Questions tagged [conjugation]

For questions about conjugating Latin verbs.

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23
votes
2answers
3k views

Are there examples of passive imperative forms of non-deponent verbs in ancient literature?

Imperative forms and deponent verbs are quite common ancient Latin literature, and imperative forms of deponent verbs also occur. But are there examples of passive imperative forms of non-deponent ...
15
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5answers
6k views

What is a Latin version of Inshallah?

Anyone who served in the military in Iraq (and probably anyone who has done business in the Gulf) in the last 15 years is familiar with the term 'Inshallah.' I suppose it means 'God willing,' as in, "...
15
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3answers
638 views

Was the plural future imperative ever used?

In Latin today, we ran across the word "esto", which our teacher told us is the future singular imperative of "sum, esse". When I half-jokingly asked what the plural was, he thought for a few seconds ...
15
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1answer
1k views

How does forem compare to essem?

The verb esse has two sets of imperfect conjunctive forms: essem, esses, esset… and forem, fores, foret… What is the difference between these two, in meaning and in use? Are there cases ...
12
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2answers
341 views

Understanding the stem(s) of 'struere'

The present, perfect, and participle stems1 of the verb struere are stru-, strux-, and struct-. The -s- in the perfect stem and the -t- in the participle stem are nothing unusual, but they seem to ...
12
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1answer
297 views

How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
12
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1answer
249 views

Third conjugation passive infinitive: why -i and not -eri?

The active infinitive is uniform (-re from -se by rhotacism) across the regular Latin conjugations, but the passive one is not: the third conjugation loses the consonant. We have amare/amari, habere/...
11
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2answers
1k views

What is the significance of the different declensions and conjugations?

I've been slowly trying to teach myself Latin with the help of this site. I've gone past the parts where it talks about first, second, third etc declension nouns, and it all seems quite arbitrary as ...
11
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3answers
783 views

Parsing "quae cum audisset"

I'm having trouble parsing the phrase "quae cum audisset," which I've seen translated as "when [subject] heard" or "and when [subject] heard" in the latin vulgate. For ...
11
votes
1answer
473 views

Numbering of persons

It is conventional to number the three persons of Latin and Greek and many other languages so that the first person is the speaker, the second one is the listener, and the third one is anyone else. ...
11
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2answers
2k views

Does there exist an passive form of sum, esse, fui?

I've never seen anything except this provide passive forms of the verb esse. And even with that most of the passive forms are crossed out. Why is this? It would make sense for there to be no passive ...
11
votes
1answer
993 views

What is the imperative of velle?

The conjugation tables of irregular Latin verbs that I have seen do not give any imperative forms for the verb velle. The verb nolle has the imperative forms noli and nolite, and they are fairly ...
10
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2answers
3k views

How to translate the phrase "perfacile factu esse"?

I'm having a hard time translating this phrase from Caesar's De Bello Gallico. I understand, from doing a bit of research, that probat illis introduces indirect speech. Perfacile factu esse illis ...
10
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1answer
241 views

Did the Romans borrow any inflection from other languages than Greek?

Some Greek loan words in Latin use Greek declension. For example, I recall seeing Aeneida and Aeneidos instead of the regular Latin declension Aeneidem and Aeneidis. Some elements of Greek inflection ...
10
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1answer
2k views

Contracted perfect and historical infinitive

The present infinitive is sometimes used as a predicate in a past tense sentence. The use context is similar to praesens historicum. My grammar gives two examples: Nihil Galli respondere, sed in ...
9
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3answers
1k views

How To Say "-able" in Latin

Is it possible to use something similar to the English suffix "-able" to show that the action described can be done by someone or something? If not, what phrases do you suggest to use in its place?
9
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2answers
406 views

Vowel length in future perfect indicative and perfect conjunctive

I want to compare future perfect active indicative and perfect active conjunctive. They look identical, apart from first person singular (cogitavero ≠ cogitaverim). But is there a difference in the ...
9
votes
1answer
444 views

Is "Homo sum, Deus ero" a correct way to say this?

