Questions tagged [participle]

For questions about participles, such as "amans", "amatus" and "amaturus" from the verb "amare".

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4 votes
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Why do emasculatus and effeminatus mean the SAME thing, despite being formed the SAME way with OPPOSITE morphemes? [duplicate]

The etymological constructions of emasculatus and effeminatus are identical: emasculatus < ex- + masculus + -atus effeminatus < ex- + femina + -atus Since masculus and femina are opposites, ...
5 votes
1 answer
175 views

Does the agent noun always come from the perfect participle stem?

When answering this question, I wrote that an agent noun is always derived from the perfect participle stem. As the (singular masculine form of the) perfect participle is listed in many dictionaries, ...
8 votes
3 answers
432 views

What is the correct vowel quantity for the participle of legō?

In the following, vowel quantities which I am uncertain of, will be marked with both a breve and a macron, so they should not be considered the answer; that is what I am searching for. This whole ...
4 votes
1 answer
232 views

LLPSI: Ch. 14, Ln. 38, "et oculōs aperiēns..."

My question stems from a passage of Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata Familia Romana in chapter 14 on page 104 beginning at line 38 as follows. Question Does "aperiēns" modify oculōs even ...
5 votes
2 answers
307 views

Meaning of a present participle in a verse of Vergil's Eclogue 8

I'm reading Vergil's Eclogue 8, 17–42 in the book Beginning Latin Poetry Reader by Gavin Betts and Daniel Franklin. The first verse is (I write only the long vowels macrons): Nāscere, prāēque diem ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Is this a perfect passive infinitive with "esse" omitted?

The following sentence comes from lines 8-9 of chapter XXIII of Lingua latina per se illustrata. Familia Romana: Tantum sciō epistulam Tūsculō missam et ā tabēllariō ad tē lātam esse. I'm trying to ...
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Relative clause VS present participle [duplicate]

I think that virum ambulantem video and virum qui ambulat vidéo are grammatically correct and semantically equivalent. So is there any stylistic reason one should use one rather than the other?
10 votes
1 answer
690 views

Why sōns but absēns?

The present participle of esse was (at one point) sōns, presumably from *h₁sonts. However, when a prefix is attached, it becomes -sēns, as in absēns and praesēns. I'd always figured this was a relic ...
1 vote
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Anticausative/Mediopassive constructions in perfect form?

I was wondering what is the correct analysis/interpretation of exstincta sunt in the following text from Cicero: quarum rerum recordatio et memoria si una cum illo occidisset, desiderium ...
13 votes
4 answers
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Comparison of participles

Participles behave much like adjectives. Do they also have comparative and superlative forms? They are easy enough to form: ferentior, dicturissimus. More precisely, are any comparatives or ...
5 votes
2 answers
346 views

Is "ambulabat" a present participle in the imperfect?

This passage is from Matthaeus 14:29 of the Latin Vulgate. I've included much of the surrounding text because the lack of punctuation makes it difficult for me to distinguish the sentence structure. ...
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Are the present infinitive of the active periphrastic and the future active infinitive of the verb the same concept?

On p270 of Keller's Learn to Read Latin The present infinitive of the active periphrastic is also used as the future active infinitive of the verb. Thus, for example, rectirus, -a, -um esse may be ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Is an infinitive as a noun neuter in gender?

On p37 in Keller's Learn to Read Latin: The infinitive is an abstract verbal noun in the neuter singular. It is indeclinable; that is, although it is a noun, it does not have case endings, and it ...
2 votes
1 answer
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What is the fourth principal part of an intransitive verb in this sentence?

On p25 in Keller's Learn to Read Latin: As is explained in Section 7, the fourth principal part of a verb is usually the perfect passive participle ofthat verb. in this book, two different endings of ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Which inflections of these participles are these, and why?

I'm following an ancient Teach Yourself Ancient Greek course. This is from a (presumably highly simplified) version of Xenophon's account of Spartan education: βελτιον γαρ ἐστιν, ὡς φασιν, ὀλιγον ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Prolepsis with Participle

Plato, Ion, 531c: οὐ [Ὅμηρος] περὶ πολέμου τε τὰ πολλὰ διελήλυθεν καὶ περὶ ὁμιλιῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀνθρώπων ἀγαθῶν τε καὶ κακῶν καὶ ἰδιωτῶν καὶ δημιουργῶν, καὶ περὶ θεῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους καὶ πρὸς ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Is the perfect passive always formed like so: verb + sum/es/est?

