Questions tagged [greek]

Questions concerning Greek (New Testament or older) either in relation to Latin or in itself. New Testament Greek questions should focus on language, not exegesis.

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7
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1answer
100 views

What are popular fonts for polytonic Greek?

There are quite a lot of fonts available for writing Latin, which have been designed for easy legibility and contain all the letters of the Latin alphabet. For the Greek alphabet, however, most modern ...
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1answer
134 views

What evidence is there for the classical pronunciation of zeta?

As I learned it back in introductory Greek, there's significant debate in the classics community about whether Classical Greek Ζ was pronounced /dz/, /zd/, /zz/, or something else. What evidence is ...
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Romans and Ancient Greek language [duplicate]

Is there evidence in the inscriptions, that Romans have realised, that Hellenic languages are very close to theirs own language!? It seems to be that the distinguish was applied to the Etruscan ...
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2answers
105 views

What is the best Greek word for a thrown knife?

In the Netflix show The Umbrella Academy, one character has a limited form of telekinesis: he can manipulate the movement of knives that he throws. If I wanted to give this ability a pretentious Greek ...
7
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1answer
845 views

Olympic oath : The crown or death (?)

In a Wikipedia article about the Olympics, I read the following sentence (my translation) Finally, the pleasure of participating is alien to the Greek ideal, for which only victory is worth winning, &...
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2answers
215 views

What is the source of the Greek phrase πύξ, λάξ, δάξ?

πύξ, λάξ, δάξ "by punching, kicking, and biting" is described by Wikipedia as an "epigram describing how laypersons were chased away from the Eleusinian Mysteries". Where is this ...
5
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2answers
592 views

How do I easily type Greek letters on Windows 10?

I have only ever used English language settings for keyboards and Operating Systems. As I am starting to learn Greek, I would like to be able to easily type in it. What is the easiest way to enable ...
3
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1answer
105 views

Ancient Greek: how to distinct true and false diphthongs?

Ok, this is not about false diphthong /ou̯/(ου), 'cause it split with long /uː/ (but anybody know a certain time of this spliting? In Wiki this describes simple "at early times") and ...
5
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1answer
63 views

Where does the -τ- come from in the oblique stem of some Greek neuter nouns with nom/acc sing forms in -ς?

I just learned that some Greek neuter nouns of the third declension with a nominative/accusative singular form ending in -ς have oblique stems in -τ-, which surprised me. I expected τ-stem neuter ...
5
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2answers
196 views

What are the θη-future and θη-aorist?

I see on quite a few resources tenses referred as θη-future or θη-aorist and I don't understand what it exactly means. Are θη-future and θη-aorist another way to say future passive and aorist ...
11
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1answer
173 views

Scope of negation with absolute constructions

In Latin and Greek, when a negator appears in an absolute construction (ablative absolute, genitive absolute), it is generally taken to negate the predicate within that construction: hostibus ...
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59 views

Is the New Testament Greek οὖν the same as the English “therefore”?

The Bible Greek word οὖν is often translated as therefore. However, grammatically, οὖν is a conjunction while the English therefore is an adverb. Semantically, therefore carries a strong sense of ...
4
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1answer
124 views

Where can I look up Mycenaean words?

Given a word in Attic, Doric, Koine, or pretty much any other Greek dialect, I can usually find information on it through the Perseus morphological analyzer. However, Perseus doesn't cover Mycenaean. ...
4
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1answer
71 views

Τέλος vs. πέρας

Meanings of πέρας listed in wiktionary: end, goal, extremity All these fall within the scope of τέλος. I would like to understand the nuances of these three meanings (there is no problem with ...
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2answers
251 views

What is the plural of “telos” as used in English?

We sometimes use the borrowed word "telos" in English. It's obviously just a transliteration of τέλος (end, purpose, aim), which plays an important role especially in Aristotelian philosophy. τέλος ...
7
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1answer
445 views

Is there a difference between ΚΘ and ΧΘ?

According to what I'd previously learned, aspirated stop clusters in Ancient Greek only had a single aspiration, at the end of the whole cluster. The reason for writing χθών "earth", φθόγγος "sound" ...
6
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1answer
91 views

Complete list of Greek -μι verbs

Is there an exhaustive list somewhere of all the simplex -μι verbs in Greek? Searching Perseus for words ending in -μι brings up a long list of results, most of which are prefixed forms of the same ...
6
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2answers
273 views

Confused by two verbs which mean “to say” in Plato's Apology

Embarrassed to ask another question about this text so soon, but I'm confused by the presence of both εἰπεῖν and εἰρήκασιν in this clause. I believe that both verbs mean "to say", or something like ...
7
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1answer
181 views

How to translate this phrase about forgetting oneself in Plato's Apology?

