Questions tagged [greek]

Questions concerning Greek (New Testament or older) either in relation to Latin or in itself. New Testament Greek questions should focus on language, not exegesis.

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11
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7answers
2k views

Can one translate ἀθάνατος as 'living' rather than 'immortal'?

Context There is an old hymn, often referred to as the Trisagion or Thrice-Holy. It goes like this in Greek: Ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, Ἅγιος ἰσχυρός, Ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς. (Transliterated, this reads,...
6
votes
1answer
202 views

Irregular aorist imperative from ἔχω

Why does ἔχω exhibit a 2 s. aorist imperative σχές instead of what I would expect to be σχέ ? Do other verbs do this, or is this peculiar to this verb?
5
votes
0answers
44 views

nu + coronis at the beginning of homeric verses?

I need help understanding a passage from Chantraine's Grammaire Homérique (chapter XVIII, p. 222). Chantraine talks about the Ζῆν and Ζῆνα forms of the name Zeus. According to Chantraine, the aedes ...
5
votes
1answer
80 views

Is there a Latin equivalent to ἐπίκοινος?

The Ancient Greek grammatical tradition, going back to Dionysius Thrax (or maybe farther), distinguishes five types of nouns: masculine, feminine, neuter, common, and epicene (ἐπίκοινος). Four of ...
6
votes
2answers
145 views

Is the Abrahamic god ever named in Classical-era Latin or Greek?

As far as I'm aware, the Septuagint, New Testament, and Vulgata never directly transcribe the Tetragrammaton (יהוה) into Greek or Latin: they substitute in words like κύριος/dominus "lord" or θεός/...
1
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0answers
45 views

Checking Greek declensions: software or reference?

Although quite a few Greek words follow the same simple patterns of declension, I'm finding that there are enough complications that I'm often unsure of whether I'm getting it right. Is there a ...
6
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0answers
83 views

How does Homer say “finger” and “leg?”

The English-Greek dictionary by Woodhouse translates finger as "δάκτυλος." However, the Homeric dictionary by Cunliffe doesn't have this word, and searching in the text of Homer doesn't seem to turn ...
3
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0answers
36 views

προσώπατα versus πρόσωπα, προσώπασι versus προσώποις in Homer

I'm working on learning Homeric vocabulary, and for this purpose I've written a script using CLTK to search for forms of a particular word through the Iliad and Odyssey. The idea is that I don't want ...
2
votes
1answer
169 views

What verb forms εἴσηκται as 3 s pf m/p?

I’m certain the form εἴσηκται is 3rd sing. perfect M/P but can’t for the life of me come up with what verb this is. Does anyone recognize this? Is it a misprint, or am I forgetting something obvious?
0
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0answers
49 views

Sideros sidereus

How would one best combine the Latin “sidereus” and the Greek “σίδηρος” in an otherwise-English-language text to refer to meteoric iron? Ideally in a manner that would be authentic to ancient Roman ...
8
votes
1answer
517 views

Is there a short list of feminine nouns in -ος?

Schoder and Horrigan (p. 23) say that a noun whose nominative ends in -ος, although "Three [feminine] exceptions ... will be noted in the vacabularies when they first occur." I originally took this to ...
5
votes
1answer
128 views

Could lacio and ἕλκω be related?

Would it be at all possible for Latin lacio "pull, lure" (cf. illicio, laqueus, lacesso, lacto) to be related with Greek ἕλκω "draw, pull"? Wiktionary suggests no cognates of lacio are known, so there ...
4
votes
2answers
88 views

“Happy” and “sad” as emotional states in Homeric Greek

It seems like there's some interesting cross-cultural stuff going on in the description of emotions in Homeric Greek compared to my US/English way of talking about these things. For "happy," the words ...
5
votes
2answers
127 views

masculine and feminine form of παῖς and μαθηματικός

As in a previous question, I'm wondering what is the feminine form of a noun, and this time it is not a word for an animal but for human. In words like ὁ παῖς and ἡ παῖς, only their article ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

feminine form of λύκος

λύκος is the Ancient Greek word for 'wolf' in singular masculine form. What is then the feminine form of wolf? I've guessed it as λύκη but what I've found in a dictionary is that it means 'light'. Is ...
5
votes
2answers
922 views

Does ancient Greek have its own terms for grammar?

