Questions tagged [declinatio]

For questions about declension—the inflection of Latin nouns and adjectives to mark grammatical features such as case and number.

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6
votes
2answers
389 views

Does an irregular word decline regularly if it is used as a proper name?

Does an irregular word decline regularly if it is used as a proper name? For example, imagine there is a dog name Rex (=King). We might have: Vide Regem currentem. See Rex run. However, since Rex is ...
5
votes
1answer
119 views

How to decline Greek proper nouns ending in -ēs in Latin?

I was browsing the OLD today and then I noticed the following entry: Stagīrītēs, Stagē- ~-ae m. A person who originates from Stagira in Macedonia. Two examples are given there: Aristotelem ~em Cic. Ac....
4
votes
1answer
240 views

Is unius an irregular genitive?

I notice that the genitive of unus can apparently be either the regular uni, or can also be unius. Is this form, unius, just a completely irregular oddity, or is there some logical precedent for it? ...
6
votes
1answer
116 views

What is the etymology of 'cuius' and is it different from 'quis'?

'cuius' (and 'cui') is an interesting word in that it stands out as different from the other terms in the declension of 'quis'. It seems to be pronounced differently. 'quis' is /kwis/ but 'cuius' is /...
6
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2answers
451 views

What is the difference between ἐκκλησίας and ἐκκλησίαν?

I know the root word is ἐκκλησία, but I don't understand the declensions.
4
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2answers
435 views

In “fortis fortuna adiuvat” is “fortis” accusative plural?

Fortis fortuna adiuvat, is fortis accusative plural here? Fortis has different forms for the same conjugation as I see at Wiktionary, and I couldn't find which forms adiuvare takes as an exhaustive ...
4
votes
1answer
78 views

Deponent verb participle gender

If we consider a deponent verb such as arbitrārī in the perfect tense, hence arbitrātus sum/es/est, is the participle arbitrātus supposed to be declined like a regular adjective? For example if one ...
13
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1answer
480 views

Why are so many Latin men's names (cognomina) in the usually-feminine first declension?

The first declension, with the -a ending, is usually feminine. Why are so many men's names (cognomina), however, in the first declension -- Seneca, Cinna, Aggrippa, Sulla, and more? This is far out of ...
1
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1answer
49 views

Carpe sciurum (sieze/harvest the squirrel?)

Would 'carpe sciurum' be a functional translation of 'seize the squirrel'? (As in to 'harvest' or 'pluck' the squirrel?)
6
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1answer
109 views

Nepos' Themistocles: ut ingratis omnes ad depugnandum cogerentur?

I am reading the biography of Themistocles by Cornelius Nepos. He recounts the story of how Themistocles used a deceit to bring about the naval engagement that went down in history as the famous ...
3
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3answers
134 views

What case does 'plus' take?

I don't have any information about what case to use with 'plus' (or 'magis'). In dictionaries usually only prepositions take some case, and it is showed in parentheses. In my language, 'more' takes ...
9
votes
1answer
200 views

How did the fourth declension neuter dative singular become different from the non-neuter ending?

Usually, when a neuter case ending is different from the non-neuter ending in the same declension, the difference is in the nominative or accusative case (e.g. -us and -um in the second declension ...
0
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0answers
58 views

Best Latin Websites to learn/revise/practice tests

I was wondering what the best websites for (a) learning latin and (b) revising/doing practice tests are? More specifically, I was wondering if anyone happened to have or know where I could find some ...
5
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1answer
76 views

Where does the -τ- come from in the oblique stem of some Greek neuter nouns with nom/acc sing forms in -ς?

I just learned that some Greek neuter nouns of the third declension with a nominative/accusative singular form ending in -ς have oblique stems in -τ-, which surprised me. I expected τ-stem neuter ...
5
votes
3answers
591 views

Sentence which includes an example of each case

I'm looking for a sentence which includes the usage of each case of Latin. For example, a student could mark each word in the sentence to indicate its case and function for ease of learning. Extreme ...
14
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4answers
4k views

Meaning of “dies illa” from Dies Irae

The first verse from "Dies Irae" goes like Dies irae, dies illa I'm trying to understand what "illa" is referring to. According to the declension table for pronouns, "illa" corresponds either to ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

How should one latinize this name?

