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37 votes
2 answers
10k views

What's the difference between vel, aut, -ve, et cetera?

So I see "vel", "aut", and "-ve" being used (mostly) interchangeably in the Latin I read. Is there any idiomatic difference, or can they be used interchangeably? For ...
5 votes
1 answer
131 views

On meaning and syntactic structure of "usque eo quoad his sex annis"

I am reading the Latin version of the Little Prince, namely Regulus, translated by Auguste Haury. In the beginning of Chap. 2, I saw this sentence a little hard for me: Sic aetatem solus egi nec ...
4 votes
1 answer
263 views

What's the role of "atque" in this sentence?

This sentence comes from chapter XXII of Lingua latina per se illustrata: Colloquia Personarum (emphasis mine in the word I find difficult to understand): Putāsne mē tantum atque tam pulchrum ānulum ...
4 votes
2 answers
486 views

How would you say "unlike" as the conjunction in Latin?

For instance, how would one say "Unlike the physicians, Christian Scientists are not afraid to take the medication they prescribe to their patients by themselves." in Latin? In Croatian, you ...
12 votes
1 answer
685 views

Translation of “in” as “and”

In one of his letters to Varro, Cicero says: “Si hortum in bibliotheca habes, deerit nihil.” I’ve found this translated as: “If you have a garden and a library, you have everything you need” (...
4 votes
1 answer
335 views

Why is "cum" used in this sentence from "De Bello Gallico"?

This sentence comes from Caesar's De Bello Gallico (emphasis mine in the part I'm trying to understand): Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treveri magnis coactis peditatus equitatusque copiis Labienum cum ...
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

If Latin had no punctuation, should adverbs and other things at the beginning be considered "conjunctions"?

From what I understand ancient Latin had no punctuation marks, like commas and periods. So, presumably later editors sort of decided where sentences began and ended. Thus, if there is, say an adverb ...
4 votes
1 answer
494 views

Conjunctive "cum" + indicative in Menaechmi

In the last scene of Menaechmi, Plautus wrote Pol profecto haud est dissimilis, meam cum formam noscito. (Line 1065) Henry T. Riley's translation gives: Troth, it really is not unlike, so far as I ...
6 votes
1 answer
176 views

Linking nouns and adjectives with -que

Elementary level here. Linking with -que: magna insula + magna paeninsula = magna insula magnaque paeninsula and cicada + magna lupa = cicada magnaque lupa (magna referring to lupa only). Are they ...
5 votes
1 answer
378 views

The conjunction "autem" expressing indignation or surprise in questions and exclamations

When "autem" expresses this, it means "and, then, indeed" The example from OLD: "quid tu autem? Etiam huic credis?" Pl. Capt.556 How can we translate it in a modern way?I'...
7 votes
1 answer
428 views

Can a noun be qualified by two juxtaposed adjectives?

I read online (I'm sorry, I can't remember where) that if two adjectives refer to the same noun, you have to use a conjunction like "et" or "-que". Socrates sapiens senex vir est. ...
6 votes
1 answer
185 views

Should apposition in ancient Greek be identified as juxtaposition or coordination?

I have noticed in Greek grammars that varying descriptions of the syntactic relationship of elements placed side-by-side (with no conjunction) have been alternately described as either A) (...
59 votes
5 answers
14k views

Are "-que" and "et" equivalent?

I was taught that one can use the '-que' suffix to string together multiple words, in a similar way to putting 'et' between them. Are these two equivalent? Did one have a connotation in classical (...
2 votes
2 answers
145 views

Difference between erga and quoad?

In medieval Latin, is there a difference between erga and quoad? They both seem to mean "with respect to".
3 votes
3 answers
140 views

Does this adverb phrase apply to one or both verbs separated by 'vel'?

The quote below is from the Instituta Patrum de modo psallendi, an anonymous Carolingian or more likely High Medieval document on singing psalms in Gregorian chant. (I've seen one commenter on this ...
7 votes
1 answer
206 views

ἤ = vel or ἤ = aut?

LSJ says ἤ is a "disjunctive or", but does it correspond Latin's vel ("inclusive disjunction") or aut ("exclusive disjunction")?
4 votes
1 answer
182 views

What are the Roles of "Quin" and "Sit" in "fieri non potest quin sit"?