I'm translating the first sentence from Plato's Apology, and encountered a difficulty. ὅτι μὲν ὑμεῖς, ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, πεπόνθατε ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν κατηγόρων, οὐκ οἶδα: ἐγὼ δ᾽ οὖν καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπ᾽ ...
6
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3answers
943 views

Are there any minimal pairs distinguished by breathing?

In Attic Greek, "rough breathing" (/h/ at the start of a word) was apparently phonemic: it couldn't be predicted from context, and had to be memorized as part of the word. Byzantine scribes later ...
3
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2answers
146 views

Do Aeolic and Ancient Greek have other examples of τ/π (πέντε / πέμπε)?

Do Aeolic and Ancient Greek have other examples of τ/π in addition to the pair πέντε/πέμπε?
11
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7answers
2k views

Can one translate ἀθάνατος as 'living' rather than 'immortal'?

Context There is an old hymn, often referred to as the Trisagion or Thrice-Holy. It goes like this in Greek: Ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, Ἅγιος ἰσχυρός, Ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς. (Transliterated, this reads,...
6
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1answer
221 views

Irregular aorist imperative from ἔχω

Why does ἔχω exhibit a 2 s. aorist imperative σχές instead of what I would expect to be σχέ ? Do other verbs do this, or is this peculiar to this verb?
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49 views

nu + coronis at the beginning of homeric verses?

I need help understanding a passage from Chantraine's Grammaire Homérique (chapter XVIII, p. 222). Chantraine talks about the Ζῆν and Ζῆνα forms of the name Zeus. According to Chantraine, the aedes ...
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1answer
91 views

Is there a Latin equivalent to ἐπίκοινος?

The Ancient Greek grammatical tradition, going back to Dionysius Thrax (or maybe farther), distinguishes five types of nouns: masculine, feminine, neuter, common, and epicene (ἐπίκοινος). Four of ...
6
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2answers
154 views

Is the Abrahamic god ever named in Classical-era Latin or Greek?

As far as I'm aware, the Septuagint, New Testament, and Vulgata never directly transcribe the Tetragrammaton (יהוה) into Greek or Latin: they substitute in words like κύριος/dominus "lord" or θεός/...
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52 views

Checking Greek declensions: software or reference?

Although quite a few Greek words follow the same simple patterns of declension, I'm finding that there are enough complications that I'm often unsure of whether I'm getting it right. Is there a ...
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93 views

How does Homer say “finger” and “leg?”

The English-Greek dictionary by Woodhouse translates finger as "δάκτυλος." However, the Homeric dictionary by Cunliffe doesn't have this word, and searching in the text of Homer doesn't seem to turn ...
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0answers
38 views

προσώπατα versus πρόσωπα, προσώπασι versus προσώποις in Homer

I'm working on learning Homeric vocabulary, and for this purpose I've written a script using CLTK to search for forms of a particular word through the Iliad and Odyssey. The idea is that I don't want ...
2
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1answer
173 views

What verb forms εἴσηκται as 3 s pf m/p?

I’m certain the form εἴσηκται is 3rd sing. perfect M/P but can’t for the life of me come up with what verb this is. Does anyone recognize this? Is it a misprint, or am I forgetting something obvious?
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1answer
96 views

Sideros sidereus

How would one best combine the Latin “sidereus” and the Greek “σίδηρος” in an otherwise-English-language text to refer to meteoric iron? Ideally in a manner that would be authentic to ancient Roman ...
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1answer
523 views

Is there a short list of feminine nouns in -ος?

Schoder and Horrigan (p. 23) say that a noun whose nominative ends in -ος, although "Three [feminine] exceptions ... will be noted in the vacabularies when they first occur." I originally took this to ...
5
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1answer
129 views

Could lacio and ἕλκω be related?

