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Questions tagged [participle]

For questions about participles, such as "amans", "amatus" and "amaturus" from the verb "amare".

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How obligatory is the predicate in a dominant participle construction?

Typically, so-called "dominant" participle constructions (aka Ab urbe condita constructions; AUC for short) are defined by saying that the predicative participle is compulsory, whereby it cannot be ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
722 views

Can Gerundives be predicates of Ablative Absolutes?

I was wondering if Gerundives, the verbal adjectives referred to as "future passive participles" by Latin grammarians, can appear as predicates of Ablative Absolute constructions. As is well-known, ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
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Which grammatical format is the double-perfect system as found in the Vulgate?

Question: Please show me a grammar resource that explains what the following construction is: John 1:24 "missi fuerant" John 1:40 "secuti fuerant" John 2:10 "inebriati fuerint" John 3:3 "natus fuerit"...
BrennickC's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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What is the difference in meaning/usage between "nasciturus" and "nascendus"?

Both nasciturus and nascendus seem to exist. Words ending in -turus are often described as future active participles, and words ending in -ndus as future passive participles (they are also called ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
889 views

Can esse be used with a present participle?

I do not recall ever seeing esse in any form used with active present participles (like faciens). One could imagine something similar to the English distinction between "he does" and "he is doing" in ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
387 views

How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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18 votes
2 answers
776 views

Why do we say that an ablative absolute has a participle?

An ablative absolute consists of a noun in the ablative and a participle modifying it. Except that that's not really the case. We frequently find the participle replaced with just an adjective (or ...
Mar Johnson's user avatar
14 votes
4 answers
1k views

Comparison of participles

Participles behave much like adjectives. Do they also have comparative and superlative forms? They are easy enough to form: ferentior, dicturissimus. More precisely, are any comparatives or ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Difference between future participle and simple future

They say taking a walk over a cemetery inspires you to ponder the big questions. I have definitely found that to be true, as I recently came across this inscription on a local graveyard: According to ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
338 views

Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

In his answer to another question, Cerberus remarked that many verbs with perfect participles in -ūtus had future active participles in -uitūrus. This struck me as odd, as I had been taught that those ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Subject-verb agreement when the subject is a dominant participle construction

My question is whether constructions similar to the following English one, which is drawn from Jespersen (1909-1949, vol. V: 138), can exist in Latin, i.e., constructions where (i) the subject is ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
286 views

What is "old" in the age of a wine?

If I were to say "this man is 40 years old" in Latin, I would say hic vir 40 annos natus est. That is, I would use the participle natus instead of any adjective meaning "old", and it is my impression ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
521 views

What's the deal with the extra U in 'mortuus'?

The verb mori ("to die") has the unusual past participle mortuus ("dead"). The stem of the participle is mortu-, the only example of a past participle stem ending in a vowel I can think of. (If my ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
178 views

Does the agent noun always come from the perfect participle stem?

When answering this question, I wrote that an agent noun is always derived from the perfect participle stem. As the (singular masculine form of the) perfect participle is listed in many dictionaries, ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
612 views

The difference between ablative absolute and a participle coniunctum

(old misleading title: The difference between ablative absolute and present participle) On participles A&G notes: The present and perfect participles are often used as a predicate, where in ...
d_e's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
579 views

participium coniunctum vs. ablative absolute of transitive deponent verbs

I was wondering why the "active meaning" and the transitivity of deponent perfect participles like cohortatus in (1) are not naturally preserved in the Ablative Absolute in (2). Why is it ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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17 votes
2 answers
672 views

Why is the passive participle in Matthew 10:1 rendered as active in English?

I'm a little confused by the clause that begins Matthew 10: 10:1 Et convocatis duodecim discipulis suis, dedit illis potestatem spirituum immundorum, ut ejicerent eos, et curarent omnem languorem,...
ktm5124's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Present participles of the verb esse

Inspired by the answers to this question, I want to ask about the different present participles of esse over time and their fate. I am aware that esse is a defective verb that classically does not ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
302 views

Why does a future passive participle have a sense of necessity?

Let me use an example to clarify: Puer librum legendum habet Very, very literally, this would be: The boy has a book going to be read This has the sense of happening in the future and ...
user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
184 views

Are there generalizations about when relative clauses are used instead of participles?

I'm working through Wheelock's with my sons. In the chapter on participles (Ch. 23, pg. 151 in the 6th revised edition), there is this practice sentence: Illum oratorem in medio senatu iterum ...
adam.baker's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
241 views

When are -ns words used with accusative direct objects?

In English, one common generalization is that "-ing" words only take direct objects when they are verb forms, not when they are true adjectives or true nouns. (There are only a few possible exceptions,...
Asteroides's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
150 views

Using perfect participle as perfect active participle

Is perfect participle, in spite of the general notion, used both as perfect passive participle and perfect active participle? Spinoza, Ethics, De Dei, Propositio 15, Scholium: nam omnes qui ...
Ali Nikzad's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
602 views

Is there such a thing as the accusativus cum participio (a.c.p)? If not, what is this? (Greek)

This is not a hermeneutics question, but rather, a Greek grammar question inspired by a verse from the Bible. Adverbial clauses are common to English, Ancient Greek, and Latin, and I believe there is ...
ktm5124's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
340 views

Are future active participles of deponent verbs used in place of future passive participles? Why?

In form, nātūrus is a future active participle of the (deponent) verb nāscor – which otherwise only appears in passive forms – and is used to mean about to rise and, taken literally, about to be born, ...
k.stm's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
195 views

"Renegatus": an active perfect participle from a non-deponent verb?

Several dictionaries' etymologies of English "renegade" trace it to Medieval Latin renegatus, an apostate, one who has denied his religion and gone back to another. Renegatus in turn is the ...
Ben Kovitz's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
83 views

Why do emasculatus and effeminatus mean the SAME thing, despite being formed the SAME way with OPPOSITE morphemes? [duplicate]

The etymological constructions of emasculatus and effeminatus are identical: emasculatus < ex- + masculus + -atus effeminatus < ex- + femina + -atus Since masculus and femina are opposites, ...
Vun-Hugh Vaw's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
196 views

Using Participles in Latin Tenses

In English, we can communicate progressiveness of an action by combining a form of "to be" with a participle. For instance, "I am acting" is progressive, whereas "I act" is not. I am wondering about ...
Ronald J. Zallman's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
84 views

Present Participles: can "respicienti" be part of an ablative absolute in this sentence?

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: ...alii Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Caio "lovem" dante Chaeream exclamasse: "accipe ratum" respicientique maxillam ...
tony's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
110 views

On the syntactic distribution of ablative gerund and nominative present participle

I've always taken it for granted that in Classical Latin nominative present participles cannot be replaced by ablative gerunds without a meaning change. For example, in the following case the ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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