A friend of mine, whose name is Raoni (he's brazilian, his name comes from a native root, also the tonic vowel is the very last [i]), started learning latin and I've been studying for a while. I ...
17
votes
1answer
600 views

What are the relative frequencies of cases in Latin?

Latin has seven cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, vocative, locative. What are their relative frequencies in classical Latin? I suppose an answer would have to be based on ...
12
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2answers
495 views

Which Latin declension is most common?

Does anyone know the rough proportions of Latin words that fall into each of the five declensions? Which is most common? Which is least common?
9
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1answer
78 views

Why is the proper name Apollos not declined in the Vulgate

Saint Apollos was a companion of Saint Paul mentioned several times in the New Testament. In the Latin Vulgate, his name is transliterated as an indeclinable noun, Apollo. My question is, why was his ...
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0answers
55 views

Checking Greek declensions: software or reference?

Although quite a few Greek words follow the same simple patterns of declension, I'm finding that there are enough complications that I'm often unsure of whether I'm getting it right. Is there a ...
3
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0answers
45 views

προσώπατα versus πρόσωπα, προσώπασι versus προσώποις in Homer

I'm working on learning Homeric vocabulary, and for this purpose I've written a script using CLTK to search for forms of a particular word through the Iliad and Odyssey. The idea is that I don't want ...
2
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1answer
76 views

Declination of “potentia” with preposition “in”

In philosophy, e.g. in Spinoza, there is the Latin word "potentia" that is often translated as a power, or capacity, to act (potentia agendi) and to suffer actions. I am wondering what is the right ...
4
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2answers
460 views

How do you latinize the name “Cole”?

Salvete, I can't figure out how I would go about latinizing my name. I would also appreciate a declension of my latinized name. I was thinking that maybe "Colus," "Colis," or "Coleus" could work, ...
2
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0answers
32 views

What order of the cases did the Romans use when declining nouns? [duplicate]

In modern books, two orders of the cases can be found: nom, gen, dat, acc, abl, and nom, acc, gen, dat, abl. Which one did the Romans use? Or did they use some entirely different order?
4
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0answers
70 views

Why is the form “Antares” used as an ablative in some Latin texts?

Jam inquiro nomen stellae Antares. Multa documenta quae "ab Antares" dicunt comperi. At non scio ablativi qui in "es" terminantur. Potestne nomen "Antares" indeclinabile esse? Quare? Exempla: "Lanx ...
2
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2answers
136 views

Essentialia negotii transaction's essentials

So essentialia negotii is transaction's essentials. How would one say The transaction's essential things, transactions' essential things, essential things of the transaction and essential things of ...
2
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2answers
2k views

Is the adjective in latin put after the noun or before?

E.g Is the legal term essentialia negotii correct use of the grammar(declension, agreement, word order) rules or not? Should it not be negotiorum essentialium so that the case, the number and the ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Declension uncertainty regarding Ablative / Nominative

I'm struggling, particularly, with determining the correct case for some of the words in the following expressions: Natura est semper invicta Here, is the word "invicta" in Ablative or Nominative ...
5
votes
1answer
185 views

How did vāti-s become vātēs?

To my understanding, vātēs "bard" started out as an i-stem noun, built on the stem vāti- (probably from something like *weh₂t-i-). So I would expect the nominative to look something like *vāti-s. ...
5
votes
3answers
177 views

Where does the word “tudes” 'hammer' show up in texts?

Lewis and Short has an entry for a noun tŭdes, with the genitive singular given as "is (ĭtis, acc. to Fest. p. 253 Müll.)". It is defined as "a hammer, mallet". The two citations in the entry show the ...
5
votes
1answer
103 views

Can Greek letter names be declined?

There seems to be solid evidence that Latin letter names were indeclinable. But in Greek, several letters' names do fit into standard declension patterns: sigma, for instance, might actually be a -ma ...
6
votes
1answer
162 views

Dies and the fifth declension

In an answer to this question on Ζεύς Draconis mentions (quoting his own post on another site): The accusative form of the root, *dyēm (cf AGrk Zēn), also survived in Latin, in the form *diēm > ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Words belong to the first and second declension at the same time

Exter, magnus, diduus, they all belong to the first declension and also the second declension. Why these adjectives are so special?
4
votes
1answer
230 views

Do first-declension neuter nouns or adjectives have plural forms?

