Questions tagged [passive]

For questions about passive voice, whether morphology, syntax, or something else.

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5
votes
4answers
282 views

Do non-deponent Latin verbs ever have a “middle voice”?

In Ancient Greek, verbs often take a "middle voice", neither active nor passive. The forms usually look identical to the passive on the surface, but can take direct objects and cannot take an agent (...
5
votes
2answers
218 views

Null expletive objects in Latin? “Cariotae cum ficis certandum habent” (Plin. Ep. 1,8)

How is the gerundive construction to be analyzed in the following example? Cariotae cum ficis certandum habent. (Plin. Ep. 1,8) 'Dates have to fight with figs'. Could you please provide me ...
4
votes
1answer
189 views

Why “amatus est” instead of “*amavitur”

Is there any diachronic reason whereby synthetic perfective passive forms like *amavitur (and similar ones) are not possible and analytic forms like amatus est (and similar ones) are selected instead? ...
3
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0answers
44 views

When did the infinitive in -ier fall out of use?

At one point, the Latin passive infinitive was formed with a suffix -(r)ier, as in agier "to be driven", amārier "to be loved". Allen and Greenough call this an "ancient form[…] found chiefly in ...
4
votes
2answers
165 views

On the absence of impersonal passives of deponent verbs

I've recently discussed with Sumelic the intriguing example of a passive construction of a transitive (allegedly) deponent verb: Ab amīcīs hortārētur (Did Latin have any ergative verbs? ). The ...
7
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1answer
228 views

Is there a gerundive of “faciō”?

Faciō, "to make" or "to do", is a common Latin verb. It's famous for being suppletive: it's missing most of its passive forms, and instead uses the active forms of the separate verb fiō "to become". (...
2
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1answer
76 views

Is the third person passive perfect of a verb a source of nouns, e.g. “benedictus” from “bendico”?

I always get confused with benedictus. It Christian prayers, it is found both as a noun and as a (passive) verb, e.g. benedictus est. When est is omitted (not uncommon in Latin, it seems), both look ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

Why is dignetur used as if it were in the active voice?

For 2 Thessalonians 1:11, the Vulgata has the following: In quo etiam oramus semper pro vobis: ut dignetur vos vocatione sua Deus nosteret impleat omnem voluntatem bonitatis, et opus fidei in ...
13
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2answers
513 views

Latin passive endings: Why is -mini sticking out

The Latin passive ending usually feature an additional letter R compared to the active endings: laud-or, -aris, -atur, -amur, -antur. However, the second person plural is different, using the ending -...
4
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1answer
92 views

Passive Subjunctive Translated as Active

Moreland has this line: Cognoscebamus quo tempore dux mortem illis patriam neglegentibus minatus esset This is an indirect question, hence the sequence of tenses: main verb takes Imperfect; ...
10
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1answer
286 views

How to make a deponent passive in meaning?

I was thinking about the verb sequi, a deponent which means to follow. I was wondering, how do you put the deponent into a passive form? So is it possible to translate the following sentences into ...
3
votes
1answer
360 views

Is there a passive infinitive?

If I say something can be changed, for example, how would I say that in Latin? Would I say id X potest, or is there some other construction for this? The context doesn't really matter, but it's for my ...
12
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1answer
206 views

When to use -ris vs. -re as a passive verbal ending

Anyone who has read Cicero's famous line, Quo usque tandem, Catalina, abutere patientia nostra? ...knows that the 2nd person singular passive personal ending "-ris" is often changed to "-re": ...
8
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1answer
95 views

Passives Without Accusatives

(Split off from my previous question about gerundives of deponent verbs.) For a transitive verb, it's fairly simple to convert a sentence from active to passive: X-nom VERB-active Y-acc = Y-nom ...
10
votes
1answer
451 views

How do I use gerundives of obligation for deponent verbs?

(Inspired by the comments on this answer.) The gerundive of obligation is a wonderful little idiom in Latin, as in Cato's famous mantra Carthāgō dēlenda est "Carthage must be destroyed" In this ...
10
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2answers
658 views

Hogwarts Motto from J.K. Rowling's “Harry Potter” series

Hogwarts, the School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the Harry Potter books, has the following Latin motto: Draco dormiens numquam titillandus. Most online sources translate this as "Never tickle a ...
13
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1answer
108 views

Why is “repetunt” 3rd pl active in Luke 12:20 (Vulgate)?

I was reading today's gospel from the Roman calendar and noticed this in Luke 12:20: dixit autem illi Deus stulte hac nocte animam tuam repetunt a te quae autem parasti cuius erunt I was struck by ...
4
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1answer
40 views

Divide and be conquered

Sometimes, when you divide something into many pieces, the many pieces overwhelm you, like what happened to Mickey Mouse in Fantasia. This suggests a variation on divide et vinces: Divide et ...
9
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1answer
141 views

Active verbs with passive meanings

Every beginning Latin-learner is familiar with the idea of deponent verbs: verbs that have passive forms but active meanings. I am curious about a small subset of Latin verbs that aren't just ...
3
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1answer
64 views

Agent of passive sentence in accusative

In the following clause the agent is in the accusative, not ablative. Why? quod Civitas Aquilegensis et oppida Sancti Viti A. et Sancti Danielis in dicta patria consistentia cum omnibus eorum ...
11
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2answers
1k views

Does there exist an passive form of sum, esse, fui?

I've never seen anything except this provide passive forms of the verb esse. And even with that most of the passive forms are crossed out. Why is this? It would make sense for there to be no passive ...
16
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2answers
539 views

Why is the passive participle in Matthew 10:1 rendered as active in English?

I'm a little confused by the clause that begins Matthew 10: 10:1 Et convocatis duodecim discipulis suis, dedit illis potestatem spirituum immundorum, ut ejicerent eos, et curarent omnem languorem,...
6
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1answer
306 views

Perfect passive forms like “amatus fuit”

The normal way of forming the perfect passive system is: perfect passive participle + a form from the present system of sum, e.g. amatus est, amatus erat, amatus sit, amatus esset. But one ...
8
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3answers
557 views

Instances of the future passive infinitive

Throughout my time studying Latin in school, one grammatical construction in particular has always intrigued me to an extent — the future passive infinitive (eg. amatum iri). Whenever it came up (...
17
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1answer
194 views

Can I passivize a verb with two objects with respect to either one?

If I have a transitive verb with one object, passivizing an active sentence is straightforward. For example, "te amo" becomes "(a me) amaris". But how to passivize a verb that has two objects? For ...