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Questions tagged [greek]

Questions concerning Greek (New Testament or older) either in relation to Latin or in itself. New Testament Greek questions should focus on language, not exegesis.

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Verbal Adjective of Necessity vs. Possibility

Greek distinguishes between verbal adjectives ending in -τέος and verbal adjectives ending in -τός. The latter (according to Smyth) express either possibility or the perfect passive participle (e.g. '...
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52 views

Etimology of the word “σκευή”

What's the origin of this word?Is it indo-european?
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Received pronunciation in Ancient Greek

As S. Teodorsson argues in his work on the phonemic system of the Attic dialect, there is evidence that already in the IV century BC, 'popular' Athenian speech underwent changes such as the merger of ...
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How many Greek letters are there?

The Greek alphabet currently has twenty-four letters, and this has been standard for millennia now. However, three extra symbols are used for numbers, and other answers mention letters like tsan used ...
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3answers
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What did σκάλα exactly mean in Byzantine Greek?

In Spanish we have a word escala that means "stopover" as "a break in a journey", specially when travelling by sea. According to the dictionary by the Royal Spanish Academy, the word comes from ...
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52 views

Are vestiges or influence of the instrumental case in any way identifiable in Latin and Greek?

I believe the instrumental case was absorbed by the ablative in Latin and by the dative in Greek. Is there any way at all in which influence of the old instrumental can be seen in Latin or Greek?—...
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53 views

Do we know how Greek dialects sounded?

To some extent, we know how sounds varied between ancient Greek dialects: the Aeolians lost rough breathings but preserved digamma, for example, while the Attics changed many of their long alphas into ...
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2answers
74 views

When did σχ become [ʃ]?

In Tsakonian (a modern descendant of Doric Greek), the letter combination ΣΧ is pronounced [ʃ] (the first sound in English "ship"). However, it seems clear that this wasn't the ancient pronunciation, ...
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ἤ = vel or ἤ = aut?

LSJ says ἤ is a "disjunctive or", but does it correspond Latin's vel ("inclusive disjunction") or aut ("exclusive cunjunction")?
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παντοκράτωρ - a matter of power or authority?

παντοκράτωρ, pantokrator is generally translated as "almighty," interpreted as a matter of power. I.e. the bible talks about one infinite God, El shaddai. But im curious if we may have been ...
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72 views

(Greek) what's a “γε causal”?

I read in the very beginning of Platon's Laches (perseus edition): τεθέασθε μὲν τὸν ἄνδρα μαχόμενον ἐν ὅπλοις, ὦ Νικία τε καὶ Λάχης: οὗ δ᾽ ἕνεκα ὑμᾶς ἐκελεύσαμεν συνθεάσασθαι ἐγώ τε καὶ Μελησίας ...
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967 views

What is this letter?

I came across this picture attached to a clickbaity article this morning: A nice, normal-looking Greek alphabet…except for something that looks like S in between epsilon and zeta. What is this ...
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354 views

If these Greek characters ever had alternative orthographies / typographies

Wondering if any of the following letters were or are ever written in the way described for each. Δ : If it is ever filled in black. Ξ : If it is ever written as similar to E or Ǝ, with a side edge ...
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Different greek cases for Theos

Trying to improve my understanding of biblical greek and ran across something odd. Theos - Θεός is nominative. Theon - Θεόν is accusative. TheO - Θεῷ is dative. Theou - Θεοῦ genitive. Theoi - θεοί ...
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How long was the privative alpha?

In Ancient Greek, the "privative alpha" is a negating prefix, cognate to Latin in- (as in "in-conceivable", not "in-flammable") and English "un-". It survives in English in words like "a-typical" and "...
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What would this pun mean?

In a conversation with a fellow Ancient Greek enthusiast, the name "Medusa" (Μέδουσα, "ruling") came up. I made a rather tortured pun by switching the epsilon to an eta, creating μὴ δοῦσα. Now, μή is ...
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How did the “injunctive” work?

According to Wikipedia: Homeric Greek does not have a historical present tense, but rather uses injunctives. Injunctives are replaced by the historical present in the post-Homeric writings of ...
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How was the “elliptical dual” used?

In a comment on this answer, TKR brought up an interesting point of grammar I'd never heard of. Αἴαντε [Ajax-DUAL] is an interesting case. Though readers of Homer since antiquity have interpreted ...
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1answer
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Hexametric Greek names

A number of Greek names encountered in hexameter follow the syllable length pattern -vv-; consider for example Penelope, Telemachos, Calliope, Terpsichore. The pattern -v-- is absent as the metric ...
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2answers
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When was the dual number used in Attic Greek?

