Questions tagged [morphologia]

For questions about morphology.

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1answer
148 views

Dies and the fifth declension

In an answer to this question on Ζεύς Draconis mentions (quoting his own post on another site): The accusative form of the root, *dyēm (cf AGrk Zēn), also survived in Latin, in the form *diēm > ...
6
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2answers
421 views

What consonants can a noun stem end in?

As TKR mentions, third-declension nouns in Latin have stems ending with a consonant (*). Off the top of my head, I can think of stems ending in various different consonants: rex, for example, has a G ...
6
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2answers
662 views

What is the origin of the future suffix -b-?

I read in this answer that there may be a relation between the future endings -bo, -bis, etc. on the one hand and the verb fio "become" on the other. Is this true? If so, do we have any more details ...
6
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1answer
61 views

how to interpret ‘formosus’ via its morphological components

The adj. formosus can be decomposed as follows: forma + -os-us where forma means ‘shape, form’ and -os- ‘with abundance’. However, when the two notions come together, the whole, which literally ...
6
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1answer
167 views

on the word–analysis of ‘viridis’

According to OLD, the adj. viridis derives from the verb vireo, but nothing is mentioned about the suffix that turns the verb to the adj. Could anyone tell about the suffix that transforms the verb ...
6
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1answer
394 views

Latin adverbs ending in -us

There is a small but noticeable subset of Latin positive adverbs that end in -us. (By "positive," I am excluding the standard comparative adverb form of -ius, e.g. citius.) Some examples that come ...
6
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1answer
234 views

Why had the word “gold” morphed from “ausum” into “aurum”?

Etymologists/Linguists posit that the prefix for gold in Proto-Indo-European was: *aus- Which gave way to *auzom in Proto-Italic languages and ausum in Classical Latin. At some point, ausum ...
6
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1answer
129 views

When were different agent noun endings used in Ancient Greek?

In Ancient Greek, it seems that there were various endings for agent nouns. Thomas Dwight Goodell's School Grammar of Attic Greek (1902) mentions -τηρ, -τωρ, -της, -εύς, -τειρα, -τρια, -τρις (-τριδ-), ...
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How did “glutaeus/gluteus” come from Greek “gloutos”? Would “glutiaeus” be more correct?

In anatomy, the muscles of the buttocks are referred to collectively as the "glut(a)eal muscles" in English, and are individually given the following Latin names: glut(a)eus maximus, glut(a)eus medius ...
5
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2answers
303 views

How productive was the participle in -menus in Latin?

Greek has the medium participle ending in -menos. It has a couple of occurrences in Latin, too, of which I only seem to remember alere > alumnus now. How many words are there in Latin that contain ...
5
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199 views

What are the θη-future and θη-aorist?

I see on quite a few resources tenses referred as θη-future or θη-aorist and I don't understand what it exactly means. Are θη-future and θη-aorist another way to say future passive and aorist ...
5
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2answers
102 views

How did the mixed-root “anticipātiō, anticipātiōnis” form?

I was considering the English word anticipation the other day, and wondered at how it ended up with a Greek prefix followed by a Latin root.1 After a quick search I found that the word derives from ...
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2answers
199 views

Comparing decem and -decim

The Latin cardinal numbers starting at ten are decem, undecim, duodecim… Does the -decim (roughly "-teen") come from decem or from the same root? (I faintly recall decem and δέκα coming from ...
5
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1answer
134 views

Plural in 4th declension

I know that virtually all masculine and feminine nouns in Latin have an e or i in the nominative plural and that the genitive singular is often similar. This is quite widespread in Indo-European ...
5
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1answer
353 views

Where does the infinitive 'fieri' come from?

What is the origin of the infinitive fieri? It is unusual in many respects. The stem seems to be fi- and the infinitive ending -eri is only found in the second conjugation. However, the second ...
5
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1answer
140 views

Is it better to memorize verb's 1st person perfect tense?

