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Questions tagged [declinatio]

For questions about declension—the inflection of Latin nouns and adjectives to mark grammatical features such as case and number.

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What declension are θορυβος and κοσμος?

I'm curious about what declension θορυβος and κοσμος are in Attic Greek. They appear to be second declension (θορυβος, -ου and κοσμος, -ου), but in the Athenaze workbook (which I'm slowly working my ...
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Sappho Lobel-Page 136: to amend, or not to amend?

The fragment is reported by the tradition as: Ἦρος ἄγγελος ἱμερόφωνος ἀήδων Or sometimes with ἡμερόφωνος. It would seem we just need to fix a psilosis for the third word. However, Edmonds and ...
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Can I pluralize letters of the alphabet?

In English, it's very common to talk about letters of the alphabet in the plural: he writes his R's backwards, for example, is a perfectly natural sentence. But the Latin names for the letters don't ...
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Translation: Out of my death, new life

I took a Latin course a few years ago, and now I'm trying my hand for a friend's tattoo. Is my translation of the title correct? English: Out of my death, new life. Latin attempt: Ex mei mortis ...
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357 views

Extra syllable in “foedus”

Foedus is both a noun and an adjective. As a noun, it is classified as third declension, since its genitive ends in -is: foederis. I am intrigued however on the added "er" syllable. Why not foedis? ...
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89 views

Can cases be replaced with prepositions + nominative?

Consider the word domus. Standard cases are domi, domo, domum, domo, domis. I wonder whether we could replace the above (and perhaps every single noun), with the "equivalent" preposition + nominative....
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Interchange between u- and o-stem forms in suffixed derivatives (e.g. “lectus”, “lectuarius”)

A little while back, I asked a question about the alleged Latin word "tribalis" (which it seems was not actually used), and I mentioned that it seemed to me that it would be an irregular formation ...
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NSFW - Trying to create a Latin motto for a coat of arms - Edited for clarity

So, I took a couple years of Latin in school, but it's been awhile. I was trying to create this motto, and I'm not sure if I'm declining the nouns properly. Also not sure I remember if word order is ...
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Adjectives that decline as consonant stems in the neuter plural nominative/accusative

From what I have read, most third-declension Latin adjectives other than comparatives take the i-stem endings -ī, ium and -ia in the ablative singular, genitive plural and neuter nominative/accusative ...
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68 views

Are there any indeclinable adjectives?

I had until recently believed that only nouns could be "declinable" versus "indeclinable": most nouns follow set declensions patterns, while a few (mostly foreign, like Abraham from Hebrew, but some ...
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412 views

In which case should book authors be written?

At the beginning of every book, there is the name of the author followed by the title itself. However, the case, in which the author's name is written may vary. Let me illustrate with two examples: ...
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81 views

Why does Latin use declensions instead of just cases and gender?

What is the purpose of declensions? I know that 1st declension is female second is male and 3rd is neuter, but then why 4 and 5? What is the purpose of several declensions?
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Plura or pluria?

Before answering this recent question about the US motto, I had to check whether the neuter version of plures is plura or pluria. I had recalled right: plura appears to be indeed the sole form used in ...
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16th stanza of Dies irae

The 16th stanza of Dies irae reads: Confutatis maledictis, Flammis acribus addictis, Voca me cum benedictis. Why are the first two lines in 2nd person plural, while the last one is 2nd ...
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Genitive of Sappho: Sapphonis or Sapphus?

As I posted on the Wiktionary Tea Room: Consulting Bergk's edition of Sappho, I have seem various instances of this genitive "Sapphonis" (e.g. «Sapphonis esse videtur») in the critical notes. This ...
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How common is the genitive plural ending -um in the first declension?

In an answer, Draconis said the genitive plural -um (instead of -arum) is sometimes used in the first declension. Now, while -um is fairly common in poetry and with certain specific words, like deum, ...
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General term for each inflected form of a lexeme

illī is a X of ille declension. illī is singular dative masculine form of ille. In the first sentence what we should say instead of X?
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Latin phrase, modelled on “horror vacui”, for the fear of “equality”?

A usual latin phrase is horror vacui, which in English can be rendered as fear of emptiness. Question: what do you consider a correct Latin translation of the English fear of equality? The question ...
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Which common nouns have a locative?

I recently mentioned to someone the mnemonic I'd learned for the locative: "cities, towns, islands smaller than Rhodes, and domus and rus". In other words, only the names of cities, towns, and small ...
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What would the singular of a tribes-people like Caledonii be?

This map names a lot of tribes-people. The one in Scotland is called "Caledonii". I'm assuming "Caledonii" is the plural form of the people. I've also seen other maps where the land is called "...
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New testament Romans 2:8 - Why is nominative used instead of accusative like the previous verse?

See the Vatican version here: 6 qui reddet unicuique secundum opera eius: 7 his quidem, qui secundum patientiam boni operis gloriam et honorem et incorruptionem quaerunt, vitam aeternam; ...
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Why “a man” instead of “to a man” in this translation?

Cornēliō, virō magnae sapientiae, dabō pulchrum librum novum is rendered into English as "To Cornelius, a man of great wisdom, I will give this fine new book" on this page of Latin translation ...
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What declension is the name, Aeneas?

How would you decline this noun? It can not be 1st, 2nd, or 3rd declension. Also, how would you say "of Aeneas", which is genitive case?
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What is the difference between Iesus and Jesu?

In the Latin version of the Gloria, the name Jesus is rendered as "Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe". However, in the Latin Vulgate, the name of Jesus is rendered as "Iesus". What is the name of ...
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Is 'Delphī' a second declension word?

From the genitive 'Delphōrum', it seems to belong to the second declension. But is it used as a singular or a plural?
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What gender would “this” or “that” be in if there is no subject to describe?