I have only studied the very basics of Greek years ago, so the question might be simple, but I couldn't find a clear summary anywhere. Attic Greek has a dual number alongside singular and plural. When ...
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1answer
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Unde “Laelaps”?

Laelaps was a mythical hunting dog that could always catch its prey. The name comes from Greek λαῖλαψ, "hurricane". But where does this word come from? LSJ doesn't provide an etymology, and ...
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79 views

Can you please fix the mistakes in translating these prayers from Koine Greek to English (Part 2 of 2)?

This is a continuation from this question I do not know nearly enough Koine Greek to point out what I am specifically unsure about. That said, I do know enough to see that the Greek and English texts ...
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69 views

Can you please fix the mistakes in translating these prayers from Koine Greek to English (Part 1 of 2)?

This question is continued here I do not know nearly enough Koine Greek to point out what I am specifically unsure about. That said, I do know enough to see that the Greek and English texts do not ...
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1answer
273 views

What declension are θορυβος and κοσμος?

I'm curious about what declension θορυβος and κοσμος are in Attic Greek. They appear to be second declension (θορυβος, -ου and κοσμος, -ου), but in the Athenaze workbook (which I'm slowly working my ...
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Ancient greek translation exercise - narration, meaning of singular *οὔτε*

In First Greek Book by John Williams White following passage is given for reader to translate: Τισσαφέρνες δέ, ὀ τῆς Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιος ἦν, τότε δὲ οὔτε ἐστράτευεν ἐπ' αὔτε διήρπαζε ...
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Where does the word “thlypis”/θλυπις come from?

A number of New World warblers seem to have genus names that end in the element -thlypis. It's been hard for me to find information about the etymology of this element; I found a few sources on the ...
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1answer
296 views

«ἐστὶ γνωρίζειν καὶ οὐδεμιᾶς ἐπιστήμης ἀφωρισμένης» (Aristotle, Rhetoric, 1.1)

Aristotle, Rhetoric, 1.1: ἡ ῥητορική ἐστιν ἀντίστροφος τῇ διαλεκτικῇ: ἀμφότεραι γὰρ περὶ τοιούτων τινῶν εἰσιν ἃ κοινὰ τρόπον τινὰ ἁπάντων ἐστὶ γνωρίζειν καὶ οὐδεμιᾶς ἐπιστήμης ἀφωρισμένης I ...
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1answer
239 views

«θύων τε γὰρ φανερὸς ἦν πολλάκις μὲν οἴκοι» (Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.2)

Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.2: πρῶτον μὲν οὖν, ὡς οὐκ ἐνόμιζεν οὓς ἡ πόλις νομίζει θεούς, ποίῳ ποτ᾽ ἐχρήσαντο τεκμηρίῳ; θύων τε γὰρ φανερὸς ἦν πολλάκις μὲν οἴκοι, πολλάκις δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν κοινῶν τῆς ...
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When and how was “bombax!” used?

I found the exclamation bombax! in Plautus' Pseudolus (Pl. Ps. 1.3.131), where note 19 specifies it is a Greek loanword (βομβάξ in fact) used as an interjection of contempt. This agrees with what is ...
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What is the function of ποτὲ in «πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα τίσι ποτὲ λόγοις Ἀθηναίους»? (Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.1.1)

πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα τίσι ποτὲ λόγοις Ἀθηναίους ἔπεισαν οἱ γραψάμενοι Σωκράτην ὡς ἄξιος εἴη θανάτου τῇ πόλει. Source My question concerns the usage of ποτὲ in this clause. I reviewed the LSJ entry for ...
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What was the sibilant in θάλασσα?

The word θάλασσα thálassa "sea" is spelled in various different ways, with different letters replacing the sigmas: some dialects had a tau, for example, while others had a theta. Do we know (through ...
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The spelling of τηλικοῦτος

Why is τηλικοῦτος (< τηλικ + οὗτος) not spelled τηλιχοῦτος? Cf. e. g. ἀφορισμός.
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Why choose σ versus σσ in Hebrew loans?

The LXX provides a wide variety of Hebrew, Aramaic, and other Semitic words transcribed into Greek. Most of the transcriptions are straightforward: the letter lamedh ל, for example, is always ...
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Was the name “Sasan/Sassan” often spelled with a double S in Latin or Greek?

