Questions tagged [declinatio]

For questions about declension—the inflection of Latin nouns and adjectives to mark grammatical features such as case and number.

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Negotia Essentialia and Essentialia Negotii

As Per Essentialia negotii transaction's essentials. Did the Classical Roman Scholars in Roman Law use Essentialia Negotii? Wouldn't it be more gramatical to use Negotia Essentialia to refer to ...
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What order of the cases did the Romans use when declining nouns? [duplicate]

In modern books, two orders of the cases can be found: nom, gen, dat, acc, abl, and nom, acc, gen, dat, abl. Which one did the Romans use? Or did they use some entirely different order?
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Why is the form “Antares” used as an ablative in some Latin texts?

Jam inquiro nomen stellae Antares. Multa documenta quae "ab Antares" dicunt comperi. At non scio ablativi qui in "es" terminantur. Potestne nomen "Antares" indeclinabile esse? Quare? Exempla: "Lanx ...
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Essentialia negotii transaction's essentials

So essentialia negotii is transaction's essentials. How would one say The transaction's essential things, transactions' essential things, essential things of the transaction and essential things of ...
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Is the adjective in latin put after the noun or before?

E.g Is the legal term essentialia negotii correct use of the grammar(declension, agreement, word order) rules or not? Should it not be negotiorum essentialium so that the case, the number and the ...
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Declension uncertainty regarding Ablative / Nominative

I'm struggling, particularly, with determining the correct case for some of the words in the following expressions: Natura est semper invicta Here, is the word "invicta" in Ablative or Nominative ...
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168 views

How did vāti-s become vātēs?

To my understanding, vātēs "bard" started out as an i-stem noun, built on the stem vāti- (probably from something like *weh₂t-i-). So I would expect the nominative to look something like *vāti-s. ...
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Where does the word “tudes” 'hammer' show up in texts?

Lewis and Short has an entry for a noun tŭdes, with the genitive singular given as "is (ĭtis, acc. to Fest. p. 253 Müll.)". It is defined as "a hammer, mallet". The two citations in the entry show the ...
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78 views

Can Greek letter names be declined?

There seems to be solid evidence that Latin letter names were indeclinable. But in Greek, several letters' names do fit into standard declension patterns: sigma, for instance, might actually be a -ma ...
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Dies and the fifth declension

In an answer to this question on Ζεύς Draconis mentions (quoting his own post on another site): The accusative form of the root, *dyēm (cf AGrk Zēn), also survived in Latin, in the form *diēm > ...
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68 views

Words belong to the first and second declension at the same time

Exter, magnus, diduus, they all belong to the first declension and also the second declension. Why these adjectives are so special?
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Do first-declension neuter nouns or adjectives have plural forms?

Although almost all first-declension nouns are feminine or masculine, there seem to be a handful of adjectives that belong to the first declension for all genders, and at least one substantive noun, ...
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Was “Pascha” ever used as a neuter first-declension noun?

Before today, I thought that there was no neuter substantive1 noun with a nominative singular in a and a genitive singular in ae. However, I have encountered references to a possible exception: some ...
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How to find the stem of any word?

I am wondering if the stem of every word has an exact form? For example: For the word genus, how could you determine is it gen or gener? For the word līber, how could you determine is it līber or ...
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Declining “dulcis” in context

I want to translate the phrase It's just like a big recorder where "recorder" is the musical instrument. The generic Latin for "flute" seems to be "tibia" (pipe), so I settled on using the Latin ...
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How are “Arsaces” and “Gotarzes” declined, and why?

Declinatione nominum latinorum a nominibus graecis quae -ης finiuntur perturbor. Dictionarium L&S exhibet "Arsăces, is m." a nomine graeco Ἀρσάκης. (E in syllaba ultima de "Arsăces" longum esse ...
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105 views

How did vulgus get its ending?

Vulgus "crowd, mob, common people" is a neuter second-declension noun. But unlike most second-declension neuters, it ends in -us, like a masculine. How did this happen? Is there an etymological ...
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107 views

Genitives like “axeos”

I recently encountered a text written in Latin in Finland about two centuries ago using the form axeos. From context it was clear that it was a genitive, and it looks just like the Greek genitive of ...
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What consonants can a noun stem end in?

As TKR mentions, third-declension nouns in Latin have stems ending with a consonant (*). Off the top of my head, I can think of stems ending in various different consonants: rex, for example, has a G ...
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132 views

Do any non-second-declension neuter nouns end in m?

I have the impression that the ending -m appears on neuter nouns (in the nominative/accusative form) only in the second declension, but I don't know whether there are any exceptions. Is there any ...
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Why aren't cardinal numbers over three inflected?

I've been looking through some etymologies and it seems to me that cardinals past trēs aren't inflected. Is this correct, and if so, what's the logic in forming words with indeclinable numbers? Take, ...
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“Deus meus”, aut “Deus mī”?

I was taught that meus had a special irregular vocative, mī. (So "my father" in the vocative would be pater mī, not pater meus.) However, there's a line that shows up a few times in the Vulgate that ...
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174 views

Different greek cases for Theos

Trying to improve my understanding of biblical greek and ran across something odd. Theos - Θεός is nominative. Theon - Θεόν is accusative. TheO - Θεῷ is dative. Theou - Θεοῦ genitive. Theoi - θεοί ...
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Exactly what is a declension?

I was reading a Latin grammar book (Jenney's First Year Latin, for the curious) having recently resolved to learn a bit about the language and what I understood was as follows: Latin is an inflected ...
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290 views

What declension are θορυβος and κοσμος?