In the question on Sherlockian logic, Batavulus, in his answer gave an alternative translation of the clause "it must be believed"/ "one must believe it", which is: "fieri ...
7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Meaning of "quod si"

I'm having trouble with quod sī. L&S offers, under the definition of quod, With other particles, as si, nisi, utinam, ubi, etc., always with reference to something which precedes (very freq.), ...
2 votes
1 answer
96 views

What exactly is the meaning and usage of "communemque?"

I'm reading through a Latin edition of the Republic. Book III starts off as follows: Haec igitur sunt, ut mihi videtur, quae de Diis audienda aut non audienda sint prima a pueritia his, qui Deos et ...
6 votes
1 answer
250 views

Two levels of 'and'

What I am looking for is best illustrate by an example, so please excuse the detour. In Finnish there are two words for "and": "ja" and "sekä". When used together, "...
3 votes
2 answers
739 views

What is the difference between "enim" and "quia"?

Consider the following two phrases: noli timere: exaudivit enim Deus vocem pueri de loco in quo est (Genesis 21:17b) et benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes terrae, quia obedisti voci meae (...
6 votes
1 answer
428 views

Positioning 'quoque' in the sentence

Let's take the following sentence Julius is also angry. One way to say it is Iulius quoque iratus est. But can we say it like this Iulius est quoque iratus? But if there is the option to put it this ...
8 votes
1 answer
435 views

When is quis used instead of aliquis?

I definitely remember that one usually says: si quis veniret … and not: si aliquis veniret. But the recent question about quo quisque est sollertior and similar forms brought the following rule from ...
8 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the difference between cum, quia and quod in a causal clause?

I asked yesterday about the difference between causal clauses and causal relative clauses, and I was surprised by a comment: apparently there is a difference between causal cum clauses and causal quia ...
3 votes
2 answers
469 views

6 types of person in verb or 3?

People always say that there 6 types of person in the conjugation of a verb: I he, she, it you (single) we you (plural) they Somehow there is another group of people say that there are only 3 ...
52 votes
6 answers
36k views

Why is the Roman acronym SPQR and not SPR?

SPQR stands for "Senātus Populusque Rōmānus". It would be logical (at least in English or Spanish) to expect the initialism or acronym to be SPR. However, the first letter of the conjunction "-que" is ...
12 votes
1 answer
6k views

Where to put the enclitic -ne?

The enclitic particle -ne can be used to form a binary (yes/no) question. I would like to know how attaching it to different words changes the meaning of the question. I have a clear idea of how it ...
12 votes
3 answers
1k views

What nuances distinguish sed/vērō/vērum as words for "but"?

I've seen sed, vērō, and vērum described as "but, butter, buttest," but the descriptions in e.g. Gildersleeve, Bennett—even Zumpt—leave me scratching my head.
3 votes
1 answer
589 views

Is "que" or "et" better for a “God and Family” tattoo?

Hi I’m planning to have a tattoo and I would like to have a translation in Latin of “God and Family”. Which one is appropriate, "deo et familia" or "deo familiaque"?
6 votes
2 answers
389 views

How often is "et" used as an adverb, and what might distinguish that usage?

The conjunction et, in addition to its common use as a coordinating conjunction meaning and, can also be used adverbially, encompassing similar meanings as those found in words like etiam, item, etc. ...
10 votes
1 answer
696 views

Why "dilatasti" instead of "dilatavisti" in Psalm 4:2?

(Psalm 4:2) cum invocarem exaudivit me Deus iustitiae meae in tribulatione dilatasti mihi miserere mei et exaudi orationem meam When I called upon him, the God of my justice heard me: when I was in ...
5 votes
2 answers
6k views

Why is there a Q in SPQR?

The abbreviation SPQR stands for Senatus PopulusQue Romanus. Why is the Q included, as there are only three words? Why isn't it just SPR? Or does SPQR stand for something else?
6 votes
1 answer
195 views

Can "quam" be used as a mere intensifier to a superlative?

In a question about Augustine, this quotation is given: Frustra itaque nonnulli, immo quam plurimi, aeternam damnatorum poenam et cruciatus sine intermissione perpetuos humano miserantur affectu, ...
16 votes
2 answers
5k views

What is the difference between "ac" (or "atque") and "et"?