A question on ELU (“Sassanian” vs. “Sasanian”) brought up the fact that the name of Sāsān has often been spelled in English with a double S in the middle: "Sassan". (The same goes for related words ...
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115 views

What's the Latin or Greek for ladybug?

I'm curious whether we know the Classical Latin or Greek names of the ladybug. I can't find the word in any of the dictionaries I have access to at the moment, and googling turns up this reddit thread ...
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Paraphrasing Prometheus Bound (Greek)

In Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound I want to paraphrase these lines in Greek: PROMETHEUS [152] Oh if only he had hurled me below the earth, yes beneath Hades, the entertainer of the dead, into ...
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Hesychius quote: where are those words from?

Sappho Voigt 117A Campbell 117A number 2 (Campbell has two 117As, one is a quotation from Michael of Italy, the same as Voigt 194A, and the other one is Voigt 117A) is a quote from Hesychius, which ...
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Sappho Lobel-Page 136: to amend, or not to amend?

The fragment is reported by the tradition as: Ἦρος ἄγγελος ἱμερόφωνος ἀήδων Or sometimes with ἡμερόφωνος. It would seem we just need to fix a psilosis for the third word. However, Edmonds and ...
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Are there attestations of Greco-Latin contact languages from antiquity?

When speakers of different languages meet they often develop some contact language or pidgin containing elements of both languages. Surely speakers of Greek and Latin met in the antiquity at several ...
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138 views

The tradition for Sappho Lobel-Page 144

Here is the fragment as it appears in Voigt's edition: Bergk gives the text: μάλα δὴ κεκορημένας Γόργως and the critical note: So Voigt seems to say the one codex for this, which is curated (?)...
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Use of Greek article in Latin to clarify use of foreign indeclinable nouns

This question concerning the pluralization of letter names has led me to ask a somewhat related question on the use of Greek to clarify indeclinable nouns in Latin. The background to this question is ...
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What sort of Greek words are regularly distinguished only by tone?

In the postscript to this answer, Varro comments: …the L&S entry for ἰχθυβολος shows two possible accents, a paroxytone ἰχθυβόλος for an active meaning, and a proparoxytone ἰχθύβολος for a ...
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ἰχθύβολος ἄναξ, Fisher King (Greek)

Would "ἰχθύβολος ἄναξ" be a correct translation of "Fisher King" into Ancient Greek? (I want to use a derivative of ἰχθύς plus ἄναξ, not βᾰσῐλεύς)
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How can I look up words with digammas?

(Digammas? Digammai? Digammata?) This question revolved around a dialectal form that I'd never seen before. Normally when encountering a new Greek word, Attic or otherwise, my first instinct is to ...
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1answer
111 views

Sappho Lobel-Page 39: μάσλης vs. μάσθλης

Text: ‹–u–x–uu–› Πόδας δέ ποίκιλος μάσλης ἐκάλυπτε, Λύδι- ον κάλον ἔργον. Apart from "WTF Edmonds, tradition is unanimous on ἐκάλυπτε (says Voigt, Edmonds has different opinions) and ...
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About Sappho Lobel-Page 119

Tradition: ἡμιτύβιον σταλάσσων Needed changes: Psilosis to ἠμιτύβιον; Changing to neuter gender: στάλασσον. Changes I cannot motivate: Edmonds writes στέλασσον, why would that be? From Lobel-...
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About Sappho Lobel-Page 101

This is kind of a mess. Let me first report how I tackled it when I first translated all (or most) of Sappho. Below is the translation of an extract of the Paracritical note I made back then, the ...
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Why is the ϝ' in Sappho Lobel-Page universally thought to be a female (AFAIK at least)?

Here is the amended text, in almost the Lobel-Page version: ἀμφὶ ‹δ'› άβροισ‹ιν› λασίοισ' εὖ ‹ϝ'› ἐπύκασσεν The ‹δ'› is a correction from the tradition's λάβροις, the ‹ιν› fills in a hole in the ...
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About the part in cruces of Sappho Lobel-Page 46

The part of fragment in the title reads: κἂν μέν τε τύλαγκας ἀσπόλεα Now, the only easy amendation that comes to mind here (other than erasing the space after τε) is κἂν->κὰμ. That gives us three ...
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About Sappho Lobel-Page 104(a)

The tradition for this fragment is a horrible mess which I will detail in an addendum at the end (modulo updates) of the question by pasting the critical note I prepared this morning for it. Line 2 is ...