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59 votes
5 answers
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Are "-que" and "et" equivalent?

I was taught that one can use the '-que' suffix to string together multiple words, in a similar way to putting 'et' between them. Are these two equivalent? Did one have a connotation in classical (...
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52 votes
6 answers
36k views

Why is the Roman acronym SPQR and not SPR?

SPQR stands for "Senātus Populusque Rōmānus". It would be logical (at least in English or Spanish) to expect the initialism or acronym to be SPR. However, the first letter of the conjunction "-que" is ...
luchonacho's user avatar
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37 votes
2 answers
10k views

What's the difference between vel, aut, -ve, et cetera?

So I see "vel", "aut", and "-ve" being used (mostly) interchangeably in the Latin I read. Is there any idiomatic difference, or can they be used interchangeably? For ...
user avatar
20 votes
1 answer
2k views

Are the two cums related?

In short, is there a relation between the preposition cum and the conjunction cum? It makes some sense that the conjunction would come from the preposition. One could interpret some cum clauses so ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
18 votes
1 answer
381 views

Can "si etiam" have the same meaning as "etiam si"?

As is well known, "etiam si" is a Latin conjunction that means "even if." Are there any examples in Classical or Medieval Latin in which reversing the word order and saying "si etiam" preserves the ...
SAG's user avatar
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16 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the difference between "ac" (or "atque") and "et"?

What is the difference between ac (or atque) and et? And how do I know when to use atque instead of just ac? It seems that ac "binds more tightly" than et. Is this true? Or is the difference between ...
Geremia's user avatar
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15 votes
2 answers
790 views

"If and only if"

In mathematical literature "if and only if" (sometimes abbreviated as "iff"1) is a relatively common phrase. Saying "A if and only if B" means that A and B are equivalent logical statements. This is ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
14 votes
2 answers
6k views

What's the difference between nam and enim?

Both nam and enim are generally defined as meaning "for," the only difference between them being that nam comes first in a clause and that enim is postpositive (i.e., it comes second). Is there a ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
1k views

Can -que be attached to a word ending in -que?

Some Latin words end in -que (for example quinque, vocative of adjectives ending in -quus and imperatives like relinque), but I have never seen the conjunction -que attached to such words. Are there ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
289 views

Can you place "et" inside a prepositional phrase?

I became curious about this question as I was translating a passage written by a textbook author. The passage begins, Poeta Ovidius fabulam de dea Latona et de femina Niobe narrat. (Latin via Ovid)...
ktm5124's user avatar
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12 votes
3 answers
1k views

What nuances distinguish sed/vērō/vērum as words for "but"?

I've seen sed, vērō, and vērum described as "but, butter, buttest," but the descriptions in e.g. Gildersleeve, Bennett—even Zumpt—leave me scratching my head.
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
690 views

Translation of “in” as “and”

In one of his letters to Varro, Cicero says: “Si hortum in bibliotheca habes, deerit nihil.” I’ve found this translated as: “If you have a garden and a library, you have everything you need” (...
flob6469's user avatar
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12 votes
1 answer
6k views

Where to put the enclitic -ne?

The enclitic particle -ne can be used to form a binary (yes/no) question. I would like to know how attaching it to different words changes the meaning of the question. I have a clear idea of how it ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
12 votes
1 answer
17k views

Why does "ut" mean such different things when it has a subjunctive verb vs. an indicative one?

We all know that ut, when paired with a subjunctive, is translated as "in order to" (purpose), "to" (indirect command), and, with some words, "that" (result/fear). However, ut with an indicative ...
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10 votes
1 answer
696 views

Why "dilatasti" instead of "dilatavisti" in Psalm 4:2?

(Psalm 4:2) cum invocarem exaudivit me Deus iustitiae meae in tribulatione dilatasti mihi miserere mei et exaudi orationem meam When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me: when I was in ...
Pascal's Wager's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
646 views

The logical "then"

I am interested in translating the word "then" in logical statements like this: "If a number is prime, then it is squarefree." Or maybe better: "If x is even and x+y is odd, then y is odd." In common ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
452 views

Can -c replace -que in other words than atque and neque?