I'm working on ancient Greek (Homeric) vocabulary, and sometimes it's helpful to write down, e.g., on a flashcard, some grammatical information. For example I might want to record that ἕν is neuter (...
5
votes
1answer
77 views

Counting to ten in Homeric Greek

How do you count to ten in Homeric Greek? The following is what I put together by knowing how to count to ten in modern Greek, and then looking for ancient forms that looked similar. Is this right for ...
5
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0answers
43 views

Old illustrated books showing daily life in ancient Greece or Rome

When I was learning French, I found it very helpful to work on my vocabulary using a picture book called First Thousand Words in French. For example, it would have something like a full-page picture ...
0
votes
1answer
108 views

Translation of ab and de in Greek,

How would one best translate ab and de from Latin to Greek in order to capture the different nuances? In Greek both are usually translated as από. I am trying to capture the nuances so I am using ...
5
votes
1answer
177 views

Trying to translate the last sentence in Thuc. 1.22

I need to use a Thucydides quote from 'History of the Peloponnesian War', the quote is at the end of Thuc. 1.22. My history is an everlasting possession, not a prize composition which is heard ...
2
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1answer
103 views

What's the “Caly” in “Calydon”?

In Greek mythology, there was a terrifying monster known as the Calydonian Boar. It was called the "Calydonian Boar" because it was a monstrous pig that terrorized the town called "Calydon". Now, in ...
12
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5answers
5k views

Learn Ancient Greek or Latin first?

I am in the beginning stages of thinking about learning both Ancient Greek and Latin. During my initial research, I have encountered some people saying that learning Latin first is what is commonly ...
1
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2answers
115 views

How did 'apo-' shift from signifying 'off, away' to 'because of'?

What notions underlie 'off, away' and 'because of'? ἀπό - Wiktionary Etymology From Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“off, away”). Preposition ᾰ̓πό • (apó) (governs the genitive) ...
7
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0answers
89 views

Which name came first, Lucius or Λουκᾶς?

The etymology of the name Luke is commonly said to be the Latin name Lucas, itself from Lucius, from the praenomen Lucius, from the root Lux (gen. Lucis). [A separate etymology says Λουκᾶς/Λουκανός, ...
8
votes
2answers
115 views

Why vowel lengthening in Greek compounds?

In Greek compounds, when the second member of the compounds begins with a short vowel, this vowel is often lengthened: στρατ-ηγός < ἄγω ἀν-ώνυμος < ὄνομα ἡμι-ώβολον < ὀβολός What is ...
7
votes
1answer
125 views

What is the etymology of “chorāgus”?

Lewis and Short indicates that "chorāgus" is from Greek χορηγός (Doric χορᾱγός), which LSJ says is a compound of χορός and ἡγέομαι. The entries for choragus in the Oxford English Dictionary and a ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

What is the etymology of Laches? (The Ancient Greek name.)

I'm studying Plato, but am ungreeked. Does the Ancient Greek name Laches have a known or suspected etymology? My searches have only turned up the modern legal term, related to the Latin word laxo. ...
6
votes
1answer
221 views

Difference between αὐτός and οὗτος

In the sentence οὗτος λέγει ὅτι αὕτη τὸ βιβλίον γράφει translated by "He says that she is writing the book." would the meaning change if οὗτος was substituted by αὐτός thus forming the sentence αὐτός ...
8
votes
3answers
2k views

Are there any surviving Ancient Greek letters (epistolary)?

I was wondering how the Greeks in the archaic or classical age wrote letters, if there was some sort of convention for them, thus I searched for Ancient Greek letters but found nothing. Is somebody ...
6
votes
1answer
126 views

Is “The beginning is half of every action” truly a Greek proverb?

I found in a book from 2015 a box with the quote: The beginning is half of every action. (Greek proverb) I googled it and there are many "pop websites" with the same quote. But none with a ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Is the word χιραϲ used in the Codex Sinaiticus as a proper noun to mean Hira or as another part of speech to mean hands?

Codex Sinaiticus gives the following rendition of Isa. 29:12: και δοθηϲεται το βιβλιον τουτο ειϲ χιραϲ ανθρωπου · μη επιϲταμενου γραμʼματα ˙ και ερι αυτω · αναγνωθι ταυτα και ερι . ουκ αιπιϲταμαι ...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

Why was 'haemophilia' created to mean 'A constitutional (usually hereditary) tendency to bleeding'? [closed]

Is this auto-antonymy? I'm guessing so, as humans who love blood undeniably wouldn't want to lose it! If not, which type of semantic shift according to Blank's 1999 typology? OED and haemophilia - ...
6
votes
2answers
304 views

Looking for a reference in Greek

I am afraid I might be off topic here, but I do not know whom to ask otherwise. I have come across the following sentence: ᾽Αεί τι βούλου χρήσιμον προσμανϑάνειν. I found it on the cover of a (...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

How do you search through one work in TLG?