Although almost all first-declension nouns are feminine or masculine, there seem to be a handful of adjectives that belong to the first declension for all genders, and at least one substantive noun, ...
7
votes
2answers
249 views

Was “Pascha” ever used as a neuter first-declension noun?

Before today, I thought that there was no neuter substantive1 noun with a nominative singular in a and a genitive singular in ae. However, I have encountered references to a possible exception: some ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

How to find the stem of any word?

I am wondering if the stem of every word has an exact form? For example: For the word genus, how could you determine is it gen or gener? For the word līber, how could you determine is it līber or ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

Declining “dulcis” in context

I want to translate the phrase It's just like a big recorder where "recorder" is the musical instrument. The generic Latin for "flute" seems to be "tibia" (pipe), so I settled on using the Latin ...
5
votes
1answer
103 views

How are “Arsaces” and “Gotarzes” declined, and why?

Declinatione nominum latinorum a nominibus graecis quae -ης finiuntur perturbor. Dictionarium L&S exhibet "Arsăces, is m." a nomine graeco Ἀρσάκης. (E in syllaba ultima de "Arsăces" longum esse ...
5
votes
1answer
144 views

How did vulgus get its ending?

Vulgus "crowd, mob, common people" is a neuter second-declension noun. But unlike most second-declension neuters, it ends in -us, like a masculine. How did this happen? Is there an etymological ...
5
votes
1answer
121 views

Genitives like “axeos”

I recently encountered a text written in Latin in Finland about two centuries ago using the form axeos. From context it was clear that it was a genitive, and it looks just like the Greek genitive of ...
6
votes
2answers
490 views

What consonants can a noun stem end in?

As TKR mentions, third-declension nouns in Latin have stems ending with a consonant (*). Off the top of my head, I can think of stems ending in various different consonants: rex, for example, has a G ...
5
votes
3answers
197 views

Do any non-second-declension neuter nouns end in m?

I have the impression that the ending -m appears on neuter nouns (in the nominative/accusative form) only in the second declension, but I don't know whether there are any exceptions. Is there any ...
4
votes
1answer
152 views

Why aren't cardinal numbers over three inflected?

I've been looking through some etymologies and it seems to me that cardinals past trēs aren't inflected. Is this correct, and if so, what's the logic in forming words with indeclinable numbers? Take, ...
4
votes
1answer
404 views

“Deus meus”, aut “Deus mī”?

I was taught that meus had a special irregular vocative, mī. (So "my father" in the vocative would be pater mī, not pater meus.) However, there's a line that shows up a few times in the ...
2
votes
1answer
425 views

Different greek cases for Theos

Trying to improve my understanding of biblical greek and ran across something odd. Theos - Θεός is nominative. Theon - Θεόν is accusative. TheO - Θεῷ is dative. Theou - Θεοῦ genitive. Theoi - θεοί ...
10
votes
1answer
729 views

Exactly what is a declension?

I was reading a Latin grammar book (Jenney's First Year Latin, for the curious) having recently resolved to learn a bit about the language and what I understood was as follows: Latin is an inflected ...
7
votes
1answer
296 views

What declension are θορυβος and κοσμος?

I'm curious about what declension θορυβος and κοσμος are in Attic Greek. They appear to be second declension (θορυβος, -ου and κοσμος, -ου), but in the Athenaze workbook (which I'm slowly working my ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Sappho Lobel-Page 136: to amend, or not to amend?

The fragment is reported by the tradition as: Ἦρος ἄγγελος ἱμερόφωνος ἀήδων Or sometimes with ἡμερόφωνος. It would seem we just need to fix a psilosis for the third word. However, Edmonds and ...
8
votes
3answers
149 views

Can I pluralize letters of the alphabet?

In English, it's very common to talk about letters of the alphabet in the plural: he writes his R's backwards, for example, is a perfectly natural sentence. But the Latin names for the letters don't ...