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Questions tagged [declension]

For questions about declension—the inflection of Latin nouns and adjectives to mark grammatical features such as case and number.

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How to obtain the stem of a comparative adjective?

Learn to Read Latin says on p276 in Section 109. Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs: Comparative Degree of Adjectives All regular first-second and third-declension adjectives in Latin form the ...
Tim's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
158 views

Is -is the feminine singular nominative endings of third-declension adjectives with three or two nominative singular forms?

Learn to Read Latin says on p151 in Section 74 Third-Declension Adjectives: To find the stem of third-declension adjectives with three or two nominative singular forms, take the feminine singular ...
Tim's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
532 views

What is the declension for nemo?

I have seen different ways to decline nemo. Nemo neminis nemini neminem nemine (I am not including the vocative) or Nemo nullius nemini neminem nullo Which one is correct? Has it changed ...
user's user avatar
  • 153
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why is "tyrannis" in "sic semper tyrannis" interpreted as "to tyrants"?

According to the declension in Wiktionary, tyrannis is a nominative or vocative singular form of tyrannis. So, I can see a literal translation "Thus always, Tyrant!" using the vocative. But &...
Spencer's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
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What does Martin Waldseemüller mean by "asie partis" in his map Carta Marina?

This webpage from Spanish BBC talks about the second main map by Martin Waldseemüller, the first mapper to name the continent America, called Carta Marina. There, we see the southern portion of ...
Quaestor's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
367 views

Which Latin declension do feminine nouns in -o (gen. in -us) belong to?

While the answer should be obvious because of the genitive in -us is for the fourth declension, my question is why they are classified as the fourth declension, seeing that they are all Greek nouns ...
Davide's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
201 views

Why are there very few fourth declension neuter nouns?

When I studied classic latin at school, I always wondered why there were only very few neuter nouns belonging to the fourth declension. Is there a historical reason for that? Could it be that many ...
Davide's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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Next book/learning tool

What would you suggest as a next step for books or learning tools for Classical Latin? In the last 4 years I've completed Duolingo Latin, read Lingua Latina and Cambridge Latin a few times along with ...
Nimuey's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
1k views

Both 'masculus' and 'vir' mean man/male: what's the difference?

In Latin, masculus means male. Noun masculus m (genitive masculī); second declension a male (of humans or other animals) In Latin, vir also means male. Noun vir m (genitive virī); second ...
user14417's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
96 views

Do fourth-declension neuter nouns end in -ŭ or -ū?

From this answer: Note that the nominative neuter ending -u might have been pronounced either as -ŭ or -ū; it seems that we don't have any clear evidence either way for the quality of the vowel in ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
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How to identify the noun declension

I am just beginning to learn. The issue I run into is that I learned that identifying the declension of a noun means I need to know the genitive. Well…if all I have is the noun as it is written, how ...
Katie33kate 's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
134 views

Is there an online tool for the declension of 3rd declension words?

I have a hard time remembering which words are attested with a -ium gentivie plural, which words can take an accusative in -im etc, so I was looking for an online tool to help me. The Olivetti ...
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10 votes
4 answers
961 views

Is any word attested in both vocative and locative?

Both the vocative and the locative are pretty rare cases, and not found in all kinds of words. Is there any word that is attested in both cases in classical Latin? I prefer the vocative to be distinct ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
1k views

Are the cases in Latin always six?

In a book about linguistics I've read this sentence: Each word has up to six different such 'cases', and each case has distinct endings for singular and plural. Now I'm pretty sure that when I ...
Enlico's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
206 views

What is the -ē form in “Latīnē loquor”?

To say you speak in Latin or in Greek, you say “Latīne” or “Graecē”. What is that -ē form? I cannot figure it out from any declension table I am aware of. Does the same -ē ending work for any other ...
Florianus's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
339 views

'Aurifer' or 'Auriferus'?

What is the masculine form of "Aurifera" ? I supposed it was "auriferus": Tibicen auriferus is like a goldish beetle. http://www.masscic.org/sightings/cicadas/tibicen-auriferus-in-...
ephesinus's user avatar
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8 votes
4 answers
580 views

Do common nominative adjective endings also work with neuter nouns?

