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Questions tagged [noun]

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6 answers
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Was "oscŭlum" a cultured word in Latin?

The Spanish language has two words for kiss: Beso, from Latin basium. Ósculo, from Latin oscŭlum. The second one is very seldom used, and only in literature as it is a cultured word. Nonetheless, it ...
Charlie's user avatar
  • 2,219
14 votes
1 answer
420 views

Translating "Nocte volat caelī mediō"

Line 184 of Vergil's Aeneid, Book IV, begins as follows: Nocte volat caelī mediō Would this be translated as "She of the sky flies in the middle of the night", or "At night she flies in the middle ...
Sapphira's user avatar
  • 2,093
14 votes
1 answer
5k views

Etymology of "salarium" and its connection to salt

It has been asked before both in the English Language & Usage site and the Spanish Language site about the etymology of salary and salario, respectively. In both cases, this site was mentioned as ...
Charlie's user avatar
  • 2,219
13 votes
2 answers
1k views

Do plural names referring to a singular thing require a plural verb?

Another question related to my geography of the Roman Empire which I am writing has arisen: during the time of Trajan, 117 AD, there were several provinces which had names in the plural, especially ...
Ethan Bierlein's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
713 views

-eris, -oris, -uris?

Much to students' annoyance, nouns ending in -us can belong to either the second (servus), third (tempus), or fourth (circus) declensions. I understand the origin of the second and fourth: Proto-Indo-...
Draconis's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
658 views

Why are so many Latin men's names (cognomina) in the usually-feminine first declension?

The first declension, with the -a ending, is usually feminine. Why are so many men's names (cognomina), however, in the first declension -- Seneca, Cinna, Aggrippa, Sulla, and more? This is far out of ...
Joshua Fox's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
170 views

When did nouns and adjectives derived from pronouns appear?

Latin has some nouns and adjectives derived from pronouns: unicus, identitas, qualitas, neutralis… I have the impression that such derivations are mainly later than classical, but I do not ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
967 views

How to decline a whale?

The Latin word cētus (a whale or some other major sea creature) behaves peculiarly. In singular it is a normal-looking masculine cētus, but in plural it is a neuter cētē. The ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why did "cattus" replace Latin "feles"?

The word for cat is now, in almost every European language, derived from Latin cattus, as stated in Etymonline. It also says that the word was [...] in general use on the continent by c. 700, ...
Charlie's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
630 views

Can masculine 1st-decl. nouns be feminine? (e.g. "Nauta perita"?)

Certain nouns, including agricola, nauta, athleta, pirata, and others, are classified in textbooks as masculine. But are these always masculine, even when referring to a female, as in "Haec femina est ...
fpsvogel's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
297 views

How to form the plural of "noun plus noun in possessive case"?

I would like to know what are the rules to form the plural of a noun plus a noun in possessive case. I am not sure if this is a correct description of what I am interested in let me give an example. ...
quid's user avatar
  • 223
11 votes
5 answers
1k views

Verbing in Latin

Do we have any cases where the Romans intentionally conjugated a noun or adjective into a verb? This is common in English and other modern languages, so I'm assuming it is a natural concept. However, ...
tox123's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Gen. 1:20 is reptile ablative?

In Genesis 1:20 in the Vulgate: Dixit etiam Deus : Producant aquae reptile animae viventis, et volatile super terram sub firmamento caeli. why is it not reptiles animas?
Stephen Perencevich's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
365 views

Why νώ (rather than νῶ) from νόω? (Greek)

Consider these masculine nominative singular and masculine nominative dual forms: νοῦς, νώ κανοῦν, κανώ μνᾶ, μνᾶ γῆ, γᾶ I understand that the circumflex in these forms represents an acute ...
Catomic's user avatar
  • 1,513
11 votes
5 answers
3k views

Tantibus: genuine Latin word, or made-up?

I came across the word tantibus while reading this page (as part of a bigger word, amalgotantibus), where it's claimed to be Latin for "nightmare"; a little bit of digging also revealed that it's the ...
MarqFJA87's user avatar
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11 votes
1 answer
582 views

Why do some 2nd decl. "-er" adjectives and nouns drop the "e" in the stem?

Is there any rule explaining why certain second-declension nouns and adjectives with a nominative -er ending drop the e when declined (e.g. ager, liber, pulcher), and why others keep it (e.g. puer, ...
fpsvogel's user avatar
  • 1,233
11 votes
1 answer
387 views

Why "per capita"?