The enclitic -que in the words neque and atque can be shortened to produce nec and ac. Are there other instances where -que can turn into -c? Can this be productive, or can it only happen in very ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
566 views

A list of the categories and subcategories of the Latin conjunctions

I am learning Latin. I have bought a grammar book, which is not that great. My professor is using words like adversative conjunction, comparative, conditional, and so on. I can't find any long list ...
Ralph Gottlieb's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
4k views

When to use "ac" instead of "et"?

What's the difference between the conjunctions: "et", and "ac"? Which one corresponds to what kind of situation? Allow me to elaborate for clarification, and to distinguish from similar questions. ...
voices's user avatar
  • 441
8 votes
2 answers
500 views

Is "ergo" an appropriate word for this context?

I'm translating this sentence into Latin: You said that I could do anything, so I went to the strip club. (It's for a late Valentine's card for my girlfriend.) So far, I have the first and second ...
user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
343 views

Is the -que in quinque at all related to the conjunction -que?

I noticed that quinque ends in -que. I asked my teacher if this was sheer coincidence or so reason for it. He didn't know but he thought it was coincidental. I, however, think that they probably share ...
tox123's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
890 views

How do you say on the one hand ... on the other hand?

I found in a book that quā ... qua means on the one hand ... on the other hand, but I found no example. Could you please provide a simple example? Should a specific mood be used (subjunctive or ...
Alfie González's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
248 views

How did velle give rise to vel?

Some time ago I asked about the missing imperative of velle. The answer indicated an old imperative (or indicative) second person singular form, vel, and that this word became a conjunction. I am ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the difference between cum, quia and quod in a causal clause?

I asked yesterday about the difference between causal clauses and causal relative clauses, and I was surprised by a comment: apparently there is a difference between causal cum clauses and causal quia ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
435 views

When is quis used instead of aliquis?

I definitely remember that one usually says: si quis veniret … and not: si aliquis veniret. But the recent question about quo quisque est sollertior and similar forms brought the following rule from ...
Sebastian Koppehel's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
827 views

Fieri potest with final ut or explicative quod

Suppose I want to say: It can happen that my horse dies. I do not want to say "my horse can die", but I want to keep this structure where the thing that happens is in a subordinate clause. ...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
429 views

Can a noun be qualified by two juxtaposed adjectives?

I read online (I'm sorry, I can't remember where) that if two adjectives refer to the same noun, you have to use a conjunction like "et" or "-que". Socrates sapiens senex vir est. ...
user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
206 views

ἤ = vel or ἤ = aut?

LSJ says ἤ is a "disjunctive or", but does it correspond Latin's vel ("inclusive disjunction") or aut ("exclusive disjunction")?
Geremia's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Meaning of "quod si"

I'm having trouble with quod sī. L&S offers, under the definition of quod, With other particles, as si, nisi, utinam, ubi, etc., always with reference to something which precedes (very freq.), ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
428 views

Positioning 'quoque' in the sentence

Let's take the following sentence Julius is also angry. One way to say it is Iulius quoque iratus est. But can we say it like this Iulius est quoque iratus? But if there is the option to put it this ...
Dachi Pachulia's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
250 views

Two levels of 'and'

What I am looking for is best illustrate by an example, so please excuse the detour. In Finnish there are two words for "and": "ja" and "sekä". When used together, "...
Joonas Ilmavirta's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
390 views

How often is "et" used as an adverb, and what might distinguish that usage?

The conjunction et, in addition to its common use as a coordinating conjunction meaning and, can also be used adverbially, encompassing similar meanings as those found in words like etiam, item, etc. ...
Ethan Bierlein's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
233 views

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle?

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle? This is the Greek analogue of my Latin question "Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?"
Geremia's user avatar
  • 3,700
6 votes
1 answer
543 views

Is "autem" an adversative or copulative particle?

Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?
Geremia's user avatar
  • 3,700
6 votes
1 answer
176 views

Linking nouns and adjectives with -que

Elementary level here. Linking with -que: magna insula + magna paeninsula = magna insula magnaque paeninsula and cicada + magna lupa = cicada magnaque lupa (magna referring to lupa only). Are they ...
Renato de Melo's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
111 views

"Ut" in Livy XXI via LLpsi

In an excerpt from Livy XXI, Lingua Latina per se illustrata has this: . . . Haud ferme plures Saguntini cadebant quam Pœni. Ut vero Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, tragula graviter ictus ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
195 views

Can "quam" be used as a mere intensifier to a superlative?

