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Questions tagged [participium]

For questions about participles, such as "amans", "amatus" and "amaturus" from the verb "amare".

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Present Participles: can “respicienti” be part of an ablative absolute in this sentence?

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: ...alii Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Caio "lovem" dante Chaeream exclamasse: "accipe ratum" respicientique maxillam ...
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Switches between Direct & Indirect Speech in Suetonius

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: alii [tradunt] Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Gaio 'Iouem' dante Chaeream exclamasse: 'accipe ratum!' ...
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How obligatory is the predicate in a dominant participle construction?

Typically, so-called "dominant" participle constructions (aka Ab urbe condita constructions; AUC for short) are defined by saying that the predicative participle is compulsory, whereby it cannot be ...
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When are -ns words used with accusative direct objects?

In English, one common generalization is that "-ing" words only take direct objects when they are verb forms, not when they are true adjectives or true nouns. (There are only a few possible exceptions,...
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Does the agent noun always come from the perfect participle stem?

When answering this question, I wrote that an agent noun is always derived from the perfect participle stem. As the (singular masculine form of the) perfect participle is listed in many dictionaries, ...
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Subject-verb agreement when the subject is a dominant participle construction

My question is whether constructions similar to the following English one can exist in Latin, i.e., constructions where (i) the subject is formed by a plural noun plus an obligatory/"dominant" ...
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Quo mortuo nuntiato (Cicero) // Ab urbe condita nuntiata (?)

Given my description below on nested/double predicative participle constructions (e.g., quo mortuo nuntiato) and given the well-known parallelism between so-called “dominant” participle constructions (...
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What would this pun mean?

In a conversation with a fellow Ancient Greek enthusiast, the name "Medusa" (Μέδουσα, "ruling") came up. I made a rather tortured pun by switching the epsilon to an eta, creating μὴ δοῦσα. Now, μή is ...
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The use of participle in “Ceres a generendo”

I'm trying to read this sentence, where Cicero finds Roman Gods in relevance to the Latin verbs: Saturnus quia se saturat annis, Mavors quia magna vertit, Minerva quia minuit aut quia minatur, ...
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What is the difference between ingenitus and innatus?

When discussing things "running in the blood", I suggested the word ingenitus for "innate", while Tom Cotton preferred innatus. Is there a difference in meaning between these two words? The second ...
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What's the deal with the extra U in 'mortuus'?

The verb mori ("to die") has the unusual past participle mortuus ("dead"). The stem of the participle is mortu-, the only example of a past participle stem ending in a vowel I can think of. (If my ...
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How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
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Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

In his answer to another question, Cerberus remarked that many verbs with perfect participles in -ūtus had future active participles in -uitūrus. This struck me as odd, as I had been taught that those ...
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The Ultimate Lifeform

The title of the character Shadow the Hedgehog is The Ultimate Lifeform. As for a translation of this, I ultimately decided upon "Ens Ultimatus." But, should "ens" be masculine or neuter? It seems to ...
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Comparing the etymologies of the adjective and participle 'latus'

What are the etymologies of the adjective latus ("wide") and the participle latus ("carried")? I had assumed that they are the same and the participle just started a new life as an adjective after a ...
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Comparison of participles

Participles behave much like adjectives. Do they also have comparative and superlative forms? They are easy enough to form: ferentior, dicturissimus. More precisely, are any comparatives or ...
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What do the future active participle “editurus” and the gerundive or gerund “scribendum” mean in this sentence?

When I was trying to find information to answer ktm5124's question about “anticipātiō, anticipātiōnis”, I came across a passage that I am not advanced enough to understand fully. I'd like to ask for ...
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What combinations of tenses appear in periphrasis?

Periphrastic verb forms, specifically a participle plus an auxiliary verb, are very common in English ("I am writing now"). They also appear in Latin and Ancient Greek and a number of Romance ...
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Is there such a thing as the accusativus cum participio (a.c.p)? If not, what is this? (Greek)

This is not a hermeneutics question, but rather, a Greek grammar question inspired by a verse from the Bible. Adverbial clauses are common to English, Ancient Greek, and Latin, and I believe there is ...
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How to make sense of this articular phrase in Aur 1.17.3? (Greek)

I learned from my textbook (From Alpha to Omega, Groton) about articular infinitives, in which a definite article is coupled with an infinitive, to form a phrase of many uses. At first glance, that ...
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Which grammatical format is the double-perfect system as found in the Vulgate?

