Questions tagged [etymologia]

For questions about etymology: the history of words in Latin or the change in meaning as the words are loaned into another language.

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4
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1answer
81 views

Were “meridiem” and “mediam diem” in free variation in Latin?

Both "meridiem" and "mediam diem" seem to have carried both the meaning "midday" and "(the) south" in Latin, if their Romance descendants are any indication. From "meridiem", we get apparently ...
2
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1answer
94 views

Is the third person passive perfect of a verb a source of nouns, e.g. “benedictus” from “bendico”?

I always get confused with benedictus. It Christian prayers, it is found both as a noun and as a (passive) verb, e.g. benedictus est. When est is omitted (not uncommon in Latin, it seems), both look ...
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2answers
96 views

A translation for 'stirrup'

I have to translate the word 'stirrup' into Latin. Since the Romans (famously) rode without stirrups I can find no useful classical reference and have decided to use stapes, which is used by ...
8
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1answer
413 views

Why is it Iuppiter rather than Iuppater?

Iuppiter comes from the vocative of the Indo-European *dyeus-patēr, cognate with Zeus in Greek. However, as *a > a in Latin and 'pater' survives elsewhere in Latin, one would expect Iuppater. How has ...
8
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2answers
277 views

Is 'datus' used for a date in Latin?

In many languages the word for date (a specific day, such as January 2, 2019) seems to come from the Latin participle datus: we have the English "date", the Italian "data", the Swedish "datum", and ...
5
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1answer
71 views

Where does “lascīvus” come from?

Lascīvus ("wanton") looks to me like it comes from a verb, with the -sc- and the -īv-. However, I don't know of any verb like *lascō. Lewis and Short connect it to other words starting with la- ...
7
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3answers
439 views

Origin of “lunatĭcus”

In Spanish we have the word lunático with the following meaning: One who suffers from madness, not continuous, but at intervals. This word comes from Latin lunatĭcus. According to Lewis & ...
5
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2answers
105 views

Unde “Laelaps”?

Laelaps was a mythical hunting dog that could always catch its prey. The name comes from Greek λαῖλαψ, "hurricane". But where does this word come from? LSJ doesn't provide an etymology, and ...
8
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283 views

Why did the Ro­mans per­ceive dark­ness, ᴛᴇ­ɴᴇ­ʙʀᴀᴇ, as a plu­ral count noun?

Why did the Ro­mans per­ceive dark­ness, te­ne­brae, as a plu­ral count noun? [Per­se­us cor­pus-search ref­er­ence] Or per­haps the bet­ter ques­tion is: what spe­cial nu­ance is con­veyed by the ...
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61 views

how to interpret ‘formosus’ via its morphological components

The adj. formosus can be decomposed as follows: forma + -os-us where forma means ‘shape, form’ and -os- ‘with abundance’. However, when the two notions come together, the whole, which literally ...
6
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165 views

on the word–analysis of ‘viridis’

According to OLD, the adj. viridis derives from the verb vireo, but nothing is mentioned about the suffix that turns the verb to the adj. Could anyone tell about the suffix that transforms the verb ...
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376 views

On the etymology of “conundrum”

The word conundrum "sounds" very Latin (or at least, it does not sound English enough to me). Yet, it seems its origin is unclear. Wiktionary states: A word of unknown origin with several ...
6
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335 views

Where did the Latin language get its infinitive verb endings from?

Some time ago, a user in the Spanish language site asked if the Spanish verb endings -ar, -er and -ir had a special meaning. I then answered that the endings do not have any meaning by themselves, at ...
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Is Nietzsche's proposed etymology of “bonus” (good) correct?

In the first treatise of On the Genealogy of Morality, §5, Nietzsche proposes the following derivation of bonus (good): I believe I may interpret the Latin bonus as "the warrior": assuing that ...
6
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1answer
262 views

What does con- in “conceptus” mean? How does it relate to “a thing conceived”?

Why Do Languages Change? (2010) by R. L. Trask (1944-2004). p. 105. (Latin conceptus is literally ‘with-taking’) Does the prefix con- truly mean “with” here? But Etymonline says that it's "...
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1answer
228 views

How did 'et' and 'iam' compound to signify “even” in 'etiam'?

How does "and, also" + "now, already" compound to signify "even"? I don't understand how combining the notions of "and, also" + "now, already" can yield "even". Wiktionary:
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116 views

Does *meditari* mean “measure”?