Is it necessary to memorize verb's perfect form like paro, parare, paravi? Or can I predict a verb's perfect forms if I remember the rules by which perfect stems are formed. Like, the suffix -v/iv or ...
5
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1answer
116 views

Genitives like “axeos”

I recently encountered a text written in Latin in Finland about two centuries ago using the form axeos. From context it was clear that it was a genitive, and it looks just like the Greek genitive of ...
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219 views

Rules to constructing a proper compound noun in Ancient Greek

I know this StackExchange is dedicated to Latin, but since one for Greek/Ancient Greek is currently under proposal, I was advised to post my question here after having posted it on Linguistics. I am ...
5
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1answer
88 views

The middle A of quadraginta

Consider these Latin cardinal numbers: quadrAginta, quinquAginta, sexAginta, nonAginta. The -ginta seems to stand for tens (cf. triginta, octoginta) and the initial parts quadr-, quinqu-, sex-, and ...
5
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1answer
190 views

Does an ig- prefix mean there's an underlying g in the root?

There seem to be certain words in Latin which start with an underlying /gn/, such as noscō /gnosko:/ [nɔsko:]—this "hidden" /g/ appears when prefixes are added, as in cognoscō /congnosko:/ [cɔŋnɔsko:] ...
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1answer
1k views

What’s the difference between meminisse and memini?

I’d love to get a tattoo saying ‘remember’ in Latin, but would rather not use memento. Would it be possible to either use meminisse or memini? I’d like remember to be like a reminder for myself to ...
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1answer
177 views

Why do some pronoun nominatives look like vocatives?

The forms ipse, ille, and iste look like vocatives instead of nominatives, and one would expect to see ipsus, illus, and istus instead. In fact, ipsus is attested but far rarer than ipse, but the ...
5
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1answer
204 views

Plura or pluria?

Before answering this recent question about the US motto, I had to check whether the neuter version of plures is plura or pluria. I had recalled right: plura appears to be indeed the sole form used in ...
5
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1answer
184 views

How do we end up with three vowels at the end of Περικλέους? (Greek)

According to Wiktionary, the genitive of Περικλῆς, or Περικλέης, is Περικλέους; and similarly, that of Σοφοκλῆς, or Σοφοκλέης, Σοφοκλέους. Question: How do we end up with three vowels, εου, at the ...
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80 views

Why vesperascit instead of vesperescit?

I was recently working on a little translation project and my intuition and memory suggested that "evening comes" is vesperescit. Checking dictionaries corrected me: it is vesperascit instead. Why is ...
5
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1answer
188 views

Adjectives that decline as consonant stems in the neuter plural nominative/accusative

From what I have read, most third-declension Latin adjectives other than comparatives take the i-stem endings -ī, ium and -ia in the ablative singular, genitive plural and neuter nominative/accusative ...
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2k views

How to find the stem of any word?

I am wondering if the stem of every word has an exact form? For example: For the word genus, how could you determine is it gen or gener? For the word līber, how could you determine is it līber or ...
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311 views

'plecto, plectere, plexi', -tor/-sor form (agent noun)

How would one add the agent noun suffix (normally -tor) to the verb 'plecto' (I weave/twist)? It's been a few years — about 10 — but if I recall correctly, verbs whose stem ends in 't' ...
4
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2answers
416 views

In “fortis fortuna adiuvat” is “fortis” accusative plural?

Fortis fortuna adiuvat, is fortis accusative plural here? Fortis has different forms for the same conjugation as I see at Wiktionary, and I couldn't find which forms adiuvare takes as an exhaustive ...
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231 views

Is visne > vin unique?

There is a contraction from the regular visne to vin. Is the same contraction with -ne attested with other verbs in classical Latin? I don't recall seeing questions like loquerin Latine or haben equum ...
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205 views

Genitive of Sappho: Sapphonis or Sapphus?

As I posted on the Wiktionary Tea Room: Consulting Bergk's edition of Sappho, I have seem various instances of this genitive "Sapphonis" (e.g. «Sapphonis esse videtur») in the critical notes. This ...
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68 views

Present Participles: can “respicienti” be part of an ablative absolute in this sentence?

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: ...alii Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Caio "lovem" dante Chaeream exclamasse: "accipe ratum" respicientique maxillam ...
4
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1answer
273 views

Why “amatus est” instead of “*amavitur”

Is there any diachronic reason whereby synthetic perfective passive forms like *amavitur (and similar ones) are not possible and analytic forms like amatus est (and similar ones) are selected instead? ...
4
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1answer
126 views

Why aren't cardinal numbers over three inflected?