In a question about Augustine, this quotation is given: Frustra itaque nonnulli, immo quam plurimi, aeternam damnatorum poenam et cruciatus sine intermissione perpetuos humano miserantur affectu, ...
Cerberus's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
168 views

Is the coordinating conjunction necessary in a parallel series of terms?

I just finished translating line 6 of Bellum Gallicum, Book I Ch. I, and the absence of a coordinating conjunction at the end made me wonder. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad ...
ktm5124's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
187 views

Should apposition in ancient Greek be identified as juxtaposition or coordination?

I have noticed in Greek grammars that varying descriptions of the syntactic relationship of elements placed side-by-side (with no conjunction) have been alternately described as either A) (...
SeligkeitIstInGott's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
378 views

The conjunction "autem" expressing indignation or surprise in questions and exclamations

When "autem" expresses this, it means "and, then, indeed" The example from OLD: "quid tu autem? Etiam huic credis?" Pl. Capt.556 How can we translate it in a modern way?I'...
user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
131 views

On meaning and syntactic structure of "usque eo quoad his sex annis"

I am reading the Latin version of the Little Prince, namely Regulus, translated by Auguste Haury. In the beginning of Chap. 2, I saw this sentence a little hard for me: Sic aetatem solus egi nec ...
Kotoba Trily Ngian's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why is there a Q in SPQR?

The abbreviation SPQR stands for Senatus PopulusQue Romanus. Why is the Q included, as there are only three words? Why isn't it just SPR? Or does SPQR stand for something else?
Nathaniel is protesting's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
486 views

How would you say "unlike" as the conjunction in Latin?

For instance, how would one say "Unlike the physicians, Christian Scientists are not afraid to take the medication they prescribe to their patients by themselves." in Latin? In Croatian, you ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
494 views

Conjunctive "cum" + indicative in Menaechmi

In the last scene of Menaechmi, Plautus wrote Pol profecto haud est dissimilis, meam cum formam noscito. (Line 1065) Henry T. Riley's translation gives: Troth, it really is not unlike, so far as I ...
Kotoba Trily Ngian's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
265 views

What's the role of "atque" in this sentence?

This sentence comes from chapter XXII of Lingua latina per se illustrata: Colloquia Personarum (emphasis mine in the word I find difficult to understand): Putāsne mē tantum atque tam pulchrum ānulum ...
Charo's user avatar
  • 2,092
4 votes
1 answer
182 views

What are the Roles of "Quin" and "Sit" in "fieri non potest quin sit"?

In the question on Sherlockian logic, Batavulus, in his answer gave an alternative translation of the clause "it must be believed"/ "one must believe it", which is: "fieri ...
tony's user avatar
  • 8,872
4 votes
1 answer
105 views

"vel" in Tusculan Disputations V.iii

In the Tusculan Disputations V.iii, Cicero writes about Pythagoras declaring that life seems to him like the great Greek games: Nam ut illic alii corporibus exercitatis gloriam et nobilitatem ...
Joel Derfner's user avatar
  • 16.6k
4 votes
1 answer
336 views

Why is "cum" used in this sentence from "De Bello Gallico"?

This sentence comes from Caesar's De Bello Gallico (emphasis mine in the part I'm trying to understand): Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treveri magnis coactis peditatus equitatusque copiis Labienum cum ...
Charo's user avatar
  • 2,092
4 votes
1 answer
272 views

Is it possible to use και as both coordinating and correlative conjunctions in the same sentence?

As a textbook exercise, I'm translating the following sentence from English into Greek. Farewell, dear country! The war will be long, and I shall flee through the rivers and the marshes. (T1 = my ...
ktm5124's user avatar
  • 12.1k
4 votes
0 answers
326 views

Differences between et and atque [duplicate]

What are the differences between et and atque? When should each be used? My current understanding is that they both mean and, although atque implies a slightly closer relationship.
You'reAGitForNotUsingGit's user avatar