Does meditari have a meaning like "measure"? Using Google (I don't know which dictionary it's quoting), I see ... However I don't think I'm seeing that in a Latin dictionary, e.g. Lewis and Short or ...
6
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1answer
122 views

Nihilominus and nonetheless, related?

I find the word nihilominus remarkable. Like many Spanish or English words, the meaning can sort of be deduced from the meaning of the words making the composite (e.g. paraguas in Spanish, whiteboard ...
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2answers
162 views

How did 'interesse' shift from meaning 'to be between' to “to concern, make a difference, be of importance”?

What semantics notions underlie the original meaning as stated by Etymonline literally "to be between," from inter "between" (see inter-) + esse "to be" (from PIE root *es- "to be"). with ...
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1answer
1k views

Does the word “negotium” literally mean “not otium”?

Spanish word ocio (English: 'leisure') and negocio (English: 'business` among other meanings) come from Latin otium and negotium. Spanish ocio also gave ocioso, as in estar ocioso (English: 'to be ...
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What is the difference between nego, ignoro, and nescio?

Trying to understand the subtle differences between the three words "nego", "ignoro", and "nescio". This question is not about the meanings in modern English, but the original meanings of the ...
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1answer
2k views

Etymology of “salarium” and its connection to salt

It has been asked before both in the English Language & Usage site and the Spanish Language site about the etymology of salary and salario, respectively. In both cases, this site was mentioned as ...
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1answer
175 views

Audio and video… and tango?

Audio and video are two (apparently XX-century) concepts. Both take the same form as 1st-person sing., present tense Latin verbs. Wiktionary articles for the English words (audio, video) assert that ...
6
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1answer
53 views

'videlicet': How did “it is permissible to see” semantically shift to mean “that is to say”?

How did 1 beneath semantically shift to 2? Etymonline: viz. 1530s, abbreviation of videlicet [2.] "that is to say, to wit, namely" (mid-15c.), from Latin videlicet, contraction of ...
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2answers
2k views

If arm is 'arma', why is unarmed 'inermis' and not 'inarmis'?

I came across the Spanish word 'inerme', which comes from Latin inermis and means unarmed. Since the Latin word for arm is 'arma' and the preffix 'in' indicates negation, it is clear that the form '...
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190 views

What is the etymology of the word “anterior”?

I am looking for the etymology of the Latin adjective "anterior" (which is also a Spanish word, with the same meaning). Neither Wiktionary nor L&S provide hints on its etymology. It seems ...
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1answer
84 views

Where does strīx come from?

Ovid's Fastī for June 1 relates a story about strīgēs, witches who could transform into owls and magically sap the life of infants. There seem to be two forms of this word, strīx, -gis and strīga, -ae....
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116 views

How the Greek word “oikonomia” got meaning of “thrift”?

Some dictionaries seems to include the word "thrift" at the end of definition for oikonomia (good examples here and here): Greek oikonomia "household management, thrift. I would like to know the ...
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72 views

What does Geryon have to do with singing?

One of the Labors of Heracles involved a three-headed giant named Geryon (Γηρυών). I've never seen an explanation for this name, but at first glance it would seem to be connected to γηρύω "to sing" (...
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2answers
200 views

Are there well-assimilated Latin words from Semitic languages?

I've generally assumed that Latin words coming from Semitic are usually transformed by Greek: even Elissa is a Greek transcription of the original. But this answer indicates that the well-attested ...
6
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1answer
174 views

Latin etymology of the English word “pulchritude”

I working on a literary piece and trying to find the first known use in Latin of of "pulcher" (feminine pulchra, neuter pulchrum, comparative pulchrior, superlative pulcherrimus), e.g., "first known ...
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3answers
178 views

Where does titulus come from?

Is the word titulus a diminutive, or does the -ulus do something else? Do we know where it comes from? L&S mentions that the ti- is related to τίνω and τιμάω, but that does not help me much. I ...
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2answers
659 views

Does mentula (“penis”) derive from the same root as mens (“mind”), and if so why?

The Latin word mentula isn't properly defined in the Lewis & Short dictionary, but it does show up on Latin-Dictionary.net and Wiktionary. Both those dictionaries define mentula as "penis". But ...
5
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1answer
104 views

Where does quire come from?