Question: Please show me a grammar resource that explains what the following construction is: John 1:24 "missi fuerant" John 1:40 "secuti fuerant" John 2:10 "inebriati fuerint" John 3:3 "natus fuerit"...
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How productive was the participle in -menus in Latin?

Greek has the medium participle ending in -menos. It has a couple of occurrences in Latin, too, of which I only seem to remember alere > alumnus now. How many words are there in Latin that contain ...
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What is the uncontracted form of “κεῖμαι”? (Greek)

I got this word κεῖμαι while trying to learn ὑποκείμενον, found in this answer to another question. All the deponent verbs I've run across so far had an ο for theme vowel, as in: βούλομαι or ...
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How did the Latin past participle suffix -atus develop into modern French -é?

How did the Latin past participle suffix -atus develop into modern French -é? Considering the two following examples: modern French état ("state; status") and été ("been"). Both derives ultimately ...
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What is “old” in the age of a wine?

If I were to say "this man is 40 years old" in Latin, I would say hic vir 40 annos natus est. That is, I would use the participle natus instead of any adjective meaning "old", and it is my impression ...
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Which one is better: “sunt aequivalentes” or “aequivalent”?

If I want to say that two things are equivalent in Latin, I can imagine two ways using essentially the same word: X et Y sunt aequivalentes. X et Y aequivalent. Googling for the first option (...
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Can esse be used with a present participle?

I do not recall ever seeing esse in any form used with active present participles (like faciens). One could imagine something similar to the English distinction between "he does" and "he is doing" in ...
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Is the perfect participle in deponent verbs active or passive in meaning?

I recently read this interesting question in which Joonas provides a very instructive answer. It still left me, however, with some questions. "Confitentes iterum ac tertio interrogavi supplicium ...
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How To Say “-able” in Latin

Is it possible to use something similar to the English suffix "-able" to show that the action described can be done by someone or something? If not, what phrases do you suggest to use in its place?
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What is this participle λέγοντες doing? (Greek)

I have a few questions about this passage. τοῦτο μὲν τοίνυν ἓν ὥσπερ κῦμα φῶμεν διαφεύγειν τοῦ γυναικείου πέρι νόμου λέγοντες, ὥστε μὴ παντάπασι κατακλυσθῆναι τιθέντας ὡς δεῖ κοινῇ πάντα ...
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Is differens different?

I would like to understand the Latin participle differens and compare it to the English adjective "different". The verb differre means roughly "to carry apart", but Lewis Elementary also lists "to be ...
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Is fessus a participle?

The adjective fessus (wearied, tired, fatigued, worn out, weak, feeble, infirm) sounds and looks like it could well be a participle. If there is a verb, I would assume it to mean something in the ...
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How to translate the phrase “perfacile factu esse”?

I'm having a hard time translating this phrase from Caesar's De Bello Gallico. I understand, from doing a bit of research, that probat illis introduces indirect speech. Perfacile factu esse illis ...
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Sapiens: tasty or smart?

The verb sapere can mean tasting like something or having a sense of taste. The latter can be understood figuratively close to "to be wise or sensible". Dictionaries list the participle sapiens ...
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What is the history of the perfect active participle in Latin?

From this answer and Allen & Greenough §493, I understand that Latin does not have a perfect active participle. But on Wiktionary, I see the following usage note in the entry on the suffix -vus: ...
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When do I use the gerundive vs. participle forms of a verb in Latin?

When do I use the gerundive vs. participle forms of a verb in Latin?
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Is “ambulabat” a present participle in the imperfect?

This passage is from Matthaeus 14:29 of the Latin Vulgate. I've included much of the surrounding text because the lack of punctuation makes it difficult for me to distinguish the sentence structure. ...
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Unde “-cundus”?

I have learned that there is a suffix -cundus, found in words like fecundus, jucundus/jocundus, and rubicundus, which means something like "full of" or "characterized by." It seems to often be ...
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Why is the passive participle in Matthew 10:1 rendered as active in English?

I'm a little confused by the clause that begins Matthew 10: 10:1 Et convocatis duodecim discipulis suis, dedit illis potestatem spirituum immundorum, ut ejicerent eos, et curarent omnem languorem,...
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Why does a future passive participle have a sense of necessity?

Let me use an example to clarify: Puer librum legendum habet Very, very literally, this would be: The boy has a book going to be read This has the sense of happening in the future and ...
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Why do we say that an ablative absolute has a participle?

An ablative absolute consists of a noun in the ablative and a participle modifying it. Except that that's not really the case. We frequently find the participle replaced with just an adjective (or ...