What is the difference between ac (or atque) and et? And how do I know when to use atque instead of just ac? It seems that ac "binds more tightly" than et. Is this true? Or is the difference between ...
8 votes
2 answers
343 views

Is the -que in quinque at all related to the conjunction -que?

I noticed that quinque ends in -que. I asked my teacher if this was sheer coincidence or so reason for it. He didn't know but he thought it was coincidental. I, however, think that they probably share ...
9 votes
1 answer
4k views

When to use "ac" instead of "et"?

What's the difference between the conjunctions: "et", and "ac"? Which one corresponds to what kind of situation? Allow me to elaborate for clarification, and to distinguish from similar questions. ...
6 votes
1 answer
111 views

"Ut" in Livy XXI via LLpsi

In an excerpt from Livy XXI, Lingua Latina per se illustrata has this: . . . Haud ferme plures Saguntini cadebant quam Pœni. Ut vero Hannibal ipse, dum murum incautius subit, tragula graviter ictus ...
9 votes
2 answers
565 views

A list of the categories and subcategories of the Latin conjunctions

I am learning Latin. I have bought a grammar book, which is not that great. My professor is using words like adversative conjunction, comparative, conditional, and so on. I can't find any long list ...
8 votes
1 answer
890 views

How do you say on the one hand ... on the other hand?

I found in a book that quā ... qua means on the one hand ... on the other hand, but I found no example. Could you please provide a simple example? Should a specific mood be used (subjunctive or ...
18 votes
1 answer
381 views

Can "si etiam" have the same meaning as "etiam si"?

As is well known, "etiam si" is a Latin conjunction that means "even if." Are there any examples in Classical or Medieval Latin in which reversing the word order and saying "si etiam" preserves the ...
6 votes
1 answer
542 views

Is "autem" an adversative or copulative particle?

Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?
6 votes
1 answer
233 views

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle?

Is δέ an adversative or copulative particle? This is the Greek analogue of my Latin question "Is autem an adversative or copulative particle?"
3 votes
1 answer
133 views

The (implied) meaning of "Et" in "Et in medio..." of Ubi Caritas

Here is a passage in Ubi Caritas: Simul ergo cum in unum congregamur: Ne nos mente dividamur, caveamus. Cessent iurgia maligna, cessent lites. Et in medio nostri sit Christus Deus. The English ...
13 votes
1 answer
288 views

Can you place "et" inside a prepositional phrase?

I became curious about this question as I was translating a passage written by a textbook author. The passage begins, Poeta Ovidius fabulam de dea Latona et de femina Niobe narrat. (Latin via Ovid)...
1 vote
1 answer
567 views

When to use "-que" and when to use "et"? [duplicate]

For example, it is "Senatus Populusque Romanus" but it could be "Senatus et Populus Romanus". Similarly, it is "qui ex Patre Filioque procedit" but it could be "qui ex Patre et Filio procedit" ...
4 votes
1 answer
105 views

"vel" in Tusculan Disputations V.iii

In the Tusculan Disputations V.iii, Cicero writes about Pythagoras declaring that life seems to him like the great Greek games: Nam ut illic alii corporibus exercitatis gloriam et nobilitatem ...
10 votes
2 answers
645 views

The logical "then"

I am interested in translating the word "then" in logical statements like this: "If a number is prime, then it is squarefree." Or maybe better: "If x is even and x+y is odd, then y is odd." In common ...
15 votes
2 answers
789 views

"If and only if"

In mathematical literature "if and only if" (sometimes abbreviated as "iff"1) is a relatively common phrase. Saying "A if and only if B" means that A and B are equivalent logical statements. This is ...
8 votes
2 answers
500 views

Is "ergo" an appropriate word for this context?

I'm translating this sentence into Latin: You said that I could do anything, so I went to the strip club. (It's for a late Valentine's card for my girlfriend.) So far, I have the first and second ...
12 votes
1 answer
17k views

Why does "ut" mean such different things when it has a subjunctive verb vs. an indicative one?

We all know that ut, when paired with a subjunctive, is translated as "in order to" (purpose), "to" (indirect command), and, with some words, "that" (result/fear). However, ut with an indicative ...