Where does the verb quire come from? L&S is unsure of the etymology but compares it to a Sanskrit word. Do we know more about the etymology of the verb? Is composed of ire ("to go") and another (...
5
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3answers
345 views

Could (postclassical) cancer “lattice” be at all related to cancer “crab”?

Cancer "crab" and cancer "lattice" look related, but it could be a coincidence. They are not very close in meaning, but one could perhaps imagine a crab's collection of legs to be somewhat similar to ...
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3answers
353 views

Cur nullum genus adiectivo “vetus”?

Why doesn't the adjective vetus inflect for gender?* I checked the etymology and vetus appears to have been inherited from Proto-Indo-European by the usual route. So why is it irregular? * OK, ...
7
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1answer
590 views

What is the meaning and origin of the “se-” prefix?

There are a lot of Latin words that begin with se-. It adds the notion of being "apart" or "separated": secerno secludo secubo seduco seiungo sepono etc. The linked entry calls it an "inseparable ...
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1answer
43 views

How did 'ex-' + 'serere' compound to signify 'thrust out, put forth'?

Etymonline avers the etymology for 'exert' to be from: 1660s, "thrust forth, push out," from Latin exertus/exsertus, past participle of exerere/exserere "thrust out, put forth," ...
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1answer
78 views

Where does -na come from?

In this answer, fdb suggested that Greek selēnē < selannā < *selas-nā and Latin lūna < losnā < *lowks-nā share a suffix. What is this noun-forming -nā, and is it the same one that's seen ...
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1answer
105 views

What semantic notions underlie 'hole' and a swelling, bulge'? [closed]

The English version of Wiktionary's page on 'trou' (French for 'hole') avers that it's: From Medieval Latin traugus, a "barbarous" Latin word first attested in the Ripuarian Law, probably ...
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160 views

Is there any explanation for the formation of “bomphiologia” as a Greek word for “verborum bombus”?

Recently on ELU, a question was asked about the meaning of three rhetorical terms that are obviously based on Greek: “macrologia”, “periergia” and “bomphiologia”. The Greek etymologies of "macrologia"...
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93 views

Is there any relation between Bellerophon and belua?

I know this is a long shot, one word being Greek and the other Latin, but is it at all possible for there to be a relation between Bellerophon, the slayer of beasts, and belua "beast"? A cursory ...
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0answers
66 views

What is the origin of the active perfect indicative personal endings?

The active perfect stem conjugation in Latin resembles the conjugation of esse a lot, but I recently learned that it is likely to be a coincidence. However, the active perfect indicative forms do not ...
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0answers
51 views

Did meminisse ever had a present tense?

The verb meminī, meminisse, *mementus ever have any sort of (morphologically) present tense? If not, why not? If so, at what point was it lost in Latin? Bonus points: if the present tense had ...
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0answers
119 views

Etymology of Ἀσκληπιός (Greek)

There are different theories on the etymology of Asclepius, all of which I want to understand. According to Wikipedia: The etymology of the name is unknown. In his revised version of Frisk's ...
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1answer
153 views

Is the sigmatic future related to the sigmatic aorist?

When I was learning Ancient Greek, I was taught that most verbs had three basic stems corresponding to the different aspects: imperfective -λυ-, aoristic -λυσ-, and perfective -λελυκ-. Adding an ...
5
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1answer
181 views

What's the deal with the extra U in 'mortuus'?

The verb mori ("to die") has the unusual past participle mortuus ("dead"). The stem of the participle is mortu-, the only example of a past participle stem ending in a vowel I can think of. (If my ...
10
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1answer
288 views

Where did the passive infinitive come from?

The etymology of the present active infinitive seems well-documented. Proto-Italic had an infinitive-like suffix *-si, so *dōnā- + *-si = *dōnāsi > dōnāre by regular sound changes (s → z → r between ...
6
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1answer
116 views

Why is there a short ŭ in rŭtus?

In Cerberus's list of u-stem verbs, rŭō, rŭere, rŭī, rŭtus is the only one with a short ŭ in the participle stem. Why is this? Does it go back to different types of verbs in PIE, as with stătus ...
5
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2answers
86 views

Comparing the etymologies of the adjective and participle 'latus'

What are the etymologies of the adjective latus ("wide") and the participle latus ("carried")? I had assumed that they are the same and the participle just started a new life as an adjective after a ...

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