I'm coming up with a title for a song, and I thought "I'm a human, I will be a god" or "I'm human, I will be God" was pretty sweet sounding, but translating it into a short Latin saying would make it ...
9
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1answer
111 views

Technique to find first principal parts when later parts change spelling? E.g. find 'nanciscor' from 'nactus'

I am tutoring a friend who is preparing for a graduate school translation exam, of the "unseen passage, dictionary allowed, time limit imposed, be accurate" variety. We came across nacti in ...
9
votes
1answer
195 views

Audio and video... and tango?

Audio and video are two (apparently XX-century) concepts. Both take the same form as 1st-person sing., present tense Latin verbs. Wiktionary articles for the English words (audio, video) assert that ...
9
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1answer
239 views

Understanding vowel quantity in fieri

The verb fieri has an unusual conjugation, and one of the weird aspects is the long I before many vowels: fīō, fīās, fīet… Why is the I long? Does the origin of ...
8
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2answers
2k views

What are the future imperatives of sum?

I have a book: 501 Latin Verbs: fully conjugated. In the conjugations for the verb sum, it leaves out the future imperatives. Are there no future imperatives for sum? So how would, "You must be noun/...
8
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2answers
204 views

Are there other verbs in -uō?

Someone asked me recently about the conjugation of the obscene verb futuō, futuere, futuī, futūtus—and in particular about the quantity of the ū in the participle. I intended to look at some other -...
8
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1answer
497 views

Was there ever dual conjugation in Latin?

Latin effectively lost its dual number. It left behind some remnants, most notably duo and ambo. However, all examples or relics of the dual number in Latin I have seen are in declension. I would ...
8
votes
1answer
117 views

Is the U long or short in the forms ussi and ustus of the verb ūro?

I'm uncertain about the length of the u in the perfect and perfect passive participle stems of the verb uro /uːroː/. My research Lewis (1890) gives "ūrō ūssī, ūstus" but doesn't explain why....
8
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1answer
417 views

Active perfect stem conjugation and forms of esse

Many forms formed from the perfect stem (habitav-, fec-, tetig-, and others) resemble forms of esse. It looks as if a form of esse was directly attached to the perfect stem. In perfect conjunctive an -...
8
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1answer
1k views

How many distinct forms does a typical Latin verb have?

I thought I read somewhere that Latin verbs usually have about 150 different endings, but when I looked over a paradigm table I only found around 90. How many distinct forms do you need to memorize, ...
8
votes
1answer
134 views

Future: why -am instead of -em?

The future tense of third and fourth conjugation verbs is marked by -ē-, as in trahes and audies. The regular personal endings are added after this vowel. But in the first person singular the ...
7
votes
2answers
459 views

Why does Ago become agit, agitis, agis, etc? [conjugate with an *i*?]

I am working on word endings in Latin, and I came across the word Ago. And I was looking at the different conjugations for this word and it did not make sense to me. Observe: Endings are: ...
7
votes
2answers
397 views

What evidence points to a long ō in the first syllable of nōscō's present-tense form?

I've read in various sources that the verb nosco 'know' had a long vowel in the first syllable in Classical Latin pronunciation: nōscō [noːskoː]. I'm wondering what the linguistic evidence is for the ...
7
votes
2answers
104 views

Translating "mankind evolves" and two other two-word phrases

Are you willing to take a look at my efforts at translating 6 words from English to Latin? Here goes: Mankind evolves: Homines evolvant God disappoints: Deus frustrat Reason refutes: Ratio ...
7
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1answer
288 views

What determines the conjugation of verbs borrowed from Greek?

I reread this old question about "touché", and I realized I'm not sure how to conjugate the suggested verb synchōrō. It was borrowed from συγχωρέω. Although I'm interested in this special case too, I ...
7
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2answers
156 views

Fourth conjugation imperfect -e

in the fourth conjugation imperfect after the stem and before the imperfect indicator there is -e. e .g. audi + e + ba +t. Where this -e comes from?
6
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3answers
230 views

Is it possible to have an imperative feel without using the imperative form of a verb?