I'm curious about what declension θορυβος and κοσμος are in Attic Greek. They appear to be second declension (θορυβος, -ου and κοσμος, -ου), but in the Athenaze workbook (which I'm slowly working my ...
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Sappho Lobel-Page 136: to amend, or not to amend?

The fragment is reported by the tradition as: Ἦρος ἄγγελος ἱμερόφωνος ἀήδων Or sometimes with ἡμερόφωνος. It would seem we just need to fix a psilosis for the third word. However, Edmonds and ...
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Can I pluralize letters of the alphabet?

In English, it's very common to talk about letters of the alphabet in the plural: he writes his R's backwards, for example, is a perfectly natural sentence. But the Latin names for the letters don't ...
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Translation: Out of my death, new life

I took a Latin course a few years ago, and now I'm trying my hand for a friend's tattoo. Is my translation of the title correct? English: Out of my death, new life. Latin attempt: Ex mei mortis ...
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377 views

Extra syllable in “foedus”

Foedus is both a noun and an adjective. As a noun, it is classified as third declension, since its genitive ends in -is: foederis. I am intrigued however on the added "er" syllable. Why not foedis? ...
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111 views

Can cases be replaced with prepositions + nominative?

Consider the word domus. Standard cases are domi, domo, domum, domo, domis. I wonder whether we could replace the above (and perhaps every single noun), with the "equivalent" preposition + nominative....
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Interchange between u- and o-stem forms in suffixed derivatives (e.g. “lectus”, “lectuarius”)

A little while back, I asked a question about the alleged Latin word "tribalis" (which it seems was not actually used), and I mentioned that it seemed to me that it would be an irregular formation ...
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NSFW - Trying to create a Latin motto for a coat of arms - Edited for clarity

So, I took a couple years of Latin in school, but it's been awhile. I was trying to create this motto, and I'm not sure if I'm declining the nouns properly. Also not sure I remember if word order is ...
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153 views

Adjectives that decline as consonant stems in the neuter plural nominative/accusative

From what I have read, most third-declension Latin adjectives other than comparatives take the i-stem endings -ī, ium and -ia in the ablative singular, genitive plural and neuter nominative/accusative ...
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180 views

Are there any indeclinable adjectives?

I had until recently believed that only nouns could be "declinable" versus "indeclinable": most nouns follow set declensions patterns, while a few (mostly foreign, like Abraham from Hebrew, but some ...
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434 views

In which case should book authors be written?

At the beginning of every book, there is the name of the author followed by the title itself. However, the case, in which the author's name is written may vary. Let me illustrate with two examples: ...
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119 views

Why does Latin use declensions instead of just cases and gender?

What is the purpose of declensions? I know that 1st declension is female second is male and 3rd is neuter, but then why 4 and 5? What is the purpose of several declensions?
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Plura or pluria?

Before answering this recent question about the US motto, I had to check whether the neuter version of plures is plura or pluria. I had recalled right: plura appears to be indeed the sole form used in ...
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16th stanza of Dies irae

The 16th stanza of Dies irae reads: Confutatis maledictis, Flammis acribus addictis, Voca me cum benedictis. Why are the first two lines in 2nd person plural, while the last one is 2nd ...
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Genitive of Sappho: Sapphonis or Sapphus?

As I posted on the Wiktionary Tea Room: Consulting Bergk's edition of Sappho, I have seem various instances of this genitive "Sapphonis" (e.g. «Sapphonis esse videtur») in the critical notes. This ...
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How common is the genitive plural ending -um in the first declension?

In an answer, Draconis said the genitive plural -um (instead of -arum) is sometimes used in the first declension. Now, while -um is fairly common in poetry and with certain specific words, like deum, ...
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General term for each inflected form of a lexeme

illī is a X of ille declension. illī is singular dative masculine form of ille. In the first sentence what we should say instead of X?
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Latin phrase, modelled on “horror vacui”, for the fear of “equality”?

A usual latin phrase is horror vacui, which in English can be rendered as fear of emptiness. Question: what do you consider a correct Latin translation of the English fear of equality? The question ...
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Which common nouns have a locative?

I recently mentioned to someone the mnemonic I'd learned for the locative: "cities, towns, islands smaller than Rhodes, and domus and rus". In other words, only the names of cities, towns, and small ...
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What would the singular of a tribes-people like Caledonii be?

This map names a lot of tribes-people. The one in Scotland is called "Caledonii". I'm assuming "Caledonii" is the plural form of the people. I've also seen other maps where the land is called "...
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New testament Romans 2:8 - Why is nominative used instead of accusative like the previous verse?

See the Vatican version here: 6 qui reddet unicuique secundum opera eius: 7 his quidem, qui secundum patientiam boni operis gloriam et honorem et incorruptionem quaerunt, vitam aeternam; ...
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Why “a man” instead of “to a man” in this translation?

Cornēliō, virō magnae sapientiae, dabō pulchrum librum novum is rendered into English as "To Cornelius, a man of great wisdom, I will give this fine new book" on this page of Latin translation ...
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1k views

What declension is the name, Aeneas?

How would you decline this noun? It can not be 1st, 2nd, or 3rd declension. Also, how would you say "of Aeneas", which is genitive case?
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Constantis vs. constantes et similia

Following up on @brianpck's suggestion in this question: In this passage: Maxume vero sunt admirabiles motus earum quinque stellarum quae falso vocantur errantes; nihil enim errat quod in omni ...
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What is the difference between Iesus and Jesu?

In the Latin version of the Gloria, the name Jesus is rendered as "Domine Fili unigenite Jesu Christe". However, in the Latin Vulgate, the name of Jesus is rendered as "Iesus". What is the name of ...
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Is 'Delphī' a second declension word?

From the genitive 'Delphōrum', it seems to belong to the second declension. But is it used as a singular or a plural?