With a specified subject or object, it's easy to say "this" or "that." This picture is of my dream. Haec pictura somnii mei est. But what if the noun being described is not present? What ...
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Can a noun have more than one preposition? [duplicate]

While doing some independent translating, I came upon a sentence structure which I am having difficulty putting into Latin. The structure is as follows: into and out of the X of Y or, more ...
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When I am the subject and the direct object of a phrase

I want to translate the following French quote from Paul Valéry: Je ne suis pas toujours d'accord avec moi-même. Which roughly translates into: I don't always agree with myself. I want it to ...
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Latin declension of a proper name, especially a city name

How can I figure out the Latin declension of a proper name, especially a city name? For example, consider the city of Marash in Turkey. It appears in various forms in medieval Latin sources: Marasim, ...
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What is the significance of the different declensions and conjugations?

I've been slowly trying to teach myself Latin with the help of this site. I've gone past the parts where it talks about first, second, third etc declension nouns, and it all seems quite arbitrary as ...
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Why do we call a case a casus? And why rectus, obliquus?

I would translate the grammatical word casus (whence English case) as "a fall". And, indeed, the German word is Fall, Dutch naamval ("name fall"). Why is this word used for the grammatical function of ...
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Do *Mundi* and *Mundum* mean different things?

I came across this expression in the book: The Invisible Man, (H.G. Wells) Griffin contra mundum...with a vengeance From my very basic knowledge of Latin (I'm a Bio. student) I take it that contra ...
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Remnants of the dual number

To my understanding, Latin doesn't have a dual number at all. The adjectives duo "two" and ambō "both" have some special forms derived from the PIE dual (-ō, -ābus, -ōbus), but are considered ...
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Why is suus in the accusative feminine singular in this sentence?

I'm a very new Latin learner - I'm using Lingua Latina as my primary text to become fluent in reading (with the 'college' supplement and other texts for additional clarification). I'm on chapter 6 (...
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Did the Romans borrow any inflection from other languages than Greek?

Some Greek loan words in Latin use Greek declension. For example, I recall seeing Aeneida and Aeneidos instead of the regular Latin declension Aeneidem and Aeneidis. Some elements of Greek inflection ...
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Forms of 2nd Declension Neuter Nouns ending in -ium

The 2nd Declension Neuter endings are: Singular Nom: -um Gen: -ī Dat: -ō Acc: -um Abl: -ō Plural Nom: -a Gen: -ōrum Dat: -īs Acc: -a Abl: -īs With a word such as auxilium (meaning help, aid), which ...
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232 views

-eris, -oris, -uris?

Much to students' annoyance, nouns ending in -us can belong to either the second (servus), third (tempus), or fourth (circus) declensions. I understand the origin of the second and fourth: Proto-Indo-...
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Length of i in Vergilius' “ferentis”

In the famous line "quicquid id est timeo Danaos et dona ferentis" Vergilius uses an older plural accusative form ferentis instead of ferentes. (It is unimportant here whether quicquid or quidquid is ...
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Plural dative and ablative of Greek neuters ending in -ma

There are several third declension neuters of Greek origin ending in -ma with genitive -matis. These have otherwise regular third declension forms, but the plural dative and ablative are often -ī...
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Agent of passive sentence in accusative

In the following clause the agent is in the accusative, not ablative. Why? quod Civitas Aquilegensis et oppida Sancti Viti A. et Sancti Danielis in dicta patria consistentia cum omnibus eorum ...
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Same ending of “Mediolanensis” in “Archiepiscopus Mediolanensis” and “Archidioecesis Mediolanensis”

Why is the ending of Mediolanensis in Archiepiscopus Mediolanensis and Archidioecesis Mediolanensis the same even though the former noun is male and the latter female?
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In what case is “Venetiarum” in “Patriarchatus Venetiarum”?

Also, is it a noun or an adjective? What's the nominative? (moved second question here) Sorry, I'm a total n00b and checked all sorts of declension tables but I just can't figure this one out.
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What is the plural of virus, vulgus and pelagus?

There are three neuters in the second declension ending in -us: virus, vulgus and pelagus. (See this previous question for origin and listing of such words.) My grammar tells me that these words are ...
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Are there any other neuter words of the second declension that end on -us than “virus”?

Virus is a neuter word of the second declension even though it ends on -us, as evidenced by its genitive on -i (it has no plural). Are there any other such words? Bonus question: is it possible that ...
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Was -i used as genitive ending for first declension masculines?

In Greek masculines of the first declension borrow the singular genitive ending -ου from second declension. Latin uses the ending -ae for all of first declension: puellae, nautae, ...
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What is the vocative of Gnaeus?

I would like to know how to decline the name Gnaeus in vocative. I see three options: Gnaee (regular declension) Gnai (would make sense by analogy to Gai if the name is pronounced /gnaius/) Gnaeus (...
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Why does singular “mons” become plural “montes”?

Some singular third declension nouns, ending in -s, have a t in their stem, so: singular mons → plural montes infans → infantes miles → milites I understand these to be examples of "lingual" ...
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Did grammarians consider the adverbial -e a case ending?

For adjectives of the first and second declension, the corresponding adverb is formed with the ending -e. For example, pulchre (beautifully) comes from pulcher (beautiful). Canonically this -e is ...
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Is there a plural of Jesus in Latin?

The name Iesus has peculiar declension in Latin. The declension of this word in every source that I have seen only gives singular forms. However, I can imagine situations where a plural is needed: a ...
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Is -um (instead of -ōrum) a typical genitive plural ending outside of poetry?

I understand that Vergil often uses the -um genitive plural ending for some second declension nouns, instead of -ōrum. For example: huc delecta virum sortiti corpora furtim (Aeneid, Book II, line ...