The -or ending for some first and second declension adjectives like maior and minor can be used with both masculine and feminine words. Can that ending also be used with neuter words or would another ...
Adam's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
146 views

Declension usage for the King on a diploma

In my PhD diploma, the first lines are the following: D D IMPERANTE AUGUSTISSIMO CAROLO XVI GUSTAVO SUECORUM REGE DOMINO NOSTRO CLEMENTISSIMO IUSSU FACULTATIS SCIENTARUM UPSALIENSIS EGO <name of &...
a20's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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How would the Ancient Greek noun λόρδων decline, and is the LSJ's definition of it correct?

I'm very familiar with Latin declensions, and have the resources necessary for that, but I have found nothing for Ancient Greek that I am able to make use of, especially considering my lack of ...
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4 votes
1 answer
147 views

How are multiple, hyphenated, or compound adjectives declined [in botanical latin]?

I'm studying some old plant cultivar names. One of the rules for botanical latin is that if an epithet is a latin adjective, it has to agree with the gender of the genus. I'm not sure how to apply ...
Avery's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
149 views

Is the use of "copia verae" correct?

The sentence is: Copia verae virtutis multas culpas superare poterat. It is from Wheelock's Latin by Frederic M. Wheelock, 6th edition, revised by Richard A. LaFleur. It is the number 5 sentence in ...
Pelin's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
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First Declension Singular, Gen or Dat?

I'm learning the first declension and I am confused on how the word "terrae" is used as a genitive but can be used as a dative. How do I translate if I am given just the word "terrae?&...
Evans's user avatar
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10 votes
1 answer
659 views

Why is "O felicem virum, beatum Ioseph" in the accusative case here?

This is one part of a prayer traditionally said before Mass, in honour of St. Joseph: O felicem virum, beatum Ioseph, cui datum est Deum, quem multi reges voluerunt videre et non viderunt, audire et ...
EestiM's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
258 views

good books for latin noun declensions?

I am looking for a book which gives comprehensive noun declensions, any suggestions? update: I may need 2 recommendations, one which just gives noun lists and enough info to unambiguously compute all ...
Commenter's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
165 views

plural of nouns, example: malum: mala or malums or both?

I am teaching myself Latin. Right now I study how to make plural of nouns. I have found some rules online, depending on the ending of a noun in a nominative singular form. The website says that most ...
Jan's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
491 views

What is the gender and singular declension of the scientific Latin suffix -idae?

The scientific suffix -idae is used to form names of subclasses of plants or families of animals, e.g. Bovidae. In scientific writing (in English and German), the resulting words are treated as plural ...
Lukas G's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
534 views

Why is there no case agreement between "magni" and "poetae"?

Shouldn't "magni" be "magnae" as it is modifying "poetae"? Fīliae vestrae dē libris magnī poētae saepe cogitābant. The quote is from Wheelock's Latin, chapter 6.
Antichrist's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
279 views

Feminine forms of adjectives in -ων: why ἀέκουσα, but not ἀπείρουσα, ἀμύμουσα?

The wiktionary entry for -ων says it's an ending cognate with stuff like Latin -ens, -iens, and gives the feminine as -ουσα. Therefore it makes sense that we get ἀέκων, ἀέκουσα. But then we have ...
user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
2k views

Why does domus have masculine forms?

The word domus is normally a feminine, IVth declension noun and hence the adjectives that modify it are feminine. However, sometimes domus appears to take masculine forms in some cases. For example, ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
191 views

What is wanting in Gildersleeve's declension charts?

In Gildersleeves Latin Grammar you can find declension charts with the word wanting inserted in 3 places I II III Nom. a. us (os) ; wanting ; um (om). s ; wanting. Gen. ae (ās, āī, āi). ī (ēī). is ...
Sriotchilism O'Zaic's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is "victurus" a future participle of "vivo" and "vinco"?

I find this hard to believe, but these pages regarding vivo and vinco confirm this to be the case. This also seems to be confirmed on this website. I cannot link directly to the words vivo and vinco, ...
bobsmith76's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
408 views

How to you convert a Latin word, such as voluntas, into a name, specifically a surname?

I've been wondering how to properly convert Latin words into names to signify the importance of certain concepts to a person, and met conflicting information online. My default assumption would be to ...
Thomas's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
874 views

Is "Io" accusative case in "Iuppiter, rex deorum, pulchram Io amabat"?

In The Adventures of Io, a story found in Thirty-eight Latin Stories, Designed to Accompany Wheelock's Latin, the first sentence of the story is as follows: Iuppiter, rēx deōrum, pulchram Iō amābat, ...
Adam's user avatar
  • 8,592
6 votes
1 answer
261 views

Why is it "Discipulus pulcher est" and not "Discipulus pulchrus est"?