I don't speak Latin and I can't think of a non-dumb way to ask this. But my understanding is that capita is the plural form of caput. So I'm wondering how "per capita" makes any sense, then, as it ...
ЯegDwight's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
5k views

Are "sex" and "sexus" etymologically related?

Are sex (the number 6) or sextus (⅙ or ordinal sixth)(From where the English word "sextant" comes.) and sexus (sex or gender) etymologically related?
Geremia's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
3k views

Is there a suffix that means "like", or "resembling"?

What would be the appropriate suffix to add to a word to say that it resembles the noun? In English, we have the example of "Roguelike" (or Rogue-like), which is a style of video game. It's ...
Adam's user avatar
  • 8,652
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

In the title "Ars Goetia," is "Goetia" an appositive noun?

Ars Goetia is a well-known book about demonology written in Mediaeval Latin. I'm having trouble analyzing the grammatical structure of the title. Ars is a feminine noun in the singular nominative form....
Asteroides's user avatar
  • 29.5k
9 votes
3 answers
775 views

Is it grammatically correct to attributively use nominative forms of nouns in New Latin?

There are some muscle names in New Latin that seem to be nouns as far as I can tell, such as flexor and extensor. However, according to several Wikipedia articles for these muscles, they behave as if ...
Vun-Hugh Vaw's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why does canis have both masculine and feminine forms?

Most nouns in Latin (and e.g. Spanish) have only one gender. Some other have two (epicene nouns). canis is one example (Separate Q: are there more examples?) I wonder why is that the case for canis. ...
luchonacho's user avatar
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9 votes
1 answer
210 views

Interchange between u- and o-stem forms in suffixed derivatives (e.g. "lectus", "lectuarius")

A little while back, I asked a question about the alleged Latin word "tribalis" (which it seems was not actually used), and I mentioned that it seemed to me that it would be an irregular formation ...
Asteroides's user avatar
  • 29.5k
8 votes
3 answers
694 views

Is there a diminutive form for agent nouns?

I recently read a joke about the use of Latin -tor and -trix nouns in modern English. The punchline was that "trix is for kids". This got me wondering: Is there a way to make diminutives from agent ...
Dhi's user avatar
  • 83
8 votes
3 answers
964 views

Noun adjuncts in Latin

So this question asks about forming adjectives from nouns, but no clear answer is really given for a general method. In english, you can just use a noun as a adjective without any modification by ...
tox123's user avatar
  • 1,623
8 votes
2 answers
4k views

Are "vir" and "virgo" etymologically related?

Are vir and virgo etymologically related? St. Isidore says, in his Etymologies p. 242, that virago and vir are related: A ‘heroic maiden’ (virago) is so called because she ‘acts like a man’ (...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 3,700
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

How should one latinize this name?

A friend of mine, whose name is Raoni (he's brazilian, his name comes from a native root, also the tonic vowel is the very last [i]), started learning latin and I've been studying for a while. I ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
518 views

Can infans refer to children who can speak?

The word infans means basically "speechless", as the connection to the verb fari immediately suggests. One specific meaning of this word is a small child (III in the linked L&S entry). I assume ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
342 views

The length of the final vowel in first declension nouns (Greek)

How can you tell whether a first declension noun ends in a short or long vowel? Background When the word is written and accented, I may be able to tell. (Not always. E.g. θύρᾱ if without the macron)...
Catomic's user avatar
  • 1,513
8 votes
1 answer
327 views

What are the precise meaning of "in-law" terms?

What is the exact definition of the in-law terms? Note that Latin terms do not necessarily align with English terms. For example, Latin patruus, and avunculus are both English "uncle" (on ...
Joshua Fox's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
541 views

Adjectives vs nouns and the meaning of a sentence in Familia Romana

Perhaps this is obvious, but I am self-taught at this point. I want to get some basic understanding before I start paying a teacher. I have started reading Familia Romana. I am still looking for the ...
Katie33kate 's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is there a Latin word for 225th anniversary?

If bicentennial is the Latin word for the 200th anniversary, what word would one use for the 225th anniversary?
Michael Barnett's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
264 views

What categories of substantives of the second declension are feminine?

Some categories of substantive nouns are always feminine, even when they are of the second declension, such as trees. What other categories are there? And are there also many exocategorical examples? ...
Cerberus's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
673 views

Nominalized adjective in Latin?

