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Questions tagged [morphology]

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How did the contracted perfect passive work?

I was shocked when I saw the word "latest" in a Latin book. The book's English translation implies it is related to "latus." The next word "alteque" would have suggested ...
Daniel T's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
378 views

Saint Augustine letter to Nebridio

In one of Saint Augustine's letters, numbered Carta 10 [CSEL 34/1,22 ] (PL 33,73) in "Obras Completas de San Agustin VIII – Cartas (1.º) 1-123", we see the phrase: Mittaturne ad te ...
Elederete's user avatar
  • 183
4 votes
0 answers
84 views

Why do emasculatus and effeminatus mean the SAME thing, despite being formed the SAME way with OPPOSITE morphemes? [duplicate]

The etymological constructions of emasculatus and effeminatus are identical: emasculatus < ex- + masculus + -atus effeminatus < ex- + femina + -atus Since masculus and femina are opposites, ...
Vun-Hugh Vaw's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
108 views

What does Martin Waldseemüller mean by "asie partis" in his map Carta Marina?

This webpage from Spanish BBC talks about the second main map by Martin Waldseemüller, the first mapper to name the continent America, called Carta Marina. There, we see the southern portion of ...
Quaestor's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
217 views

Shouldn't be "intravisset" instead of "intrasset"?

The following excerpt comes from Titus Livius Ad urbe condita, liber XXV, capititulum XXXI (emphasis mine): Paucis ante diebus quam Syracusae caperentur, T. Otacilius cum quinqueremibus octoginta ...
Charo's user avatar
  • 2,122
8 votes
1 answer
113 views

Why is the inflection of supellex so weird?

The noun supellex takes the stem supellectil- in declined forms. The -il- part seems related to the suffix -ilis as in fragilis, but it disappears in the nom. sg. form. (By the way, the expected nom. ...
Kotoba Trily Ngian's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
186 views

Which senses does ob have in the following words?

Oxford Latin Dictionary says that prep. ob has the following senses: ob prep. In the direction of, towards. In front of or in the way of (so as to block). a. (giving the grounds for an attitude,...
Tim's user avatar
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5 votes
4 answers
1k views

How one can say "The door opened" in Latin?

I'm interested in knowing all the possible grammatical (i.e. morphosyntactic) ways to express the perfect construction "The door opened" in Latin. It seems to me that, in this case, a ...
Mitomino's user avatar
  • 9,036
6 votes
1 answer
538 views

Why is the superlative form of "fertilis" "fertilissimus" rather than *fertillimus?

Superlatives of adjectives ending in -lis are usually formed with the suffix -limus. For example, the superlative of facilis is facillimus. So, why is the superlative of fertilis fertilissimus, rather ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
132 views

Why is regenerationis genitive in lavacro regenerationis?

Context: ...quae quidem translatio post Evangelium promulgatum sine lavacro regenerationis aut eius voto fieri non potest... I understand that lavacro is in the ablative case because sine is paired ...
Glorius's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
154 views

Why do words starting with vu- all have alternative forms starting with vo-?

As far as I can see, every Latin word that starts with vu- has a collateral form starting with vo-. It's not many, but these at least: vulgus, vulnus, vulpes, vultur, vultus, and indeed vulva, where ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
102 views

Declensions and Conjugations in Latin

I have noticed that in charts parsing the Declensions and Conjugations of Latin words, that the words are sometimes parsed with what looks like multiple options. For example, if you take the root &...
Display name's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
76 views

When do the demonstratives ille, illa, illud become reduced definite articles?

More specifically, what are the first attestations of the nascent reduced forms of the definite articles in Latin (or Proto-Romance) e.g. Latin illam > la?
VivatLinguaLatina's user avatar
6 votes
0 answers
79 views

How often was the -i- stem dropped in second declension nouns?

In chapter four of Wheelock's Latin, it states that: In spelling the genitive singular of neuter (and masculine) nouns with a base ending in -i- the Romans sometimes dropped that vowel, e.g., cōnsilī ...
Adam's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
160 views

“Itis” Versus “Is” in Latin

I am learning Latin on Duolingo, and the app does not clarify when to use “itis” and when to use “is”. They both mean “to go”, for the second person singular in present tense. Clarification would be ...
ArthD21's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
127 views

Did Plautus say "morbus hepatiarius" or "morbus hepatarius"?