I'm using Wheelock's Latin and in the chapter which introduces the perfect passive system I came across this sentence: "Ubi haec tragoedia recitāta est, senex sententiīs iūdicum est līberātus.&...
3 votes
2 answers
282 views

Present Active Participles

I am translating the following from Cicero, De Amicitia VI.22: Nam et secundas res splendidiores facit amicitia et adversas partiens communicansque leviores. The participles are first-person, singular ...
6 votes
2 answers
179 views

Are there generalizations about when relative clauses are used instead of participles?

I'm working through Wheelock's with my sons. In the chapter on participles (Ch. 23, pg. 151 in the 6th revised edition), there is this practice sentence: Illum oratorem in medio senatu iterum ...
9 votes
1 answer
221 views

How to translate this active participle?

I'm in Latin III and my teacher recently provided us with this example sentence to translate: Poetā ad mensam vocante, versus scribentur. Because the participle "vocante" is active the ...
6 votes
1 answer
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What is the syntax of ‘quamquam omnis secrētī capācissima’?

In Pliny’s letter 1.12, when he describes his meeting with his Domitian-hating friend, he mentions how all servants would leave when close friends came by, and even his wife ‘who was fully capable of ...
8 votes
3 answers
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Dictionaries always list the Neuter Participle in principal forms, why?

I noticed that the principal forms of verbs always only include the neuter participle form, e.g. vocare - voco, vocavi, vocatum Is there a reason I've never seen the following? vocare - voco, ...
8 votes
2 answers
372 views

How productive was the participle in -menus in Latin?

Greek has the medium participle ending in -menos. It has a couple of occurrences in Latin, too, of which I only seem to remember alere > alumnus now. How many words are there in Latin that contain ...
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Does the PPA occur in a periphrastic form? [duplicate]

Can you put a PPA in a periphrastic construction, with a form of esse? I was working on the periphrastic declension of the future active parts and the future passive parts. Now it occurred to me: ...
4 votes
1 answer
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"Casus": an active perfect participle from a non-deponent verb?

Having noticed here that excidere, "to fall out", lacks a perfect participle, a reasonable deficiency given that it's intransitive and has no corresponding passive meaning, I checked ...
12 votes
3 answers
878 views

Can esse be used with a present participle?

I do not recall ever seeing esse in any form used with active present participles (like faciens). One could imagine something similar to the English distinction between "he does" and "he is doing" in ...
2 votes
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On the syntactic distribution of ablative gerund and nominative present participle

I've always taken it for granted that in Classical Latin nominative present participles cannot be replaced by ablative gerunds without a meaning change. For example, in the following case the ...
9 votes
3 answers
596 views

Do vocative forms of participles exist?

I wondered if the vocative forms of participles really exist. E.g. the vocative of vocatus would be vocate, same with vocaturus and vocature. Both forms can be found on pages like Wiktionary (vocate, ...
12 votes
1 answer
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How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
11 votes
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Why is nominative instead of ablative absolute used in 'Ibi egressi Trojani'?

In LLPSI 2 'Roma Æterna', Chapter XLI 'Origines', it is written: Ibi [Siciliâ] egressi Trojani, quibus ab immenso prope errore nihil præter arma et naves supererat, cum prædam ex agris agerent, ...
8 votes
1 answer
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Future participle that wasn't fulfilled

This is a follow-up question of this question on difference between future participle and simple future Apparently from the very question and the answers it seems my previous understanding of future ...
7 votes
3 answers
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Difference between future participle and simple future

They say taking a walk over a cemetery inspires you to ponder the big questions. I have definitely found that to be true, as I recently came across this inscription on a local graveyard: According to ...
10 votes
1 answer
885 views

Is the perfect participle in deponent verbs active or passive in meaning?

I recently read this interesting question in which Joonas provides a very instructive answer. It still left me, however, with some questions. "Confitentes iterum ac tertio interrogavi supplicium ...
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1 answer
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Unde "-cundus"?