How to nominalize adjectives in Latin? In English, adjectives can be nominalized with a slight different in meaning: "the sick man", "the sick". In German, it's possible to nominalize the present ...
S. S's user avatar
  • 253
7 votes
2 answers
207 views

Translating "mankind evolves" and two other two-word phrases

Are you willing to take a look at my efforts at translating 6 words from English to Latin? Here goes: Mankind evolves: Homines evolvant God disappoints: Deus frustrat Reason refutes: Ratio ...
C. Torres-George's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
169 views

Double (identical) subject

What does one call a construction like; The father works as a physician. which becomes: Pater medicus laborat. Where we have multiple subjects. Now I now "medicus" would be the predicate ...
Ruh Muhaccer's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
307 views

Is the noun Bonum, -i simply a substantive of the adjective Bonus, -a -um?

The noun Bonum ("a good thing") seems to have taken on a life of its own as a distinct word in Latin usage. In derivation and meaning, is this simply a neuter substantive of the adjective Bonus ("...
Lee Woofenden's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
585 views

Latin etymology of Spanish "tarde"

In Spanish, the word "tarde" has two different meanings: The part of the day between noon and dusk. Equivalent to the English noun "afternoon". Happening after the due, usual, or proper time. ...
Charlie's user avatar
  • 2,219
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to derive nouns from adjectives?

I know several ways to derive nouns from adjectives: audax > audacia, laetus > laetitia, pius > pietas, magnus > magnitudo. Questions: Are there any rules that govern which one of -ia, -itia, -tas ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
127 views

Expressing a number of years with a single word

An answer to an earlier question about age of wine introduced me to adjectives for specific ages in years. Similarly, there are nouns for periods of time in years. For example: bimus & biennium ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
281 views

Second declension feminine plants

Is there any reason why some well-known plant names, especially tree names, are feminine, but 2nd declension? (now interested in classical, not scientific ones). For example: Trees: aesculus alnus ...
Vladimir F Героям слава's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
681 views

Is the dative plural of anima animis or animabus?

Some paradigms I have seen give the dative plural of anima as animis. However, other word lists claim that anima, filia, famula and dea are irregular and that the dative and ablative plural are ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 7,077
6 votes
3 answers
295 views

Do any non-second-declension neuter nouns end in m?

I have the impression that the ending -m appears on neuter nouns (in the nominative/accusative form) only in the second declension, but I don't know whether there are any exceptions. Is there any ...
Asteroides's user avatar
  • 29.5k
6 votes
1 answer
501 views

Should these "vellus" be "vellerum"?

I read the following text in the book Método de Latín I by Santiago Segura Munguía, published by the University of Deusto (emphasis mine on the words that cause me difficulty): Multas fabulas a ...
Charo's user avatar
  • 2,092
6 votes
3 answers
275 views

Where does the word "tudes" 'hammer' show up in texts?

Lewis and Short has an entry for a noun tŭdes, with the genitive singular given as "is (ĭtis, acc. to Fest. p. 253 Müll.)". It is defined as "a hammer, mallet". The two citations in the entry show the ...
Asteroides's user avatar
  • 29.5k
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is a romance in Latin?

The word "romance" seems to come from Latin, but no similar Latin word appears to mean anything related. Is there a good Latin word for a romance, a kind of an intimate relationship? I cannot think of ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
614 views

Is 'Delphī' a second declension word?

From the genitive 'Delphōrum', it seems to belong to the second declension. But is it used as a singular or a plural?
Takeshi's user avatar
  • 71
6 votes
1 answer
146 views

Can adjectives describe any noun in a sentence?

As long as the adjective matches its noun in case, number, and gender, is it possible to move the adjective anywhere in a sentence, even outside of prepositional phrases and subordinating or ...
Clayton Ramsey's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does the word "negotium" literally mean "not otium"?

Spanish word ocio (English: 'leisure') and negocio (English: 'business` among other meanings) come from Latin otium and negotium. Spanish ocio also gave ocioso, as in estar ocioso (English: 'to be ...
Charlie's user avatar
  • 2,219
6 votes
1 answer
552 views

When were different agent noun endings used in Ancient Greek?

In Ancient Greek, it seems that there were various endings for agent nouns. Thomas Dwight Goodell's School Grammar of Attic Greek (1902) mentions -τηρ, -τωρ, -της, -εύς, -τειρα, -τρια, -τρις (-τριδ-), ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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