Would it be at all possible for Latin lacio "pull, lure" (cf. illicio, laqueus, lacesso, lacto) to be related with Greek ἕλκω "draw, pull"? Wiktionary suggests no cognates of lacio are known, so there ...
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2answers
89 views

“Happy” and “sad” as emotional states in Homeric Greek

It seems like there's some interesting cross-cultural stuff going on in the description of emotions in Homeric Greek compared to my US/English way of talking about these things. For "happy," the words ...
5
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2answers
134 views

masculine and feminine form of παῖς and μαθηματικός

As in a previous question, I'm wondering what is the feminine form of a noun, and this time it is not a word for an animal but for human. In words like ὁ παῖς and ἡ παῖς, only their article ...
4
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1answer
219 views

feminine form of λύκος

λύκος is the Ancient Greek word for 'wolf' in singular masculine form. What is then the feminine form of wolf? I've guessed it as λύκη but what I've found in a dictionary is that it means 'light'. Is ...
6
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2answers
937 views

Does ancient Greek have its own terms for grammar?

I'm working on ancient Greek (Homeric) vocabulary, and sometimes it's helpful to write down, e.g., on a flashcard, some grammatical information. For example I might want to record that ἕν is neuter (...
5
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1answer
85 views

Counting to ten in Homeric Greek

How do you count to ten in Homeric Greek? The following is what I put together by knowing how to count to ten in modern Greek, and then looking for ancient forms that looked similar. Is this right for ...
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0answers
48 views

Old illustrated books showing daily life in ancient Greece or Rome

When I was learning French, I found it very helpful to work on my vocabulary using a picture book called First Thousand Words in French. For example, it would have something like a full-page picture ...
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1answer
114 views

Translation of ab and de in Greek,

How would one best translate ab and de from Latin to Greek in order to capture the different nuances? In Greek both are usually translated as από. I am trying to capture the nuances so I am using ...
5
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1answer
190 views

Trying to translate the last sentence in Thuc. 1.22

I need to use a Thucydides quote from 'History of the Peloponnesian War', the quote is at the end of Thuc. 1.22. My history is an everlasting possession, not a prize composition which is heard ...
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1answer
113 views

What's the “Caly” in “Calydon”?

In Greek mythology, there was a terrifying monster known as the Calydonian Boar. It was called the "Calydonian Boar" because it was a monstrous pig that terrorized the town called "Calydon". Now, in ...
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5answers
6k views

Learn Ancient Greek or Latin first?

I am in the beginning stages of thinking about learning both Ancient Greek and Latin. During my initial research, I have encountered some people saying that learning Latin first is what is commonly ...
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2answers
120 views

How did 'apo-' shift from signifying 'off, away' to 'because of'?

What notions underlie 'off, away' and 'because of'? ἀπό - Wiktionary Etymology From Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“off, away”). Preposition ᾰ̓πό • (apó) (governs the genitive) ...
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161 views

Which name came first, Lucius or Λουκᾶς?

The etymology of the name Luke is commonly said to be the Latin name Lucas, itself from Lucius, from the praenomen Lucius, from the root Lux (gen. Lucis). [A separate etymology says Λουκᾶς/Λουκανός, ...
8
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2answers
125 views

Why vowel lengthening in Greek compounds?

In Greek compounds, when the second member of the compounds begins with a short vowel, this vowel is often lengthened: στρατ-ηγός < ἄγω ἀν-ώνυμος < ὄνομα ἡμι-ώβολον < ὀβολός What is ...
7
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1answer
132 views

What is the etymology of “chorāgus”?

Lewis and Short indicates that "chorāgus" is from Greek χορηγός (Doric χορᾱγός), which LSJ says is a compound of χορός and ἡγέομαι. The entries for choragus in the Oxford English Dictionary and a ...
4
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1answer
54 views

What is the etymology of Laches? (The Ancient Greek name.)

I'm studying Plato, but am ungreeked. Does the Ancient Greek name Laches have a known or suspected etymology? My searches have only turned up the modern legal term, related to the Latin word laxo. ...
7
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1answer
279 views

Difference between αὐτός and οὗτος

In the sentence οὗτος λέγει ὅτι αὕτη τὸ βιβλίον γράφει translated by "He says that she is writing the book." would the meaning change if οὗτος was substituted by αὐτός thus forming the sentence αὐτός ...
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3answers
2k views

Are there any surviving Ancient Greek letters (epistolary)?

I was wondering how the Greeks in the archaic or classical age wrote letters, if there was some sort of convention for them, thus I searched for Ancient Greek letters but found nothing. Is somebody ...

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