I have learned that there is a suffix -cundus, found in words like fecundus, jucundus/jocundus, and rubicundus, which means something like "full of" or "characterized by." It seems to often be ...
17 votes
2 answers
768 views

Why do we say that an ablative absolute has a participle?

An ablative absolute consists of a noun in the ablative and a participle modifying it. Except that that's not really the case. We frequently find the participle replaced with just an adjective (or ...
3 votes
1 answer
555 views

participium coniunctum vs. ablative absolute of transitive deponent verbs

I was wondering why the "active meaning" and the transitivity of deponent perfect participles like cohortatus in (1) are not naturally preserved in the Ablative Absolute in (2). Why is it ...
5 votes
1 answer
335 views

Are future active participles of deponent verbs used in place of future passive participles? Why?

In form, nātūrus is a future active participle of the (deponent) verb nāscor – which otherwise only appears in passive forms – and is used to mean about to rise and, taken literally, about to be born, ...
3 votes
2 answers
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The difference between ablative absolute and a participle coniunctum

(old misleading title: The difference between ablative absolute and present participle) On participles A&G notes: The present and perfect participles are often used as a predicate, where in ...
9 votes
1 answer
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Inveniturne participium futuri activi in ablativo absoluto?

Constructio ablativi absoluti, quae vocatur, frequenter affirmatur constare ex nomine in casu ablativo et participio, quod cum nomine congruere debeat. Tria autem genera participiorum habet lingua ...
8 votes
2 answers
355 views

On the syntax of 'Cogitate quantis laboribus fundatum imperium (...) una nox paene delerit' (Cic. Cat. 4, 19)

Picking up the thread of analyzing beautiful structures involving participles in Cicero's works (e.g. see this link), I'd like to raise a question about the syntax of the following complex sentence. ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Deponent verb participle gender

If we consider a deponent verb such as arbitrārī in the perfect tense, hence arbitrātus sum/es/est, is the participle arbitrātus supposed to be declined like a regular adjective? For example if one ...
4 votes
1 answer
564 views

Subject-verb agreement when the subject is a dominant participle construction

My question is whether constructions similar to the following English one, which is drawn from Jespersen (1909-1949, vol. V: 138), can exist in Latin, i.e., constructions where (i) the subject is ...
3 votes
2 answers
106 views

Active verb with future passive and perfect participle?

How does the active verb "veniunt" work with the word "consideranda"? Almost like a periphrastic? As I have translated below: "Ac initio quidem duo principalia decreta ante omnia consideranda ...
8 votes
1 answer
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Can Gerundives be predicates of Ablative Absolutes?

I was wondering if Gerundives, the verbal adjectives referred to as "future passive participles" by Latin grammarians, can appear as predicates of Ablative Absolute constructions. As is well-known, ...
6 votes
2 answers
383 views

Sapiens: tasty or smart?

The verb sapere can mean tasting like something or having a sense of taste. The latter can be understood figuratively close to "to be wise or sensible". Dictionaries list the participle sapiens ...
2 votes
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Is an Ablative Absolute construction like "portā clausā" ambiguous in Early Latin?

As a follow-up question of two previous posts (cf. here and here), I was wondering if an Ablative Absolute construction like portā clausā is ambiguous in Early Latin as it is in Classical Latin. For ...
4 votes
2 answers
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Using Participles in Latin Tenses

In English, we can communicate progressiveness of an action by combining a form of "to be" with a participle. For instance, "I am acting" is progressive, whereas "I act" is not. I am wondering about ...
6 votes
1 answer
337 views

Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

In his answer to another question, Cerberus remarked that many verbs with perfect participles in -ūtus had future active participles in -uitūrus. This struck me as odd, as I had been taught that those ...
9 votes
3 answers
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Why plural "laudantium" with singular "militiae"?

In the Latin Vulgate, Luke 2:13 is translated: Et subito facta est cum angelo multitudo militiæ cælestis laudantium Deum, et dicentium ... "And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of ...
11 votes
2 answers
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Present participles of the verb esse

Inspired by the answers to this question, I want to ask about the different present participles of esse over time and their fate. I am aware that esse is a defective verb that classically does not ...