The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is a popular research tool for working on Greek texts. (Unfortunately, it's a "freemium" model, so you need to pay for full access or get it through a research ...
11
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5answers
4k views

Is this bible in Koine Greek?

So I bought a Greek bible and I’m not sure whether it is Koine or Modern Greek. Could someone please help me out? Thanks.
8
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1answer
138 views

In Ancient Greek, why ἑπτά vs. ἕβδομος?

I was marveling today at the word hebdomadal, from the Greek ἑπτά for seven. But that had me wondering why words derived from seven sometimes use /bd/ and other times /pt/. I notice, for instance, ...
4
votes
2answers
174 views

What's the difference between ἀγάπη and στοργή?

According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_words_for_love ἀγάπη, among other things, refers to Agape is used in ancient texts to denote feelings for one's children and the feelings for a ...
6
votes
0answers
82 views

What is the etymology of Ἁμαδρυάς (Hamadryas)? Is the second alpha actually long?

I am trying to find more information about the formation and pronunciation of the Greek noun Ἁμαδρυάς, taken into Latin as Hamadryas. L&S transcribes the second a of the Latin form with a macron: ...
1
vote
1answer
280 views

Mysterious word for “expert” in an Italian anthology's version of Sappho LP 21

In this Italian anthology, LP 21 l. 2 (the first line where the papyrus has letters) is read as containing επαβολησ (and perhaps vestigia around it). The first word in the translation is "esperta", ...
5
votes
1answer
169 views

Thematic, genred concepts in Ancient Greek?

Trying to come up with magical 'schools' for a game, and my goal is to: Use Ancient Greek, Koine if absolutely necessary Have words of generally the same length and number of syllables (not like, ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Untraceable word in a combination of LP fragments

LP 68(b) and 69 have been combined into a single text by the impression that they were «ex eadem parte papyri» and by the one letter split between the two. The resulting text, found in 6.A.iv here, ...
4
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0answers
47 views

Puzzling grammar in a Sappho line

A combination of LP fragments, found at 6.A.i here, has the following first two lines: ἐπτάξατε̣ [          ] δροσ[ό]εσσα[-     ] ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Two Sappho-related reference requests

As some of you will definitely know, I have been grappling with Sappho for a long time. Lately, I have come to an impasse in a couple places, where I have said all I can without a specific reference I ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

What is the nature of variation between αι and α in (Pre-)Greek words?

When trying to answer a previous question about the patronymic derived from Asclepius, I came across the following quotation from Beekes in the Wikipedia entry on Asclepius: The name is typical for ...
7
votes
2answers
184 views

How can I find a verb root in ancient greek?

If I have a verb in ancient greek, how can I find its root? For instance, if I have λείπω νέω ἔμαθον μανθάνω how can I do to know that, respectively, these verbs have λιπ-/λειπ-/λοιπ- νευ- (<*...
4
votes
1answer
137 views

What is the evidence for a long vowel in χριστός “anointed” and Latin Christus?

The Greek word χριστός, used as a translation of Hebrew משיח "messiah", and meaning something like "anointed" (Liddell and Scott), apparently has a long vowel in the first syllable. The quantity of ...
4
votes
1answer
134 views

μονάδαι as plural form of μονάς

In the text that I am reading now, the Greek word μονάδαι is used to indicate "units". I have understood it as a plural form of μονάς, however, I could only find μονᾰ́δε in the dual form and μονᾰ́δες ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

On the etymology of Greek ἄελλα, and the mysterious Hesychius gloss for αυεουλλαι

I see on Wiktionary that ἄελλα is related to ἄημι, which comes from the PIE root *h₂weh₁-, meaning "to blow". This explains ἄε, but not the rest. Prompted by the weird Alcaeus word αυεουλλαι glossed ...
7
votes
1answer
255 views

What are the conventions for transcribing Semitic languages into Greek?

The surviving Koine Greek corpus contains quite a lot of transcribed Semitic words, borrowed from Hebrew, Aramaic, and maybe others. (For example, the LXX is full of Hebrew names.) Were there ...
5
votes
0answers
108 views

Translation into Koine (perhaps Testament?) Greek

Could someone translate the following into Koine Greek (or Testament Greek, if there were juicy differences.) We won’t tell Helen why we could leave her at the beach without company. The older ...

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