The word hepat(i)arius seems to be a hapax found in Plautus's Curculio. The meaning and use of the adjective seems interesting, but this question is focused on its form. Is the right form hepatarius ...
Asteroides's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
304 views

Suffixes -τρον, -θρον, and -εθρον

Dickinson College's digitization of the grammar text by Goodell seems to suggest that -τρον and -θρον are synonyms. We also have πτολίεθρον, where it looks to me like the suffix is -εθρον (unless this ...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
329 views

What is the general ablaut rule that explains examples like φρήν, πρόφρων, πρόφρονα?

Φρήν (midriff, will) gives rise to the adjective πρόφρων (eager, literally motivated by will). It looks to me like the -ων comes from ablaut applied to -ην. (It doesn't look like a suffix -ων, since ν ...
user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
82 views

When are deponent perfect forms used with a present meaning?

As Cerberus mentions in this answer: With many (semi-)deponent verbs, the perfect participle often has a present meaning. And in the comments: I thought this was commonly known, but apparently not. ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
282 views

Why does conscio not have four principal parts?

I have been using working through some latin translations and stumbled across conscio, -ire, -ivi in my latin dictionary, which it lists as a transitive verb meaning "to have on one's conscience.&...
Josh's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
577 views

Is "Noli illud dixisse!" good Latin for "You should not have said that!"?

I am trying to understand how the perfect imperative functioned in Latin. Is "Noli illud dixisse!" good Latin for "You should not have said that!"? I know "Noli illud dicere!&...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
195 views

What is wanting in Gildersleeve's declension charts?

In Gildersleeves Latin Grammar you can find declension charts with the word wanting inserted in 3 places I II III Nom. a. us (os) ; wanting ; um (om). s ; wanting. Gen. ae (ās, āī, āi). ī (ēī). is ...
Sriotchilism O'Zaic's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
264 views

Why is it "Discipulus pulcher est" and not "Discipulus pulchrus est"?

I think its something with declension, but can't quite wrap my head around why it would be pulcher instead of pulchrus for that phrase.
hifromdev's user avatar
  • 397
8 votes
2 answers
823 views

'Fomites'? From 'fomes'?

Of the many candidates for 'word of the year', 'fomites' is a semifinalist for sure (with the added flavor of multiple pronunciations). But why the dental '-t-' in the plural? What is the pattern? Is ...
Mitch's user avatar
  • 727
15 votes
1 answer
516 views

Is there any rule for determining whether a verb beginning with ε- will augment to η- vs ει-, or must all verbs' behaviors be memorized?

For instance, the verb ἐλευθερῶ augments to ἠλευθέρουν in the past, whereas the verb ἔχω augments to εἶχον (not ἦχον as might have been predicted).
healynr's user avatar
  • 335
7 votes
1 answer
536 views

In Vulgate, Matthaeus 4:23, it says "et prædicans Evangelium regni". Shouldn't it be "regno" (dative) rather than "regni" (genitive)?

In Vulgate, Matthaeus 4:23, it says "et prædicans Evangelium regni". Shouldn't it be "regno" (dative) rather than "regni" (genitive)? He was talking the gospel TO the ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
662 views

Why is *dōna* the plural acc. Instead of *donos* like the rest of the 2nd declensions?

I am currently studying the declensions for nouns (currently on the 2nd one) and saw this difference. amīcōs, fīliōs, agrōs VS dōna
Johhan Santana's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
871 views

Why -ώς in αἰδώς?

The word αἰδώς means awe, shame, or respect. There are related words such as αἰδοῖος. I feel like I ought to be training my brain to recognize inflections in order to get clues as to meaning, but as ...
user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
523 views

Tables of Greek expressions for time, place, and logic

I'm trying to build my vocabulary in koine using flashcards, and so far have had pretty good success attaining a decent level of reading fluency, e.g., I can get through the first couple of chapters ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
94 views

On the (necessary or typical?) relationship between double accusative and causation

I was wondering if there is a syntactic/semantic generalization that can account for the so-called "double accusative" predicative frame in Latin (verbs with person & thing (docere ...
Mitomino's user avatar
  • 9,036
6 votes
1 answer
780 views

What construction is "διδαχή?"

There is an interesting early Christian document called the Διδαχή, translated into English as "The Teaching." The word seems to be classical, not just Koine. Is this some kind of more ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
429 views

On the formation of perfect passive infinitives

I Think I understand why the passive infinitive of " amo " is not " esse amatus" : "being loved" is not perfect ( without any play on words). So we need something else ...
Floridus Floridi's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
150 views

Are there ever separate number and case markers in Latin?

It seems to me that in Latin the case endings in singular and plural have very little in common. For an example of singular–plural pairs: puella–puellae, puellam–puellas, puellae–puellarum, puellae–...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
140 views

What would the perfect stem of 'apparere' be?