In English, we can have a sentence that doesn't include a verb but is taken as a directive. Consider the following phrase from the HBO television show, Carnivale: Every prophet in his house. In the ...
6
votes
1answer
235 views

Is quod too ambiguous for "that which"?

I'm trying to write a variation of Ovid's phrase "Omnia mutantur, nihil interit" — "Everything changes, nothing perishes". So far I've came up with "quod mutat, non pereat&...
6
votes
2answers
873 views

What is the origin of the future suffix -b-?

I read in this answer that there may be a relation between the future endings -bo, -bis, etc. on the one hand and the verb fio "become" on the other. Is this true? If so, do we have any more details ...
6
votes
1answer
129 views

Why is there a short ŭ in rŭtus?

In Cerberus's list of u-stem verbs, rŭō, rŭere, rŭī, rŭtus is the only one with a short ŭ in the participle stem. Why is this? Does it go back to different types of verbs in PIE, as with stătus ...
6
votes
1answer
449 views

Where does the infinitive 'fieri' come from?

What is the origin of the infinitive fieri? It is unusual in many respects. The stem seems to be fi- and the infinitive ending -eri is only found in the second conjugation. However, the second ...
6
votes
1answer
120 views

Are there verbs in -o-?

Verbs conjugated in -a- (amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus), in -e- (habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus), and in -i- (audio, audīre, audīvī, auditus) are common and well-known. Verbs in -u- (acuō, acuere, acuī, ...
6
votes
1answer
224 views

Is the sigmatic future related to the sigmatic aorist?

When I was learning Ancient Greek, I was taught that most verbs had three basic stems corresponding to the different aspects: imperfective -λυ-, aoristic -λυσ-, and perfective -λελυκ-. Adding an ...
5
votes
2answers
5k views

How to find the stem of any word?

I am wondering if the stem of every word has an exact form? For example: For the word genus, how could you determine is it gen or gener? For the word līber, how could you determine is it līber or ...
5
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1answer
1k views

May they rest in peace

This may become an inscription written on a historical marker commemorating a mass grave. Which of the following is correct: Requiesce in Pace or Requiescant in Pace? The former was offered up by a ...
5
votes
1answer
160 views

Is it better to memorize verb's 1st person perfect tense?

Is it necessary to memorize verb's perfect form like paro, parare, paravi? Or can I predict a verb's perfect forms if I remember the rules by which perfect stems are formed. Like, the suffix -v/iv or ...
5
votes
1answer
246 views

Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

In his answer to another question, Cerberus remarked that many verbs with perfect participles in -ūtus had future active participles in -uitūrus. This struck me as odd, as I had been taught that those ...
5
votes
2answers
422 views

Why is there an exception when forming 3rd conjugation imperatives?

All of the affirmative singular imperatives of regular verbs are formed by dropping the -re from the second principal part. Why is it that, in the 3rd conjugation only, the affirmative plural ...
5
votes
1answer
65 views

General term for each inflected form of a lexeme

illī is a X of ille declension. illī is singular dative masculine form of ille. In the first sentence what we should say instead of X?
4
votes
2answers
360 views

'plecto, plectere, plexi', -tor/-sor form (agent noun)

How would one add the agent noun suffix (normally -tor) to the verb 'plecto' (I weave/twist)? It's been a few years — about 10 — but if I recall correctly, verbs whose stem ends in 't' ...
4
votes
2answers
325 views

Aperio - to reveal?

I’m trying to conjugate aperio to say, “I reveal/uncover/disclose”. So, I guess I have two questions. First, is aperio the correct verb to say this? And, if so, what is the correct conjugation?
4
votes
2answers
244 views

Is "ambulabat" a present participle in the imperfect?

This passage is from Matthaeus 14:29 of the Latin Vulgate. I've included much of the surrounding text because the lack of punctuation makes it difficult for me to distinguish the sentence structure. ...
4
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1answer
2k views

What is a "second-person singular future active indicative" verb?

Does it means a verb that should be used with a subject that is second-person and singular? What does "future active indicative" mean? For example, I know "acuēs" roughly means "sharpen", but what's ...