to Rome. They may have pride for Rome. What I have now is: ...
tox123's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
447 views

Mors mea or mors meī?

If I wanted to talk about "the death of Caesar", I wouldn't think twice about using the genitive (mors Caesaris). But if you asked me what sort of genitive this is—possessive, partitive, or objective—...
Draconis's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
92 views

Quispiam, quisquam, quivis, quidam, quilibet?

Including the variations with qualis, quantus and quotus, is there a specific rule to when to use each these undefined pronouns?
Lyu's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
543 views

"Felix est rex is quem omnes cives amant". Is the pronoun "is" necessary?

Considering the original phrase: The king who all citizens love is happy. (Portuguese: Feliz é o rei a quem todos os cidadãos amam.) Here is a proposed Latin translation: Felix est rex is quem ...
Lyu's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
268 views

Is 'hoc' ever pronounced short?

I have learned that the neuter nominative and accusative hoc is actually pronounced as if it were hocc. But was it exclusively hocc? Was it ever pronounced as the hoc that it looks like in the ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
473 views

Pairs like quot/tot and quantum/tantum

There seem to be a lot of pairs of words in Latin where a "question" starts with qu- and the corresponding "answer" by t-. For example: quot/tot, quantum/tantum, qualis/talis, quotiens/totiens. The ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
277 views

Why do some pronoun nominatives look like vocatives?

The forms ipse, ille, and iste look like vocatives instead of nominatives, and one would expect to see ipsus, illus, and istus instead. In fact, ipsus is attested but far rarer than ipse, but the ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
123 views

Why ĭdem instead of iddem or īdem in neuter?

The pronoun idem/eadem/idem appears to be the combination of is/ea/id and -dem. I can understand why isdem > īdem in the masculine, but why do we have iddem > ĭdem? Shouldn't the vowel be ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
519 views

Can aliquis function as an adjective?

Aliquis is typically a pronoun, but can it also function as an adjective like aliqui? For example, aliqui homo currit versus aliquis homo currit.
אהרן רובין's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the difference between "ubi" and "in quo" as relative adverbs?

Let's start with some example sentences: This is the house where I was born. Ecce domus ubi natus sum. This is the house in which I was born. Ecce domus in qua natus sum. Both sentences ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
571 views

Does Latin have a mechanism to disambiguate possessive pronouns of the same gender referring to distinct persons?

Question: does Latin have a grammatical mechanism to disambiguate the ambiguous use of `his' in the third of the three following English sentences? Person A wrote a book. Then person B wrote a ...
guest's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
839 views

What does the -met ending mean in "vosmet" or "temet"

I don't understand where vosmet and temet came from. I know vos and te as pronouns, but what is the -met ending? Is that from some other language? Is it used anywhere else? It seems irregular. Why ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
431 views

How can "everyone" be singular or plural?

I don't understand how quisque and quique are different. How can a pronoun referring to all people be singular or plural? In which situations would one use either of these?
Middle School Historian's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
180 views

Why is -d used instead of -m for most neuter pronouns

There is a notable set of pronouns that use -d for the neuter nominative and accusative: iste > istud ille > illud quis > quid is > id Other pronouns do not: hic > hoc ipse > ipsum (though L&S ...
brianpck's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
165 views

Do adverbs derived from iste have a pejorative tone?

I would call the pronoun iste a "second person demonstrative pronoun"1, meaning roughly "that thing near you". It can also have a pejorative tone, implying that the speaker does not approve of the ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
360 views

Is a relative pronoun commonly used as a third person pronoun? (Metamorphoses I.583-587)

In this short passage by Ovid, the pronoun "quam" seems to be used as a third person pronoun. Inachus unus abest imoque reconditus antro fletibus auget aquas natamque miserrimus Io luget ut ...
ktm5124's user avatar
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