I've been looking through some etymologies and it seems to me that cardinals past trēs aren't inflected. Is this correct, and if so, what's the logic in forming words with indeclinable numbers? Take, ...
4
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1answer
344 views

“Deus meus”, aut “Deus mī”?

I was taught that meus had a special irregular vocative, mī. (So "my father" in the vocative would be pater mī, not pater meus.) However, there's a line that shows up a few times in the ...
4
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1answer
89 views

Does 'fiebam' contain the same root twice?

I learned from this question and its answers that the imperfect marker -ba- comes from the same PIE root as fui and fio. What about the form fiebam (and other persons) then? Does it contain the same ...
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1answer
79 views

Quinquies and quinquiens

Consider the word quinquies/quinquiens ("five times"). It has two alternative spellings. Having the options -ies and -iens seems to be common for numerals of this kind. What is the origin of these ...
4
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1answer
214 views

effeminare = evirare (?)

Assuming that (i) the meanings of vir and femina are indeed opposite and (ii) the meaning of the prefix ex- is quite transparent, why are the verbs evirare and effeminare then synonymous? Are there ...
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3answers
260 views

The lexical root of the perfect tense forms differs from the lexical root of the infinitive form

Do the Latin have any other verbs, whose perfect tense forms base on the lexical root, that differs from the lexical root of the infinitive form (by analogy with the verb fero > tuli)?
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358 views

Why is the comparative adjective of “clarus” not “clariusis”?

The neuter genitive singular comparative of clarus is clarioris. Why is this? Shouldn't it be 'clariusis', since the form of neuter adjectives in the comparative form ends on -us?
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2answers
100 views

Understanding 'percepset' instead of 'percepisset'

When looking at the L&S entry for percipio, I came across a surprising perfect form: percepset. The contraction percepisset > percepset lookst similar to cogitavisset > cogitasset. Are ...
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3answers
271 views

What is meant by “collateral” in dictionaries?

Lewis & Short often use the abbreviation collat., standing for collateral according to the appendix of abbreviations. An example: ŭtĕrus, i, m. (collat. form ŭter, Caecil. ap. Non. 188, 15; ...
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279 views

How to choose correct word variants?

I asked a question earlier. For some time now, it's occured to me that a pattern is forming: All my questions about the Latin language are basically the same. The subjects change, but the underlying ...
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81 views

When did the infinitive in -ier fall out of use?

At one point, the Latin passive infinitive was formed with a suffix -(r)ier, as in agier "to be driven", amārier "to be loved". Allen and Greenough call this an "ancient form[…] found chiefly in ...
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62 views

Is there a neuter noun (word) that has different nominative and accusative form? [duplicate]

I thought neuter noun's accusative and nominative forms are always the same but is there any exception? I need any neuter word that has different nominative and accusative form. Doesn't matter if it's ...
3
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0answers
93 views

When and how did the distinction between the gerund and the gerundive develop?

The gerund and the gerundive look similar and have similar meanings, but they are still distinct as any Latin grammar will tell us. But how did classical Latin come to have these two close but ...
2
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1answer
326 views

Different greek cases for Theos

Trying to improve my understanding of biblical greek and ran across something odd. Theos - Θεός is nominative. Theon - Θεόν is accusative. TheO - Θεῷ is dative. Theou - Θεοῦ genitive. Theoi - θεοί ...
2
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2answers
107 views

Do contracted perfects have long or short vowels?

Many verbs have a suffix -v- in the perfect tense, which tends to disappear (or "contract" or "syncopate") before the ending: amā- > amāvisti > amāsti "you loved", audī- > audīvisti > audīsti "you ...
2
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1answer
255 views

Forming compound words in Latin: helicopter

I would like to understand the formation of Latin compound words through the example of the word "helicopter". This obviously has a Greek origin, and I would like redo the construction with two Latin ...
2
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1answer
88 views

Livy Book 1 27.1 type of subjunctive, sequence of tenses

Invidia vulgi, quod tribus militibus fortuna publica commissa fuerit, vanum ingenium dictatoris corrupit. What kind of subjunctive is fuerit and why. What tense is corrupit — perfect with or ...