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17 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does forem compare to essem?

The verb esse has two sets of imperfect conjunctive forms: essem, esses, esset… and forem, fores, foret… What is the difference between these two, in meaning and in use? Are there cases ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
890 views

Can esse be used with a present participle?

I do not recall ever seeing esse in any form used with active present participles (like faciens). One could imagine something similar to the English distinction between "he does" and "he is doing" in ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Present participles of the verb esse

Inspired by the answers to this question, I want to ask about the different present participles of esse over time and their fate. I am aware that esse is a defective verb that classically does not ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
980 views

Why is there no predicate in "in vino veritas"?

The latin aphorism, penned by Alcaeus of Mytilene, in vino veritas does not contain any predicate. I assume that esse is implied but I haven't come across any other aphorisms leaving out verbs. Is ...
technical_difficulty's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

Confusion regarding 'esse' + accusative

I am currently learning Latin from the Bloomsbury Latin to GCSE books. In one of the reading passages the following constructions are used: "non cupio rex vester esse. dei signum mittent si me ...
WhatKnaveryIsThis's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
774 views

Translation of "...quae parvas aves capit et est."

I was reading Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata to practice my fluency of understanding simple sentences. In the tenth chapter, Bestiae et Homines (page 69), I came across a description of eagles. ...
Middle School Historian's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
227 views

Dominus vobiscum / omitted `esse' in subjunctive mood (sit)?

In Catholic liturgy, there is this ubiquitous expression used to join or precede important prayers where the priest salutes the assembly by wishing (or so I think) that the Lord be with them: Dominus ...
Rafael's user avatar
  • 11.5k
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is "servos" accusative plural in Plautus's "is est servos ipse" and, if that's the case, why does "esse" takes accusative case there?

I have some troubles in understanding the syntax of a sentence from Plautus's Captivi, line 580; I need to add glosses. The sentence is "Nam is est servos ipse, neque praeter se umquam ei servos fuit"....
FerCa's user avatar
  • 81
8 votes
1 answer
737 views

Active perfect stem conjugation and forms of esse

Many forms formed from the perfect stem (habitav-, fec-, tetig-, and others) resemble forms of esse. It looks as if a form of esse was directly attached to the perfect stem. In perfect conjunctive an -...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
288 views

'fuam' and 'forem' not available in first and second person plural?

I found alternative forms of present and imperfect conjunctive forms of 'esse' on the german-latin dictionary website https://latin.cactus2000.de/showverb.php?verb=esse&form=esse : I realized ...
Cyb3rKo's user avatar
  • 626
6 votes
1 answer
3k views

Imperative of sum - es or esto?

The imperatives of sum/esse (to be) are sg. es/esto and pl. este. When do we use es? And when esto?
global05's user avatar
  • 161
5 votes
1 answer
208 views

Can I write 'Ecce Esse!'?

Is 'ecce esse!' acceptable Latin for 'Lo, to be!'? I've tried looking online for answers, but I've not found anything definitive either confirming or disconfirming that it is, though I do not have ...
user2721's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
480 views

Why do translators translate Newton's 2nd law as though it referred to "force" when it does not mention force?

Here's Newton's 2nd law. Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae, et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. The term esse vi motrici is often translated as ...
Pasajero del toro's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
250 views

Latin usage & perfect passive finite verb forms

I understand that a perfect passive finite verb is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with the correct form of 'esse'. My question is this: Does it ever happen that the second ...
Mike's user avatar
  • 41
3 votes
1 answer
274 views

Reflexive Pronouns & Indirect Statements

The answer key to North & Hillard, Ex. 235 proposes the following Latin translation of:"...until the king, frightened by the ambassador's boldness, promised to do what the Senate decreed." ......
tony's user avatar
  • 8,872
0 votes
0 answers
80 views

Does the PPA occur in a periphrastic form? [duplicate]

Can you put a PPA in a periphrastic construction, with a form of esse? I was working on the periphrastic declension of the future active parts and the future passive parts. Now it occurred to me: ...
Johannes Kwadraat's user avatar