Lewis and Short only give present stem forms of the verb appărĕre, appărio. They say, quite rightly so, that it comes from ad+părĕre, and one would therefore expect the conjugation to be as that ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
376 views

Is "gate to heaven" "foris paradisi" or "foris paradiso"?

I noticed that the Croatian for "gate to heaven" is "vrata raja", "raja" being the genitive singular (rather than dative) of "raj" (heaven). I was wondering how ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
177 views

Deriving verbs from nouns: iota > iotare

What is the natural way in which to derive verbs from nouns, where their meaning is to furnish something with the thing named by the noun? For example, what might one call an omega furnished with an ...
Nullus Maximus's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
284 views

Is it φιλημι or φιλημμι?

In fragments of Sappho, we see athematic (μι-verb) forms for what Attic would call contract verbs, like φιλημ(μ)ι and καλημ(μ)ι for Attic φιλέω, καλέω. However, authorities seem to differ on how many ...
Draconis's user avatar
  • 68.3k
5 votes
1 answer
462 views

Is unius an irregular genitive?

I notice that the genitive of unus can apparently be either the regular uni, or can also be unius. Is this form, unius, just a completely irregular oddity, or is there some logical precedent for it? ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 7,359
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Trying to coin a new word, and trying to stay true to Latin Sandhi phonological rules

I'm writing a paper and I'm proposing a couple of new latin terms: alterpersona realterpersona or to break them down into components alter-persona re-alter-persona I'm wondering about the sandhi ...
TheIronKnuckle's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
664 views

In "fortis fortuna adiuvat" is "fortis" accusative plural?

Fortis fortuna adiuvat, is fortis accusative plural here? Fortis has different forms for the same conjugation as I see at Wiktionary, and I couldn't find which forms adiuvare takes as an exhaustive ...
oguzalb's user avatar
  • 295
12 votes
2 answers
7k views

"Tu quoque, Brutus, mi fili?" Grammar question

Someone told me these were Caesar's actual last words. Google confirms this. But I can't find an explanation for what looks to me like weird grammar. First of all, shouldn't "Brutus" be &...
ribs2spare's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
973 views

How to decline a whale?

The Latin word cētus (a whale or some other major sea creature) behaves peculiarly. In singular it is a normal-looking masculine cētus, but in plural it is a neuter cētē. The ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
538 views

What are the θη-future and θη-aorist?

I see on quite a few resources tenses referred as θη-future or θη-aorist and I don't understand what it exactly means. Are θη-future and θη-aorist another way to say future passive and aorist ...
Alexandre Daubricourt's user avatar
17 votes
1 answer
780 views

What are the relative frequencies of cases in Latin?

Latin has seven cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, vocative, locative. What are their relative frequencies in classical Latin? I suppose an answer would have to be based on ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
2k views

Which Latin declension is most common?

Does anyone know the rough proportions of Latin words that fall into each of the five declensions? Which is most common? Which is least common?
Owl's user avatar
  • 677
20 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why do we learn the genitive singular of each Latin noun?

When Latin nouns are listed for memorisation they are listed with the nom. sg., the gen. sg. and their gender. E.g. agricola, agricolae, masculine. Why are each of these forms necessary for ...
Owl's user avatar
  • 677
2 votes
1 answer
118 views

Livy Book 1 27.1 type of subjunctive, sequence of tenses

Invidia vulgi, quod tribus militibus fortuna publica commissa fuerit, vanum ingenium dictatoris corrupit. What kind of subjunctive is fuerit and why. What tense is corrupit — perfect with or ...
Martin O'Reilly's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
592 views

effeminare = evirare (?)

Assuming that (i) the meanings of vir and femina are indeed opposite and (ii) the meaning of the prefix ex- is quite transparent, why are the verbs evirare and effeminare then synonymous? Are there ...
Mitomino's user avatar
  • 9,036
6 votes
1 answer
291 views

Irregular aorist imperative from ἔχω

Why does ἔχω exhibit a 2 s. aorist imperative σχές instead of what I would expect to be σχέ ? Do other verbs do this, or is this peculiar to this verb?
MPW's user avatar
  • 393
7 votes
1 answer
185 views

Are there unprefixed location verbs in Latin?

Two basic types of prefixed denominal locative verbs can be distinguished in Latin: the ones in (1) can be said to “agglutinate” a prepositional phrase expressing (dis)location, i.e., the place (cf. ...
Mitomino's user avatar
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