I think its something with declension, but can't quite wrap my head around why it would be pulcher instead of pulchrus for that phrase.
hifromdev's user avatar
  • 387
12 votes
1 answer
438 views

Alternative methods of ordering declensions

Are there other ways to organize declensions other than the traditional numerical method? If so, what are the pro and cons of that system as compared to the standard system of the first declension, ...
Adam's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
220 views

How do you say "Forum Friends" in Latin?

In English, if you have people you are friends with from a forum (online or otherwise), you could call them "forum friends". How would you say this in Latin? Can you decline forum as a ...
Adam's user avatar
  • 8,592
5 votes
3 answers
659 views

Why is *dōna* the plural acc. Instead of *donos* like the rest of the 2nd declensions?

I am currently studying the declensions for nouns (currently on the 2nd one) and saw this difference. amīcōs, fīliōs, agrōs VS dōna
Johhan Santana's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
727 views

Plural for Succubus and Incubus

Succubus & incubus don't show up in the Latin dictionaries I've searched. I'm wondering what the plurals would be. I did find succuba, 1st decl fem. Could it be that it didn't morph into a 2nd ...
MrEd's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
143 views

Suffixes and different stem words in transversarium and transversus?

The difference between transversarium and transversus confuses me, this occurs with processus (masculine) transversus foramen (neutri) transversarium where the endings, sus and sa-ri-um, are ...
hhh's user avatar
  • 171
12 votes
0 answers
238 views

Why is "porticus, porticūs" a feminine fourth-declension noun?

The fourth declension was one of the less common inflection pattern for Latin nouns, and the vast majority of fourth declension nouns are masculine nouns ending in the deverbal abstract noun suffix -...
Asteroides's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
150 views

Are there ever separate number and case markers in Latin?

It seems to me that in Latin the case endings in singular and plural have very little in common. For an example of singular–plural pairs: puella–puellae, puellam–puellas, puellae–puellarum, puellae–...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
587 views

Does an irregular word decline regularly if it is used as a proper name?

Does an irregular word decline regularly if it is used as a proper name? For example, imagine there is a dog name Rex (=King). We might have: Vide Regem currentem. See Rex run. However, since Rex is ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
192 views

How to decline Greek proper nouns ending in -ēs in Latin?

I was browsing the OLD today and then I noticed the following entry: Stagīrītēs, Stagē- ~-ae m. A person who originates from Stagira in Macedonia. Two examples are given there: Aristotelem ~em Cic. Ac....
Alex B.'s user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
451 views

Is unius an irregular genitive?

I notice that the genitive of unus can apparently be either the regular uni, or can also be unius. Is this form, unius, just a completely irregular oddity, or is there some logical precedent for it? ...
Tyler Durden's user avatar
  • 6,991
6 votes
1 answer
635 views

What is the etymology of 'cuius' and is it different from 'quis'?

'cuius' (and 'cui') is an interesting word in that it stands out as different from the other terms in the declension of 'quis'. It seems to be pronounced differently. 'quis' is /kwis/ but 'cuius' is /...
Mitch's user avatar
  • 727
6 votes
2 answers
731 views

What is the difference between ἐκκλησίας and ἐκκλησίαν?

I know the root word is ἐκκλησία, but I don't understand the declensions.
Mardymar's user avatar
  • 193
4 votes
2 answers
655 views

In "fortis fortuna adiuvat" is "fortis" accusative plural?

Fortis fortuna adiuvat, is fortis accusative plural here? Fortis has different forms for the same conjugation as I see at Wiktionary, and I couldn't find which forms adiuvare takes as an exhaustive ...
oguzalb's user avatar
  • 295
4 votes
1 answer
141 views

Deponent verb participle gender

If we consider a deponent verb such as arbitrārī in the perfect tense, hence arbitrātus sum/es/est, is the participle arbitrātus supposed to be declined like a regular adjective? For example if one ...
user35319's user avatar
  • 177
13 votes
1 answer
655 views

Why are so many Latin men's names (cognomina) in the usually-feminine first declension?

The first declension, with the -a ending, is usually feminine. Why are so many men's names (cognomina), however, in the first declension -- Seneca, Cinna, Aggrippa, Sulla, and more? This is far out of ...
Joshua Fox's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Carpe sciurum (sieze/harvest the squirrel?)

Would 'carpe sciurum' be a functional translation of 'seize the squirrel'? (As in to 'harvest' or 'pluck' the squirrel?)
Freeman's user avatar
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